Glenn Herbert Gould was a Canadian pianist who became one of the best-known and most-celebrated classical pianists of the 20th century. He was renowned as an interpreter of the keyboard works of Johann Sebastian Bach. Gould's playing was distinguished by a remarkable technical proficiency and a capacity to articulate the contrapuntal texture of Bach's music. Gould rejected most of the standard Romantic piano literature by Chopin and others, in favour of Bach and Beethoven along with some late-Romantic and modernist composers. Although his recordings were dominated by Bach and Beethoven, Gould's repertoire was diverse, including works by Mozart and Brahms. Gould was known for his eccentricities, from his unorthodox musical interpretations and mannerisms at the keyboard to aspects of his lifestyle and behaviour, he stopped giving concerts at the age of 31 to concentrate on other projects. Gould was a writer, broadcaster and conductor, he was a prolific contributor to musical journals, in which he discussed music theory and outlined his musical philosophy.
He performed on television and radio, produced three musique concrète radio documentaries called the Solitude Trilogy, about isolated areas of Canada. Glenn Herbert Gould was born at home in Toronto, on 25 September 1932, to Russell Herbert Gold and Florence Emma Gold, Presbyterians of Scottish and English ancestry, his maternal grandfather was a cousin of the Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg. The family's surname was changed to Gould informally around 1939 to avoid being mistaken for Jewish, given the prevailing anti-Semitism of pre-war Toronto and the Jewish associations of the Gold surname. Gould had no Jewish ancestry, though he sometimes made jokes on the subject, such as "When people ask me if I'm Jewish, I always tell them that I was Jewish during the war." His childhood home has been named a historic site. Gould's interest in music and his talent as a pianist were evident early. Both his parents were musical, his mother encouraged the infant Gould's early musical development, his mother, hoping for him to become a successful musician, had exposed him to music during her pregnancy.
She would teach him the piano. As a baby, he hummed instead of crying and wiggled his fingers as if playing chords, leading his doctor to predict that he would "be either a physician or a pianist", he learned to read music before he could read words, it had been observed that, at age three, he had perfect pitch. When presented with a piano, the young Gould was reported to strike single notes and listen to their long decay, a practice his father Bert noted was different from typical children. Gould's interest in the piano was concomitant with an interest in composition, he would play his own little pieces for family and sometimes large gatherings—including, in 1938, a performance at the Emmanuel Presbyterian Church of one of his own compositions. At the age of six, he was taken for the first time to hear a live musical performance by a celebrated soloist; this profoundly affected him. He described the experience: It was Hofmann, it was, I think, his last performance in Toronto, it was a staggering impression.
The only thing I can remember is that, when I was being brought home in a car, I was in that wonderful state of half-awakeness in which you hear all sorts of incredible sounds going through your mind. They were all orchestral sounds, but I was playing them all, I was Hofmann. I was enchanted. At the age of 10, he began attending the Royal Conservatory of Music in Toronto, he studied music theory with Leo Smith, the organ with Frederick C. Silvester, piano with Alberto Guerrero. Around the same time, he injured his back as a result of a fall from a boat ramp on the shore of Lake Simcoe; this incident is certainly related to the adjustable-height chair his father made shortly thereafter. Gould's mother would urge the young Gould to sit up straight at the keyboard, he used this famous chair for the rest of his life and took it with him everywhere. The chair was designed so that Gould could sit low at the keyboard, allowed him to pull down on the keys rather than striking them from above, a central technical idea of his teacher at the Conservatory, Alberto Guerrero.
Gould developed a technique that enabled him to choose a fast tempo while retaining the "separateness" and clarity of each note. His low position at the instrument permitted him more control over the keyboard. Gould showed considerable technical skill in performing and recording a wide repertoire including virtuosic and romantic works, such as his own arrangement of Ravel's La valse, Liszt's transcriptions of Beethoven's Fifth and Sixth Symphonies. Gould worked from a young age with Guerrero on a technique known as finger-tapping: a method of training the fingers to act more independently from the arm. Gould passed his final Conservatory examination in piano at the age of 12, achieving the highest marks of any candidate, thus attaining professional standing as a pianist at that age. One year he had passed the written theory exams, qualifying for an Associate of the Toronto Conservatory of Music diploma. Gould was described in adulthood as a musical phenomenon, he claimed to have never practised on the piano itself, preferring to study repertoire by reading, another technique he had learn
The Infantry Regiment Großdeutschland was an élite German Army ceremonial and combat unit which saw action during World War II. Formed in 1921 it was known as the Wachregiment Berlin. Renamed Infanterie-Regiment Großdeutschland in 1939, the regiment served in the campaigns in France and the Low Countries, it served on the Eastern Front until the end of the war. It was destroyed near Pillau in May 1945. Großdeutschland is sometimes mistakenly perceived to be part of the Waffen-SS, whereas it was a unit of the regular German Army. In 1942 it was expanded into the Großdeutschland Division, the best-equipped division in the Wehrmacht, which received equipment before all other units, including some Waffen-SS units, it received its final name, Panzergrenadier-Regiment Großdeutschland, in 1943. After the Treaty of Versailles, Germany's ground forces, were limited to just 100,000 men; the Weimar Republic was far from secure. Veterans were forming private groups with their own political agendas. Communist and Fascist groups battled in the streets, the threat of political overthrow was to be taken seriously.
To offset the threat of revolution, the Wachregiment Berlin was founded in early 1921. Besides defending the fledgling republic, the Wachregiment was used for ceremonial and representative duties such as parades and guard duties in the capital; the Wachregiment was short-lived, was disbanded in June 1921. However, the unit was soon reformed as Kommando der Wachtruppe, a unit with the same duties as the Wachregiment; the Wachtruppe comprised seven companies, each drawn from one of the seven divisions permitted Germany by the treaty. Each company served for three months before returning to their parent division. In this way, the Wachtruppe represented the whole Reichswehr; the Kommando was based at Moabit Barracks, every Monday, Wednesday and Saturday, performed a changing of the guard ceremony for the public. This ceremony was quite modest, but on Sunday and Thursdays the entire Wachtruppe, accompanied by the regimental band, marched from the barracks through the Brandenburg Gate and to the War Memorial at the Neue Wache, similar to the changing of the Queen's Guard at Buckingham Palace.
The Wachtruppe was left in place by the NSDAP leadership after Adolf Hitler's appointment as Chancellor in 1933. In 1934, the unit was renamed Wachtruppe Berlin and in 1936 the addition of a headquarters and administration company raised the unit size to eight companies. In June 1937, the unit was again renamed, this time to Wach Regiment Berlin; the recruitment system was reworked, with postings no longer on divisional lines, but instead individual soldiers were posted to the unit for 6-month tours of duty. A supply company was added to the Regiment's order of battle. In World War I, Germany had been more of a political concept than a nation, most divisions were still named for their region. Under the NSDAP, the country had been united as a true Deutschland, but this was only a part of the Party's plans for a Greater Germany, encompassing all Germanic peoples under one banner, with its capital in Berlin, to be renamed Germania it was to become a Großdeutschland; the Wach Regiment Berlin provided escorts and guards of honour for state visits and the Olympic Games.
Despite the fact that Hitler's personal security was in the hands of the SS Leibstandarte, on the outbreak of World War II a small detachment was drawn from the Wach Regiment to become Hitler's official state bodyguard. This unit was called the Führer Begleit battalion, was to be expanded to divisional size. In the months leading up to World War II, while the rest of the Wehrmacht Heer marched into The Saarland and Czechoslovakia, the men of Wach Regiment Berlin marched up and down Unter den Linden Strasse every Sunday; however they were not to stay out of the front lines for long. In the first week of 1939, Hitler ordered that the Wach Regiment be renamed Infanterie-Regiment Großdeutschland; the unit was now a permanent cadre, unlike other regiments of the German Army, the recruits of the Großdeutschland were to be drawn from across the nation. The unit was activated on 14 June 1939, the occasion was marked by a parade through the streets of the capital; the regiment was being reorganized in September 1939, did not take part in Fall Weiss, a fact that dented the pride of the regiment which bore the name of the nation on their sleeves.
However, in May 1940, the Regiment was attached to Generalfeldmarschall Ewald von Kleist's Panzergruppe Kleist and saw combat from the beginning of Fall Gelb, the invasion of the West, on 10 May 1940. On the first day of the invasion, the majority of the Großdeutschland regiment was attached to the 10th Panzer Division and engaged in fighting in Luxembourg in an attempt to outflank southern Belgian fortifications. Meanwhile, III. Battalion was involved in an airborne attack further north in Belgium; the regiment was involved in the crossing of the Meuse river. Near the town of Stonne, the regiment was involved in heavy fighting with French armoured forces, acquitted itself well; the regiment marched north towards Dunkirk, was involved in defeating the British counterattack at Arras. Großdeutschland was involved in holding the Dunkirk pocket, before being transferred south to join the attack across the Seine. During the rout of the French A
The President's House known as the John Maclean House, or the Maclean House, in Princeton, Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, was built to serve as the home of the President of the College of New Jersey, which became Princeton University. It was completed in the same year as Nassau Hall. John Witherspoon lived here from 1768 through 1779, during which time he served as a delegate to the Continental Congress and signed the Declaration of Independence. George Washington occupied Maclean House in January 1777, during the Battle of Princeton and in 1783 while Congress met in Nassau Hall, it now serves as the home of the Alumni Association of Princeton University and houses 35 staff, hosts many alumni functions and showcases Princeton memorabilia and a library of Princetoniana. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1971. At least five Princeton presidents who occupied the President's House between 1756 and 1822 owned enslaved people who lived and worked in the house; these presidents included Aaron Burr Sr.
Jonathan Edwards, Samuel Finley, Samuel Stanhope Smith, Ashbel Green. Enslaved people lived in the slave quarters on the second floor of the detached "Kitchen House" to the rear of the main building. After his death in 1766, Samuel Finley's personal property was auctioned off at the President's House. Advertisements for the estate sale described "two negro women, a negro man, three Negro children" to be sold alongside livestock and books. In 2017, the Princeton University Art Museum, in collaboration with the Princeton & Slavery Project, commissioned American artist Titus Kaphar to create a public art piece in front of the President's House, his sculpture Impressions of Liberty, unveiled in November 2017, depicts the face of Samuel Finley in relief, along with the figures of enslaved people sold at the house after his death. The President's House is the first stop on the Stories of African American Life at Princeton walking tour; the house appears on the Princeton University Art Museum's mobile tour of Art and Slavery at Princeton.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Mercer County, New Jersey William K. Selden: Maclean House of Princeton University. A National Historic Landmark. Little Book Series. Princeton University, Princetoniana, 2006. Historic American Buildings Survey No. NJ-800, "John Witherspoon House, 166 Cherry Hill Road, Mercer County, NJ", 9 photos, 1 photo caption page, supplemental material HABS No. NJ-801, "John Witherspoon Barn", 3 photos, 1 photo caption page, supplemental material HABS No. NJ-802, "John Witherspoon Springhouse", 1 photo, 1 photo caption page, supplemental material