A recall election is a procedure by which, in certain polities, voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote before that official's term has ended. Recalls, which are initiated when sufficient voters sign a petition, have a history dating back to ancient Athenian democracy and feature in several current constitutions. In indirect or representative democracy, people's representatives are elected and these representatives rule for a specific period of time. However, where the facility to recall exists, should any representative come to be perceived as not properly discharging their responsibilities they can be called back with the written request of specific number or proportion of voters; the recall referendum arrived in Latin America shortly after its introduction at the US subnational level, in 1923 and 1933, to Cordoba and Entre Ríos provinces both in Argentina. There, recall exists at the provincial level in Chaco, Chubut, Córdoba, Corrientes, La Rioja, Rio Negro, Santiago del Estero and Tierra del Fuego.
It is included in Buenos Aires City. In 1995, the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia enacted representative recall. In the province of British Columbia, voters in a provincial riding can petition to have their representative in parliament removed from office if that MLA is the premier. If enough registered voters sign the petition, the speaker of the legislature announces in parliament that the member has been recalled and the lieutenant governor drops the writ for a by-election as soon as possible, giving voters the opportunity to replace the politician in question. By January 2003, 22 recall efforts had been launched. No-one has been recalled so far, but one representative, Paul Reitsma, resigned in 1998 when it looked as if the petition to recall him would have enough signatures to spur a recall election. Reitsma resigned during the secondary verification stage and the recall count ended. In Nova Scotia, the Atlantica Party campaigned for a recall in the 2017 provincial election. In Colombia, the recall referendum was included by the constitution in 1991.
The constitutional replacement was launched as an answer to the movement known as la séptima papeleta, which requested a constitutional reform to end violence, narcoterrorism and increasing citizenship apathy. The definition of recall referendum in relation to programmatic vote was approved, it obliges candidates running for office to register a government plan, on considered to activate the recall. Since the time the mechanism was regulated by Law 134 in 1994, until 2015, 161 attempts led 41 referendums and none of them succeeded since the threshold of participation was not reached. In 2015, a new law reduced the number of signatures required to activate a recall referendum and the threshold; the change in the regulation quickening the registration of promoters, led to a considerable increase in the number of attempts. Article 18, Section 3 of the Constitution of Bavaria provides, that the entire Landtag can be dismissed by referendum on petition of 1 Million citizens, with elections of a new Landtag to be held up to six weeks after the recall referendum.
The recall of specific members however, is not provided for. Article 14 of the Constitution of Latvia enables the recall of the entire Saiema, though not of specific representatives: Article 14: Not less than one tenth of electors has the right to initiate a national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima. If the majority of voters and at least two thirds of the number of the voters who participated in the last elections of the Saeima vote in the national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima the Saeima shall be deemed recalled; the right to initiate a national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima may not be exercised one year after the convening of the Saeima and one year before the end of the term of office of the Saeima, during the last six months of the term of office of the President, as well as earlier than six months after the previous national referendum regarding recalling of the Saeima. The electors may not recall any individual member of the Saeima. Early policies of the New Zealand Labour Party included support for "the recall".
Article 10 of the constitution of the Philippines allows for the recall of local officials. The Local Government Code, as amended, enabled the provisions of the constitution to be applied. Elected officials from provincial governors to the barangay councilors are allowed to be recalled. At least 25% of the electorate in a specific place must have their signatures verified in a petition in order for the recall to take place; the president, vice president, members of Congress, the elected officials of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao cannot be removed via recall. The last recall election above the barangay level was the 2015 Puerto Princesa mayoral recall election. Recall regulations were introduced in Peru by the Democratic Constituent Congress which drafted a new constitution after Alberto Fujimori's autogolpe in 1992. Between 1997 and 2013, more than 5000 recall referendums were activated against democratically elected authorities from 747 Pe
The Battle of Sauðafell occurred in 1550, when the forces of Catholic Bishop Jón Arason clashed with the forces of Daði Guðmundsson of Snóksdalur. Sauðafell was an important part of Daði's fief in West of Iceland, close to his Estate in Snóksdalur and vital to the Bishops campaign against Lutheran influence in the country as it blocked his lines of communication in the West to the South of Iceland. Jón Arason brought with him a minimal force of around 100 men and took Sauðafell without opposition initially. Daði responded by secretly raising an elite force of similar size from his followers, half of, armored sveinar and half unarmored but equipped with guns. Mounted and covered in gray cloaks they marched under the cover of dark and foggy weather unnoticed by the Bishop's forces, surprising them early in the morning; the battle was nonetheless close fought and Daði was shot down by gunfire when he led his troops into the fray. After being cornered in the Church the Bishop surrendered; the bishop was captured along with his two sons and they were executed on November 7, 1550.
Vilborg Auður Ísleifsdóttir, Siðbreytingin á Íslandi 1537–1565: Byltingin að ofan, Hið íslenzka bókmenntafélag. Reykjavík. 1997. Bogi Benediktsson, Sýslumannaæfir. Vol. III. Reykjavik. 1932. Íslenzkt fornbréfasafn, sem hefir inni að halda bréf og gjörninga, dóma og máldaga og aðrar skrár, er snerta Ísland eða íslenzka menn. vol XI. Copenhagen. Íslenzkt fornbréfasafn, sem hefir inni að halda bréf og gjörninga, dóma og máldaga og aðrar skrár, er snerta Ísland eða íslenzka menn. vol XII. Copenhagen
Christmas with Sinatra & Friends is a 2009 compilation album by Frank Sinatra. Eight Sinatra songs are taken from A Jolly Christmas from 12 Songs of Christmas; the remaining four tracks feature Rosemary Clooney, Mel Tormé, Tony Bennett and Bill Evans, Ray Charles and Betty Carter. "The Christmas Waltz" "Santa Claus Is Coming to Town" "The Christmas Song" "I Heard the Bells on Christmas Day" "The Little Drummer Boy" "A Child Is Born" "Mistletoe and Holly" "An Old-Fashioned Christmas" "White Christmas" "Whatever Happened to Christmas?" "Baby, It's Cold Outside" "Christmas Memories" Tony Bennett - Track 6 Betty Carter - Track 11 Ray Charles - Track 11 Rosemary Clooney - Track 9 Bill Evans - Track 6 Frank Sinatra - Tracks 1-2, 4-5, 7-8, 10, 12 Mel Tormé - Track 3 Fred Waring & His Pennsylvanians - 4-5, 8 The Jimmy Joyce Singers - Tracks 1, 10
The Drowned and the Saved is a book of essays by Italian-Jewish author and Holocaust survivor Primo Levi on life and death in the Nazi extermination camps, drawing on his personal experience as a survivor of Auschwitz. The author's last work, written in 1986, a year before his death, The Drowned and the Saved is an attempt at an analytical approach, in contrast to his earlier books If This Is a Man and The Truce, which are autobiographical. PrefaceThe Memory of the Offense Shame Communicating Useless Violence The Intellectual in Auschwitz Stereotypes Letters from GermansConclusion The title of one essay was used as title for the film The Grey Zone, based on a book by Miklós Nyiszli. Quotations related to The Drowned and the Saved at Wikiquote The Holocaust in popular culture
Frances Elizabeth Anne Waldegrave, Countess Waldegrave was the daughter of John Braham, the singer. Frances was born in London on 4 January 1821, she married, on 25 May 1839, John James Waldegrave of Navestock, who died in the same year. She married secondly, on 28 September 1840, his younger legitimate brother, George Edward, 7th Earl Waldegrave. After the marriage her husband was sentenced to six months' imprisonment for assault. During his detention she lived with him in the Queen's Bench prison, on his release they retired into the country. On the death of Lord Waldegrave on 28 September 1846, she found herself possessed of the whole of the Waldegrave estates, but with little knowledge of the world to guide her conduct. In this position she entered for a third time into matrimony, marrying on 30 September 1847 George Granville Harcourt of Nuneham and Stanton Harcourt, Oxfordshire, her third husband, a widower and her senior by thirty-six years, was eldest son of Edward Harcourt, archbishop of York, a follower of Peel, whom he supported in parliament as member for Oxfordshire.
As Harcourt's wife, Lady Waldegrave first exhibited her rare capacity as a leader and hostess of society. Of her conduct to Harcourt, Sir William Gregory wrote in his Autobiography: "She was an excellent wife to him, neither during her life with him nor was there a whisper of disparagement to her character. No great lady held her head higher or more rigorously ruled her society, her home was always gay, her parties at Nuneham were the liveliest of the time. She delighted in private theatricals, her favourite piece, which she acted over and over again both at Nuneham and Woburn, was the Honeymoon, because it had some allusions to her own position, she always said she should have liked to act Lady Teazle, if it had not been that the references to the old husband were too pointed. The other pieces in which she performed were translations of French vaudevilles; some years before Harcourt's death she determined to reopen Strawberry Hill, left to her by her second husband, whose father had inherited it from Horace Walpole.
The mansion had been dismantled by Lord Waldegrave and denuded of all its treasures in 1842. She preserved Horace Walpole's house as it stood, restored to it many of its dispersed treasures; the stable wing was turned into a set of sleeping-rooms for guests, she joined it to the main building by two large rooms. These contained two collections, the one of eighteenth-century pictures of members of the families of Walpole and Waldegrave, the other of portraits of her own friends and contemporaries. Strawberry Hill, when finished, became a still more convenient rendezvous for the political and diplomatic society of London than Nuneham had been. Harcourt died on 19 December 1861, Strawberry Hill became her principal residence, although she resided at the Waldegrave mansions of Chewton in Somerset and Dudbrook in Essex, both of which she restored and enlarged. On 20 January 1863 she married Chichester Samuel Parkinson Fortescue, from that time until her death her abilities, as well as her fortune, were devoted to the success of his political career and of his Liberal Party.
Her salon at Strawberry Hill or at her residence in London, 7 Carlton Gardens, was from the date of her fourth marriage until her death, sixteen years one of the chief meeting-places of the Liberal leaders. La Bruyère described Lady Waldegrave as "a handsome woman with the virtues of an honest man," who united "in her own person the best qualities of both sexes." Her reward for the exercise of these virtues was the affectionate friendship with which she was regarded by all who knew her. In conversation she preferred to listen rather than to shine. Flashes of wit came from her lips without effort or preparation, but she forgot her epigrams as soon as she uttered them, her friends among politicians and men of letters included the Duc d'Aumale, the Duke of Newcastle, Lords Grey and Clarendon, M. Van de Weyer, Bishop Wilberforce, Abraham Hayward, Bernal Osborne. Among her associates who were nearer her own age, Sir William Harcourt, Lords Dufferin and Ampthill, Julian Fane, Lord Alcester were the most noteworthy.
On 10 July 1870 she and her husband dined with Queen Victoria who noted - a little - in her Journal: "Ly Waldegrave & Mr Fortescue, the Van de Weyers & Ld Wrottesley dined. Ly Waldegrave is a clever woman. Mr Fortescue is her 4th Husband! " Lady Waldegrave died without issue at her residence, 7 Carlton Gardens, London, on 5 July 1879, was buried at Chewton, where Lord Carlingford erected a monument to her memory. Portraits of Lady Waldegrave were painted by Dubufe, James Rannie Swinton, other artists. A full-length marble statue was executed by Matthew Noble; the road that passes Strawberry Hill, one of the main roads linking Twickenham with Teddington, is named Waldegrave Road after her. "Waldegrave, Frances Elizabeth Anne". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Pictures of Elizabeth Waldegrave at the National Portrait Gallery