Pottery is the craft of making ceramic material into pots or potterywares using mud. Major types of potterywares include earthenware and porcelain, the place where such wares are made by a potter is called a pottery. Early Neolithic pottery have found in places such as Jomon Japan. A clay body can be decorated before or after firing, prior to shaping processes. Kneading helps to ensure an even moisture content throughout the body, air trapped within the clay body needs to be removed. This is called de-airing and can be accomplished either by a called a vacuum pug or manually by wedging. Wedging can produce an even moisture content. Once a clay body has been kneaded and de-aired or wedged, after shaping, it is dried and fired. Clay ware takes on varying physical characteristics during the making of pottery, at sufficient moisture content, bodies at this stage are in their most plastic form. Leather-hard refers to a body that has been dried partially. At this stage the clay object has approximately 15% moisture content, clay bodies at this stage are very firm and only slightly pliable.
Trimming and handle attachment often occurs at the leather-hard state, bone-dry refers to clay bodies when they reach a moisture content at or near 0%. It is now ready to be bisque fired, bisque refers to the clay after the object is shaped to the desired form and fired in the kiln for the first time, known as bisque fired or biscuit fired. This firing changes the body in several ways. Mineral components of the body will undergo chemical changes that will change the colour of the clay. Glaze fired is the stage of some pottery making. A glaze may be applied to the form and the object can be decorated in several ways. After this the object is glazed fired, which causes the material to melt
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, known as tracks. It is referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a flat surface. Tracks usually consist of rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a transport system generally encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger. The operation is carried out by a company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway system or produce their own power. Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system, Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of transport. The oldest, man-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC, with Periander, one of the Seven Sages of Greece, Rail transport blossomed after the British development of the steam locomotive as a viable source of power in the 19th centuries.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution, railways reduced the costs of shipping, and allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships. The change from canals to railways allowed for markets in which prices varied very little from city to city. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, and the first tramways, starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being almost complete by 2000. During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan, other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. The history of the growth and restoration to use of transport can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used.
The earliest evidence of a railway was a 6-kilometre Diolkos wagonway, trucks pushed by slaves ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element. The Diolkos operated for over 600 years, Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages. The earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau in Germany
Canterbury, New Zealand
Canterbury is a region of New Zealand, located in the central-eastern South Island. The region covers an area of 44,508 square kilometres, the region in its current form was established in 1989 during nationwide local government reforms. The Kaikoura District joined the region in 1992 following the abolition of the Nelson-Marlborough Regional Council, the South Islands largest city and the countrys third-largest urban area, is the seat of the region and home to 65 percent of the regions population. Other major towns and cities include Timaru, Rangiora, in 1848, Edward Gibbon Wakefield, a Briton, and John Robert Godley, an Anglo-Irish aristocrat, founded the Canterbury Association to establish an Anglican colony in the South Island. The colony was based upon theories developed by Wakefield while in prison for eloping with a woman not-of-age, due to ties to the prestigious Oxford University, the Canterbury Association succeeded in raising sufficient funds and recruiting middle-class and upper-class settlers.
In April 1850, a group led by Godley landed at Port Cooper—modern-day Lyttelton Harbour—and established a port, housing. In December 1850, the first wave of 750 settlers arrived at Lyttelton in a fleet of four ships, following 1850, the provinces economy developed with the introduction of sheep farming. The Canterbury regions tussock plains in particular were suitable for sheep farming. Since they were valued by settlers for their meat and wool. By the 1860s, this figure had risen to three million, during this period, the architect Benjamin Mountfort designed many civic and ecclesiastical buildings in the Gothic Revival style. The Canterbury Province was formed in 1853 following the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 and it was formed from part of New Munster Province and covered the middle part of the South Island, stretching from the east coast to the west coast. The province was abolished, along with provinces of New Zealand. The modern Canterbury Region has slightly different boundaries, particularly in the north and it is New Zealands largest region by area, with an area of 45,346 km2.
Canterbury was traditionally bounded in the north by the Conway River, to the west by the Southern Alps, the area is commonly divided into North Canterbury, Mid Canterbury, South Canterbury and Christchurch City. Canterbury is home to 600,100 people according to Statistics New Zealands June 2016,13 percent of New Zealands population and it the most populous in the South Island and the second most populous region in New Zealand. The median age of Canterburys population is 39.9 years, around 15.5 percent of the population is aged 65 or over while 18.7 percent is aged under 15. There are 97.5 males for every hundred females in Canterbury, just under 20 percent of Canterburys population was born overseas, compared to 25 percent for New Zealand as a whole. The British Isles remains the largest region of origin, accounting for 36.5 percent of the population in Canterbury
The Whitecliffs Branch was a branch line railway that formed part of New Zealands national rail network in the Canterbury region of the South Island. It was more industrial than the rural branches on the South Islands east coast whose traffic primarily derived from agriculture. What would have been the first portion of a line to Whitecliffs has now become part of the Midland Line. The original plan was for a line running directly from Rolleston to Sheffield and Springfield. When the railway reached Kirwee, the line to Darfield was built first, one line was built towards Sheffield and Springfield, and one towards Whitecliffs. At that stage, it was not known which, if either, surveys for the line from Darfield to Whitecliffs were undertaken in 1872, and with contracts let the next year, work was well under way by 1874. The line was opened all the way to Whitecliffs on 3 November 1875, stations were established in, Homebush, Glentunnel, South Malvern, and Whitecliffs, with goods sheds located at three of these stations.
Trains on the line had to deal with steep ascents between Hawkins and Homebush and on the run up to Whitecliffs, three proposals existed in the 19th century regarding the extension of the line. An early proposal suggested that the Whitecliffs Branch should be extended from Whitecliffs to the West Coast via the Wilberforce River and Brownings Pass. A third proposal received the support of an 1880 Royal Commission on New Zealands railways, calling for an extension of the branch into the Rakaia Gorge, none of these proposals ever came to fruition. Another significant proposal, the Canterbury Interior Main Line, would have had its junction with the Whitecliffs Branch in Homebush and it was this traffic that sustained the lines existence, but it did not eventuate in the quantities imagined as the Cantabrian coal fields proved to be small. Passenger traffic was handled by New Zealand Railways Department buses by the 1930s. Freight trains were running thrice weekly in 1951, but losses had been mounting for two decades and the field was close to being exhausted.
Further declines in the volume of traffic on the led to its closure on 31 March 1962. Some relics from the Whitecliffs Branch still exist, despite the fact that remnants of closed railways tend to disappear over time due to human, the formation is visible in places, a bridge still stands between Hawkins and Coalgate, and some bridge abutments and piles remain in situ
Lake Lyndon is a small lake in the Canterbury region of New Zealands South Island. It is located near Porters Pass on State Highway 73 after Springfield heading into the Southern Alps, the lake regularly freezes in winter due to its elevation and location on the outer border of the Southern Alps. The lake is surrounded by Korowai/Torlesse Tussocklands Park, and the Acheron River flows from the lake to the Rakaia River. Mount Lyndon is to the west of the lake and Castle Hill Peak is to the North of the lake. One of the routes for the Midland Line railway to Westland would have left the now-closed Whitecliffs Branch in Homebush. The route that was built takes a direct route to Cass. Lake Lyndon Lodge - lake side accommodation available for hire year-round
The New Zealand Herald
The New Zealand Herald is a daily newspaper published in Auckland, New Zealand, owned by New Zealand Media and Entertainment. Its main circulation area is the Auckland region and it is delivered to much of the north of the North Island including Northland and King Country. The New Zealand Herald was founded by William Chisholm Wilson, Wilson had been a partner with John Williamson in the New Zealander, but left to start a rival daily newspaper as he saw a business opportunity with Auckland’s rapidly growing population. He had split with Williamson because Wilson supported the war against the Māori while Williamson opposed it, the Herald promoted a more constructive relationship between the North and South Islands. After the New Zealander closed in 1866 The Daily Southern Cross provided competition, the Daily Southern Cross was first published in 1843 by William Brown as The Southern Cross and had been a daily since 1862. Vogel sold out of the paper in 1873 and Alfred Horton bought it in 1876, in 1876 the Wilson family and Horton joined in partnership and The New Zealand Herald absorbed The Daily Southern Cross.
In 1879 the United Press Association was formed so that the daily papers could share news stories. The organisation became the New Zealand Press Association in 1942, in 1892, the New Zealand Herald, Otago Daily Times, and Press agreed to share the costs of a London correspondent and advertising salesman. The New Zealand Press Association closed in 2011, the Herald is now owned by New Zealand Media and Entertainment. That company is owned by Sydney-based APN News & Media and the Radio Network, dita de Boni was a columnist for the newspaper, writing her first columns for the NZ Herald in 1995. From 2012 -2015 she wrote a business and politics column until – after a series of articles critical of the Key government – the Herald discontinued her column due to financial reasons. Gordon Minhinnick was a staff cartoonist from the 1930s until his retirement in the 1980s, malcolm Evans was fired from his position as staff cartoonist in 2003 after the newspaper received complaints about his cartoons on the conflict between Israel and Palestine.
Laurence Clark was the political cartoonist from 1987 to 1996. On 10 September 2012, the Herald moved to a format for weekday editions. The broadsheet format was retained for the Saturday edition, in April 2007, APN NZ announced it was outsourcing the bulk of the Heralds copy editing to an Australian-owned company, Pagemasters. The Herald is traditionally a centre-right newspaper, and was given the nickname Granny Herald into the 1990s, on domestic matters, editorial opinion is centrist, usually supporting socially conservative values. In 2007, an editorial strongly disapproved of some legislation introduced by the Labour-led government, the Herald published Baileys name and comments after she had retracted permission for Glucina to do so. The council said there was an “element of subterfuge” in Glucinas actions, in its ruling the council said that, “The NZ Herald has fallen sadly short of those standards in this case. ”The Heralds editor denied the accusations of subterfuge
New Zealand census
The New Zealand government department Statistics New Zealand conducts a census of population and dwellings every five years. The census scheduled for 2011 was cancelled due to the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake, the 2013 census took place on Tuesday,5 March 2013. Since 1926, the census has always held on a Tuesday. Since 1966, the census officially occurs at midnight on a Tuesday in March and these are statistically the month and weekday on which New Zealanders are least likely to be travelling. All census forms are hand-delivered by census workers during the lead-in to the census, with one form per person, in addition, teams of census workers attempt to cover all hospitals, camp grounds and transport systems where people might be found at midnight. The smallest geographic unit used in the census for population data is the mesh block, which there are 39,300 of, with an average of 110 people in each. The 2013 Census collected data on the topics, The first full census in New Zealand was conducted in 1851.
The 1931 census was cancelled due to the effects of the Great Depression, the 1946 census was brought forward to Tuesday 25 September 1945, so that the results could be used for an electoral redistribution before the 1946 election. Results for those censuses before 1966 have been destroyed with a few exceptions, the 2006 census was held on Tuesday,7 March. For the first time, respondents had the option of completing their census form via the Internet rather than by a printed form, the 2011 census was to be held on Tuesday,8 March. However, due to the Christchurch earthquake on 22 February 2011, for the first time ever, all 2011 census forms would have been digitally archived. On 27 May 2011 Statistics New Zealand announced that a census would take place in March 2013, the legislation required to change the census date was introduced to Parliament in August 2011. The 2013 census took place on Tuesday 5 March 2013, the next census will take place in 2018. A few people object to the census and attempt to evade it, following the 2006 Census, Statistics New Zealand prosecuted 72 people for failing to return their forms, with 41 convictions.
After the 2013 Census, they wrote to 450 people in July 2013 who had failed to return the forms, of whom 99 were prosecuted, most of those convicted faced two charges and were fined $50 to $500 per charge. Results of the 2013 census are being released over an 18-month period, Statistics New Zealand - census page New Zealand 2013 Census
Leeston is a town on the Canterbury Plains in the South Island of New Zealand. It is located 40 kilometres southwest of Christchurch, between the shore of Lake Ellesmere and the mouth of the Rakaia River. The town is a service centre, but has all the necessities for a real township such as a supermarket, churches, hospital. The Selwyn District Council currently has a office in Leeston. Leeston is growing relatively fast for a town, having a 2006 population of 1,299 up 8. 3%, or 99 people. This is significantly above the population growth rate in New Zealand. The 2013 census returned a population of 1,506, which is 15. 9% higher than the 2006 census, population growth is expected to continue due to people leaving Christchurch as a result of the 2010 Canterbury earthquake and the 2011 Canterbury earthquake. Its primary school was opened in 1865 and consolidated during the early 20th century and it was located on the west side of Leeston, with school residences being built in 1868. Its peak roll was 275, with classes in woodwork and metalwork for the males and cookery, a side school for younger pupils was opened in Doyleston, and named Leeston Side School.
There were many schools in the Ellesmere area, including Doyleston School, Irwell School, Lakeside School, Brookside School, Killinchy School. These schools had very small rolls, and as early as 1898 there was a proposal that they should be closed and their pupils moved to the schools in the townships of Leeston. The Board replied that while the advantages that might accumulate from such a move were recognized, no funds were available for the purpose, the matter was left alone for quarter of a century. In early 1923, the Chair of Education at Canterbury University College, Professor James Shelley and he promoted the idea of closing a number of small schools and moving their pupils to Leeston Primary. The Ellesmere Guardian followed this up with an article supporting the idea, some months later, at a meeting of the Leeston own Board, Dr. B. Volckman moved that Leeston was a suitable trying out ground for such consolidated, the clerk was instructed to send this resolution to the Canterbury Education Board after a unanimous vote of the members.
For the next ten years the theoretical advantages and disadvantages of consolidation were discussed on, in December 1936, the party favourable to the consolidation gained a victory when a meeting of householders in Irwell voted in favour of consolidating Irwell School with Leeston. A week later, similar victories were achieved at Lakeside and Doyleston and Doyleston pupils became foundation pupils of Leeston Consolidated School by April 1938. In 1945 Brookside School consolidated with Leeston after falling roll numbers made it apparent that the school would only be entitled to one teacher
The South Island or Te Waipounamu is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the smaller but more populous North Island. It is bordered to the north by Cook Strait, to the west by the Tasman Sea, the South Island covers 150,437 square kilometres and has a temperate climate. In the early stages of European settlement of the country, the South Island had the majority of the European population, in prose, the two main islands of New Zealand are called the North Island and the South Island, with the definite article. Charcoal drawings can be found on rock shelters in the centre of the South Island. The drawings are estimated to be between 500 and 800 years old, and portray animals and fantastic creatures, possibly stylised reptiles, some of the birds pictured are long extinct, including moa and Haasts eagles. They were drawn by early Māori, but by the time Europeans arrived, early inhabitants of the South Island were the Waitaha. They were largely absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Kāti Mamoe in the 16th century, Kāti Mamoe were in turn largely absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Kāi Tahu who migrated south in the 17th century.
While today there is no distinct Kāti Mamoe organisation, many Kāi Tahu have Kāti Mamoe links in their whakapapa and, a notable feature of the Moriori culture, an emphasis on pacifism, proved disadvantageous when Māori warriors arrived in the 1830s aboard a chartered European ship. In the early 18th century, Kāi Tahu, a Māori tribe who originated on the east coast of the North Island, There they and Kāti Mamoe fought Ngāi Tara and Rangitāne in the Wairau Valley. Ngāti Māmoe ceded the east coast regions north of the Clarence River to Kāi Tahu, Kāi Tahu continued to push south, conquering Kaikoura. By the 1730s, Kāi Tahu had settled in Canterbury, including Banks Peninsula, from there they spread further south and into the West Coast. In 1827-1828 Ngāti Toa under the leadership of Te Rauparaha successfully attacked Kāi Tahu at Kaikoura, Ngāti Toa visited Kaiapoi, ostensibly to trade. When they attacked their hosts, the well-prepared Kāi Tahu killed all the leading Ngāti Toa chiefs except Te Rauparaha, Te Rauparaha returned to his Kapiti Island stronghold.
After destroying Te Maiharanuis village they took their captives to Kapiti, John Stewart, though arrested and sent to trial in Sydney as an accomplice to murder, nevertheless escaped conviction. In the summer of 1831–32 Te Rauparaha attacked the Kaiapoi pā, Kaiapoi was engaged in a three-month siege by Te Rauparaha, during which his men successfully sapped the pā. They attacked Kāi Tahu on Banks Peninsula and took the pā at Onawe, in 1832-33 Kāi Tahu retaliated under the leadership of Tūhawaiki and others, attacking Ngāti Toa at Lake Grassmere. Kāi Tahu prevailed, and killed many Ngāti Toa, although Te Rauparaha again escaped, fighting continued for a year or so, with Kāi Tahu maintaining the upper hand. Ngāti Toa never again made an incursion into Kāi Tahu territory
New Zealand State Highway 77
State Highway 77 is a state highway in New Zealand going through the inland parts of Central and Mid Canterbury between the towns of Ashburton and Darfield via the Rakaia Gorge. It is wholly single carriageway with two bridges at the Rakaia and Selwyn Rivers. One set of lights is found in Ashburton marking the southern terminus of the highway. About 43 km of the lie on the Inland Scenic Route. The highway begins as Bangor Road just west of Darfield town centre, just before reaching the foothills, the road intersects with the Inland Scenic Route coming from Waddington and begins its concurrency at Homebush. After a name change to Homebush Road, the skirts to the north of Coalgate and to the south of Glentunnel before veering left. Now known as Wairiri Road, the road back to two lanes and passes through undulating to hilly farmland. At Glenroy the road name to Windwhistle Road and climbs towards the settlement of Windwhistle. Beyond Windwhistle, the changes to Rakaia Gorge Road and begins a spectacular descent into the Rakaia Gorge.
For most of its length the Rakaia River runs on shingle river beds as a braided river, the river here has carved out the surrounding land to form two level terraces. The road passes over both these terraces before narrowing to one again to cross the river. After widening again, the road name to Arundel Rakaia Gorge Road. The road emerges onto the plains but passes right underneath the towering Mount Hutt, the road is frequently covered by snow and ices over in sheltered areas during the calmer periods of the winter months in higher parts of the road. After Methven, the road name to Methven Highway and proceeds in a south to southeasterly direction through more pastoral farmland. When SH72 had its highway status revoked, SH77 was extended to cover the section between Mount Hutt and Waddington. In 1997, SH77 was diverted at the intersection of Homebush Road, along Bangor Road, list of New Zealand state highways New Zealand Transport Agency View from Rakaia Gorge Bridge - Google Street View