SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Globalization

Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration among people and governments worldwide. As a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, globalization is considered by some as a form of capitalist expansion which entails the integration of local and national economies into a global, unregulated market economy. Globalization has grown due to advances in communication technology. With the increased global interactions comes the growth of international trade and culture. Globalization is an economic process of interaction and integration that's associated with social and cultural aspects; however and diplomacy are large parts of the history of globalization, modern globalization. Economically, globalization involves goods, the economic resources of capital and data; the expansions of global markets liberalize the economic activities of the exchange of goods and funds. Removal of cross-border trade barriers has made formation of global markets more feasible; the steam locomotive, jet engine, container ships are some of the advances in the means of transport while the rise of the telegraph and its modern offspring, the Internet and mobile phones show development in telecommunications infrastructure.

All of these improvements have been major factors in globalization and have generated further interdependence of economic and cultural activities around the globe. Though many scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the European Age of Discovery and voyages to the New World, some to the third millennium BC. Large-scale globalization began in the 1820s. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectivity of the world's economies and cultures grew quickly; the term globalization is recent. In 2000, the International Monetary Fund identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions and investment movements and movement of people, the dissemination of knowledge. Further, environmental challenges such as global warming, cross-boundary water, air pollution, over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization. Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, socio-cultural resources, the natural environment.

Academic literature subdivides globalization into three major areas: economic globalization, cultural globalization, political globalization. The term globalization became popular in social science in the 1990s, it derives from the word globalize, which refers to the emergence of an international network of economic systems. The term'globalization' had been used in its economic sense at least as early as 1981, in other senses since at least as early as 1944. Theodore Levitt is credited with popularizing the term and bringing it into the mainstream business audience in the half of the 1980s. Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and interpretations, its antecedents date back to the great movements of trade and empire across Asia and the Indian Ocean from the 15th century onward. Due to the complexity of the concept, various research projects and discussions stay focused on a single aspect of globalization. Sociologists Martin Albrow and Elizabeth King define globalization as "all those processes by which the people of the world are incorporated into a single world society."

In The Consequences of Modernity, Anthony Giddens writes: "Globalization can thus be defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa." In 1992, Roland Robertson, professor of sociology at the University of Aberdeen and an early writer in the field, described globalization as "the compression of the world and the intensification of the consciousness of the world as a whole."In Global Transformations, David Held and his co-writers state: Although in its simplistic sense globalization refers to the widening and speeding up of global interconnection, such a definition begs further elaboration.... Globalization can be on a continuum with the local and regional. At one end of the continuum lie social and economic relations and networks which are organized on a local and/or national basis. Globalization can refer to those spatial-temporal processes of change which underpin a transformation in the organization of human affairs by linking together and expanding human activity across regions and continents.

Without reference to such expansive spatial connections, there can be no clear or coherent formulation of this term.... A satisfactory definition of globalization must capture each of these elements: extensity, intensity and impact. Held and his co-writers' definition of globalization in that same book as "transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions—assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity and impact—generating transcontinental or inter-regional flows" was called "probably the most widely-cited definition" in the 2014 DHL Global Connectiveness Index. Swedish journalist Thomas Larsson, in his book The Race to the Top: The Real Story of Globalization, states that globalization: is the process of world shrinkage, of distances getting shorter, things moving closer, it pertains to the increasing ease with which somebody on one side of the world can interact, to mutual benefit, with somebody on the other side of the world. P

Miss Seventeen

Miss Seventeen is a reality television show on MTV that aired from October 17, 2005 to December 19, 2005. The show consisted of a college scholarship. Atoosa Rubenstein was the main judge, she was the youngest editor-in-chief to run Seventeen magazine, they picked 17 girls from around the United States who were not only photogenic but had been at the top of their class, to provide a role model for young women. The girls were flown to New York, where they would take part in a contest similar in format to The Apprentice — they would be given tasks to be done by Atoosa, in each episode one of the girls would be eliminated from the competition; the winner would get her face on the cover of Seventeen magazine, a college scholarship and would be offered an internship job on the magazine. The criteria for elimination were not only performing poorly — Atoosa was watchful of how the girls talked when no one else was in the room, via cameras set up around the house. In this manner, she could watch the girls with their guards down and see what their real motivations and dreams were.

In one elimination, for example, Atoosa sat down with the girl and explained that she didn't feel that the girl was in the contest for the'right' reasons — video clips were shown to the viewers which showed the girl talking to her other roommates and explaining that she was more interested in the face-time she would get for being part of an MTV show. Where the format differed from other shows was in the first elimination round and in how the contestants found out, eliminated. In the first episode, all 17 girls sat around the dinner table with Atoosa and had to describe in brief who they were and what they hoped they would get out of the experience. Based on this conversation, Atoosa eliminated 7 of the girls from the contest; the way the girls would find out, eliminated was by sitting around a TV as Atoosa would talk to them, telling them the results of the tasks they were given. The TV screen would display the names of the girls who would be staying in the house, written in cursive form; the girl whose name didn't appear on'The List' was eliminated, met with Atoosa to hear her reasoning for why she was eliminated.

In the final episode, Jennifer Steele was declared the winner, with her magazine cover unveiled in Times Square. It was revealed that Brianne Burrowes, who voluntarily left the show in an early episode of the series, was offered a job by Atoosa and will be working with Jennifer in their respective internships at the magazine

North Anthony Boulevard Historic District

North Anthony Boulevard Historic District is a national historic district located at Fort Wayne, Indiana. The district encompasses 296 contributing buildings in a predominantly residential section of Fort Wayne; the area was developed from about 1918 to 1930, includes notable examples of Colonial Revival, Tudor Revival, Bungalow / American Craftsman style residential architecture. Its development is directly related to the implementation of the 1912 plan for Parks and Boulevards for the city of Fort Wayne by city planner and landscape architect George Kessler. Located in the district is the separately listed William C. and Clara Hagerman House. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2014