SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Globe

A globe is a spherical model of Earth, of some other celestial body, or of the celestial sphere. Globes serve purposes similar to some maps, but unlike maps, do not distort the surface that they portray except to scale it down. A model globe of Earth is called a terrestrial globe. A model globe of the celestial sphere is called a celestial globe. A globe shows details of its subject. A terrestrial globe shows landmasses and water bodies, it might show the network of latitude and longitude lines. Some have raised relief to show other large landforms. A celestial globe shows notable stars, may show positions of other prominent astronomical objects, it will divide the celestial sphere into constellations. The word globe comes from the Latin word globus, meaning "sphere". Globes have a long history; the first known mention of a globe is from Strabo, describing the Globe of Crates from about 150 BC. The oldest surviving terrestrial globe is the Erdapfel, wrought by Martin Behaim in 1492; the oldest surviving celestial globe sits atop the Farnese Atlas, carved in the 2nd century Roman Empire.

Flat maps are created using a map projection that introduces an increasing amount of distortion the larger the area that the map shows. A globe is the only representation of the Earth that does not distort either the shape or the size of large features – land masses, bodies of water, etc; the Earth's circumference is quite close to 40 million metres. Many globes are made with a circumference of one metre, so they are models of the Earth at a scale of 1:40 million. In imperial units, many globes are made with a diameter of one foot, yielding a circumference of 3.14 feet and a scale of 1:42 million. Globes are made in many other sizes; some globes have surface texture showing bathymetry. In these and depressions are purposely exaggerated, as they otherwise would be hardly visible. For example, one manufacturer produces a three dimensional raised relief globe with a 64 cm diameter showing the highest mountains as over 2.5 cm tall, about 57 times higher than the correct scale of Mount Everest. Most modern globes are imprinted with parallels and meridians, so that one can tell the approximate coordinates of a specific place.

Globes may show the boundaries of countries and their names. Many terrestrial globes have one celestial feature marked on them: a diagram called the analemma, which shows the apparent motion of the Sun in the sky during a year. Globes show north at the top, but many globes allow the axis to be swiveled so that southern portions can be viewed conveniently; this capability permits exploring the earth from different orientations to help counter the north-up bias caused by conventional map presentation. Celestial globes show the apparent positions of the stars in the sky, they omit the Sun and planets because the positions of these bodies vary relative to those of the stars, but the ecliptic, along which the Sun moves, is indicated. The sphericity of the Earth was established by Greek astronomy in the 3rd century BC, the earliest terrestrial globe appeared from that period; the earliest known example is the one constructed by Crates of Mallus in Cilicia, in the mid-2nd century BC. No terrestrial globes from Antiquity or the Middle Ages have survived.

An example of a surviving celestial globe is part of a Hellenistic sculpture, called the Farnese Atlas, surviving in a 2nd-century AD Roman copy in the Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy. Early terrestrial globes depicting the entirety of the Old World were constructed in the Islamic world. According to David Woodward, one such example was the terrestrial globe introduced to Beijing by the Persian astronomer, Jamal ad-Din, in 1267; the earliest extant terrestrial globe was made in 1492 by Martin Behaim with help from the painter Georg Glockendon. Behaim was a German mapmaker and merchant. Working in Nuremberg, Germany, he called his globe the "Nürnberg Terrestrial Globe." It is now known as the Erdapfel. Before constructing the globe, Behaim had traveled extensively, he sojourned in Lisbon from 1480, developing commercial interests and mingling with explorers and scientists. In 1485–1486, he sailed with Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão to the coast of West Africa, he began to construct his globe after his return to Nürnberg in 1490.

Another early globe, the Hunt–Lenox Globe, ca. 1510, is thought to be the source of the phrase Hic Sunt Dracones, or “Here be dragons”. A similar grapefruit-sized globe made from two halves of an ostrich egg was found in 2012 and is believed to date from 1504, it may be the oldest globe. Stefaan Missine, who analyzed the globe for the Washington Map Society journal Portolan, said it was “part of an important European collection for decades.” After a year of research in which he consulted many experts, Missine concluded the Hunt–Lenox Globe was a copper cast of the egg globe. A facsimile globe showing America was made by Martin Waldseemueller in 1507. Another "remarkably modern-looking" terrestrial globe of the Earth was constructed by Taqi al-Din at the Constantinople Observatory of Taqi ad-Din during the 1570s; the world's first seamless celestial globe was built by Mughal scientists under the patronage of Jahangir. Globus IMP, electro-mechanical devices including five-inch globes have been used in Soviet and Russian spacecraft from 1961 to 2002 as navigation instruments.

In 2001, the TMA version of the Soyuz spacecraft replaced this instrument with a virtual globe. In the 1800s small pocket globes were status symbols for gentlemen and educational toy

C&P Haulage v Middleton

C&P Haulage Co Ltd v Middleton EWCA Civ 5 is an English contract law case, concerning damages for costs incurred by a claimant related to a defendant's breach of contract. George Middleton had a licence to occupy premises for six months at a time, renewable, he used it for his car repair business. He improved the property though the contract stated fixtures were not to be removed at the end of the licence. C&P Haulage Co Ltd ejected him for breach of contract. Mr Middleton argued he should be entitled to damages for the cost of the improvements he had made. Ackner LJ held that Middleton’s loss did not flow from the breach of contract, but him going and doing the repairs when he was not meant to. So no recovery of reliance loss was available, where it would allow Middleton to escape a bad bargain or reverse the contractual allocation of risk. English contract law Johnson v Agnew AC 367 Habton Farms v Nimmo EWCA Civ 68, QB 1, 3 WLR 633 The Golden Victory or Golden Strait Corporation v Nippon Yusen Kubishka Kaisha UKHL 12

False friend

In linguistics, false friends are words in different languages that look or sound similar, but differ in meaning. An example is the English embarrassed and the Spanish embarazada, the word parents and the Portuguese parentes, or the word sensible, which means reasonable in English, but sensitive in French and Spanish; the term originates from a book by French linguists describing the phenomenon, translated in 1928 and entitled, "false friend of a translator". As well as producing false friends, the use of loanwords results in the use of a word in a restricted context, which may develop new meanings not found in the original language. For example, angst means "fear" in a general sense in German, but when it was borrowed into English in the context of psychology, its meaning was restricted to a particular type of fear described as "a neurotic feeling of anxiety and depression". Gymnasium meant both'a place of education' and'a place for exercise' in Latin, but its meaning was restricted to the former in German and to the latter in English, making the expressions into false friends in those languages as well as in Greek, where it started out as'a place for naked exercise'.

False friends, or bilingual homophones are words in two or more languages that look or sound similar, but differ in meaning. The origin of the term is as a shortened version of the expression "false friend of a translator", the English translation of a French expression introduced by linguists Maxime Kœssler and Jules Derocquigny in their 1928 book, with a sequel, Autres Mots anglais perfides. From the etymological point of view, false friends can be created in several ways. If language A borrowed a word from language B, or both borrowed the word from a third language or inherited it from a common ancestor, the word shifted in meaning or acquired additional meanings in at least one of these languages, a native speaker of one language will face a false friend when learning the other. Sometimes both senses were present in the common ancestor language, but the cognate words got different restricted senses in Language A and Language B. Actual, which in English is a synonym of real, has a different meaning in other European languages, in which it means'current' or'up-to-date', has the logical derivative as a verb, meaning'to make current' or'to update'.

Actualise in English means'to make a reality of'. The word friend itself has cognates in the other Germanic languages; the original Proto-Germanic word meant simply'someone whom one cares for' and could therefore refer to both a friend and a relative, but lost various degrees of the'friend' sense in Scandinavian languages, while it lost the sense of'relative' in English. The Estonian and Finnish languages are related, which gives rise to false friends: Or Estonian vaimu ‘spirit. A high level of lexical similarity exists between German and Dutch, but shifts in meaning of words with a shared etymology have in some instances resulted in'bi-directional false friends': In Belgium, similarities between Dutch and French words lead to confusion when several different meanings of the same word are mixed up and thus mistranslated. In satirical sketch comedy Sois Belge et tais-toi!, performed by Joël Riguelle in 2009, the following examples are given: The Italian word confetti ‘sugared almonds’ has acquired a new meaning in English and Dutch.

English and Spanish, both of which have borrowed from Greek and Latin, have multiple false friends, such as: -Sp. darse cuenta - Engl. Realize / Sp. realizar - Engl. Carry out -Sp. realmente - Engl. / Sp. actualmente - Engl. Presently -Sp. publicidad - Engl. advert / Sp. advertencia - Engl. warning. -Sp. extraño - Engl. Bizarre / Sp. bizarro - Engl. brave. English and Japanese have diverse false friends, many of them being wasei-eigo and gairaigo words. In Swedish, the word rolig means'fun': ett roligt skämt, while in the related languages Danish and Norwegian it means'calm'. However, the Swedish original meaning of'calm' is retained in some related words such as ro,'calmness', orolig,'worrisome, anxious', literally'un-calm'; the Danish and Norwegian word semester means term. The Danish word frokost means lunch, the Norwegian word frokost means breakfast. In French, the word Hure refers to the head of a boar. Pseudo-anglicisms are new words formed from English morphemes independently from an analogous English construct and with a different intended meaning.

Japanese is replete with pseudo-anglicisms, known as wasei-eigo. In bilingual situations, false friends result in a semantic change—a real new meaning, commonly used in a language. For example, the Portuguese humoroso changed its referent in American Portuguese to'humorous', owing to the English surface-cognate humorous. Corn was the dominant type of grain in a region, it means cereals in general in the British Isles, but has come to mean maize in North America. The American Italian fattoria l