The River Thames, known alternatively in parts as the Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At 215 miles, it is the longest river in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom, after the River Severn, it flows through Oxford, Henley-on-Thames and Windsor. The lower reaches of the river are called the Tideway, derived from its long tidal reach up to Teddington Lock, it rises at Thames Head in Gloucestershire, flows into the North Sea via the Thames Estuary. The Thames drains the whole of Greater London, its tidal section, reaching up to Teddington Lock, includes most of its London stretch and has a rise and fall of 23 feet. Running through some of the driest parts of mainland Britain and abstracted for drinking water, the Thames' discharge is low considering its length and breadth: the Severn has a discharge twice as large on average despite having a smaller drainage basin. In Scotland, the Tay achieves more than double the Thames' average discharge from a drainage basin, 60% smaller.
Along its course are 45 navigation locks with accompanying weirs. Its catchment area covers a small part of western England; the river contains over 80 islands. With its waters varying from freshwater to seawater, the Thames supports a variety of wildlife and has a number of adjoining Sites of Special Scientific Interest, with the largest being in the remaining parts of the North Kent Marshes and covering 5,449 hectares; the Thames, from Middle English Temese, is derived from the Brittonic Celtic name for the river, recorded in Latin as Tamesis and yielding modern Welsh Tafwys "Thames". The name may have meant "dark" and can be compared to other cognates such as Russian темно, Lithuanian tamsi "dark", Latvian tumsa "darkness", Sanskrit tamas and Welsh tywyll "darkness" and Middle Irish teimen "dark grey"; the same origin is shared by countless other river names, spread across Britain, such as the River Tamar at the border of Devon and Cornwall, several rivers named Tame in the Midlands and North Yorkshire, the Tavy on Dartmoor, the Team of the North East, the Teifi and Teme of Wales, the Teviot in the Scottish Borders, as well as one of the Thames' tributaries called the Thame.
Kenneth H. Jackson has proposed that the name of the Thames is not Indo-European, while Peter Kitson suggested that it is Indo-European but originated before the Celts and has a name indicating "muddiness" from a root *tā-,'melt'. Indirect evidence for the antiquity of the name'Thames' is provided by a Roman potsherd found at Oxford, bearing the inscription Tamesubugus fecit, it is believed. Tamese was referred to as a place, not a river in the Ravenna Cosmography; the river's name has always been pronounced with a simple t /t/. A similar spelling from 1210, "Tamisiam", is found in the Magna Carta; the Thames through Oxford is sometimes called the Isis. And in Victorian times and cartographers insisted that the entire river was named the Isis from its source down to Dorchester on Thames and that only from this point, where the river meets the Thame and becomes the "Thame-isis" should it be so called. Ordnance Survey maps still label the Thames as "River Isis" down to Dorchester. However, since the early 20th century this distinction has been lost in common usage outside of Oxford, some historians suggest the name Isis is nothing more than a truncation of Tamesis, the Latin name for the Thames.
Sculptures titled Tamesis and Isis by Anne Seymour Damer can be found on the bridge at Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire. Richard Coates suggests that while the river was as a whole called the Thames, part of it, where it was too wide to ford, was called *lowonida; this gave the name to a settlement on its banks, which became known as Londinium, from the Indo-European roots *pleu- "flow" and *-nedi "river" meaning something like the flowing river or the wide flowing unfordable river. For merchant seamen, the Thames has long been just the "London River". Londoners refer to it as "the river" in expressions such as "south of the river"; the river gives its name to three informal areas: the Thames Valley, a region of England around the river between Oxford and West London. Thames Valley Police is a formal body. In non-administrative use, the river's name is used in those of Thames Valley University, Thames Water, Thames Television, publishing company Thames & Hudson and South Thames College. An example of its use in the names of historic entities is the Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company.
The administrative powers of the Thames Conservancy have been taken on with modifications by the Environment Agency and, in respect of the Tideway part of the river, such powers are split between the agency and the Port of London Authority. The marks of human activity, in some cases dating back to Pre-Roman Britain, are visible at various points along the river; these include a variety of structure
Julius Caesar (play)
The Tragedy of Julius Caesar is a history play and tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599. It is one of several plays written by Shakespeare based on true events from Roman history, which include Coriolanus and Antony and Cleopatra. Although the play is named Julius Caesar, Brutus speaks more than four times as many lines as the title character; the play opens with two tribunes discovering the commoners of Rome celebrating Julius Caesar's triumphant return from defeating the sons of his military rival, Pompey. The tribunes, insulting the crowd for their change in loyalty from Pompey to Caesar, attempt to end the festivities and break up the commoners, who return the insults. During the feast of Lupercal, Caesar holds a victory parade and a soothsayer warns him to "Beware the ides of March", which he ignores. Meanwhile, Cassius attempts to convince Brutus to join his conspiracy to kill Caesar. Although Brutus, friendly towards Caesar, is hesitant to kill him, he agrees that Caesar may be abusing his power.
They hear from Casca that Mark Antony has offered Caesar the crown of Rome three times and that each time Caesar refused it with increasing reluctance, in hopes that the crowd watching the exchange would beg him to accept the crown, yet the crowd applauded Caesar for denying the crown, upsetting Caesar, due to his wanting to accept the crown. On the eve of the ides of March, the conspirators meet and reveal that they have forged letters of support from the Roman people to tempt Brutus into joining. Brutus reads the letters and, after much moral debate, decides to join the conspiracy, thinking that Caesar should be killed to prevent him from doing anything against the people of Rome if he were to be crowned. After ignoring the soothsayer, as well as his wife Calpurnia's own premonitions, Caesar goes to the Senate; the conspirators approach him with a fake petition pleading on behalf of Metellus Cimber's banished brother. As Caesar predictably rejects the petition and the others stab him. At this point, Caesar utters the famous line "Et tu, Brute?", concluding with "Then fall, Caesar!"
The conspirators make clear that they committed this murder for the good of Rome, not for their own purposes, do not attempt to flee the scene. Brutus delivers an oration defending his own actions, for the moment, the crowd is on his side. However, Mark Antony makes a subtle and eloquent speech over Caesar's corpse, beginning with the much-quoted "Friends, countrymen, lend me your ears!" In this way, he deftly turns public opinion against the assassins by manipulating the emotions of the common people, in contrast to the rational tone of Brutus's speech, yet there is method in his rhetorical speech and gestures: he reminds them of the good Caesar had done for Rome, his sympathy with the poor, his refusal of the crown at the Lupercal, thus questioning Brutus's claim of Caesar's ambition. Antony as he states his intentions against it, rouses the mob to drive the conspirators from Rome. Amid the violence, an innocent poet, Cinna, is confused with the conspirator Lucius Cinna and is taken by the mob, which kills him for such "offenses" as his bad verses.
Brutus next attacks Cassius for soiling the noble act of regicide by having accepted bribes. The two are reconciled after Brutus reveals that his beloved wife committed suicide under the stress of his absence from Rome; that night, Caesar's ghost appears to Brutus with a warning of defeat. At the battle and Brutus, knowing that they will both die, smile their last smiles to each other and hold hands. During the battle, Cassius has his servant kill him after hearing of the capture of his best friend, Titinius. After Titinius, not captured, sees Cassius's corpse, he commits suicide. However, Brutus wins that stage of the battle. With a heavy heart, Brutus battles again the next day, he commits suicide by running on his own sword, held for him by a loyal soldier. The play ends with a tribute to Brutus by Antony, who proclaims that Brutus has remained "the noblest Roman of them all" because he was the only conspirator who acted, in his mind, for the good of Rome. There is a small hint at the friction between Mark Antony and Octavius which characterises another of Shakespeare's Roman plays and Cleopatra.
The main source of the play is Thomas North's translation of Plutarch's Lives. Shakespeare makes Caesar's triumph take place on the day of Lupercalia instead of six months earlier. For dramatic effect, he makes the Capitol the venue of Caesar's death rather than the Curia Pompeia. Caesar's murder, the funeral, Antony's oration, the reading of the will and the arrival of Octavius all take place on the same day in the play; however the assassination took place on 15 March, the will was published on 18 March, the funeral was on 20 March, Octavius arrived only in May. Shakespeare makes the Triumvirs meet in Rome instead of near Bononia to avoid
Shoreditch is a district in Central and North East London and located in the East End, is divided between the London boroughs of Hackney and Tower Hamlets. A historic entertainment quarter since the 16th century, today it hosts a number of nightclubs and bars to the west, while the northern area of Hoxton is residential. In Tower Hamlets, a small part of Shoreditch is a small exclave separated by Bethnal Green from the rest of the district in East London, it is considered part of the district due to the now-closed Shoreditch tube station location; the district itself lies to the north and north east of the City of London while the exclave lies north and east of Spitalfields and south and west of Bethnal Green. Toponymists believe that the name comes from Old English "scoradīc", i.e. shore-ditch, the shore being a riverbank or prominent slope. One legend holds that the place was named "Shore's Ditch", after Jane Shore, the mistress of Edward IV, supposed to have died or been buried in a ditch in the area.
This legend is commemorated today by a large painting, at Haggerston Branch Library, of the body of Shore being retrieved from the ditch, by a design on glazed tiles in a shop in Shoreditch High Street showing her meeting Edward IV. But the area was known as "Soersditch". London County Council Survey of London attests to at least thirty deeds between 1150 and 1250 CE which refer to Shoreditch. Another suggested origin for the name is "sewer ditch", in reference to a drain or watercourse in what was once a boggy area, it may have referred to the headwaters of the Walbrook. In another theory, antiquarian John Weever claimed that the name was derived from Sir John de Soerdich, lord of the manor during the reign of Edward III. Though now part of Inner London, Shoreditch was an extramural suburb of the City of London, centred on Shoreditch Church at the old crossroads where Shoreditch High Street and Kingsland Road are crossed by Old Street and Hackney Road. Shoreditch High Street and Kingsland Road are a small sector of the Roman Ermine Street and modern A10.
Known as the Old North Road, it was a major coaching route to the north, exiting the City at Bishopsgate. The east–west course of Old Street–Hackney Road was probably a Roman Road, connecting Silchester with Colchester, bypassing the City of London to the south. Shoreditch Church is of ancient origin, it is featured in the famous line "when I grow rich say the bells of Shoreditch", from the English nursery rhyme "Oranges and Lemons". Shoreditch was the site of a house of canonesses, the Augustinian Holywell Priory, from the 12th century until its dissolution in 1539; this priory was located between Shoreditch High Street and Curtain Road to east and west, Batemans Row and Holywell Lane to north and south. Nothing remains of it today. In 1576, James Burbage built the first playhouse in England, known as "The Theatre", on the site of the Priory; some of Shakespeare's plays were performed here and at the nearby Curtain Theatre, built the following year and 200 yards to the south. It was here that Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet gained "Curtain plaudits", where Henry V was performed within "this wooden O".
Shakespeare's Company moved the timbers of "The Theatre" to Southwark at the expiration of the lease in 1599, in order to construct The Globe. The Curtain continued performing plays in Shoreditch until at least 1627; the suburb of Shoreditch was attractive as a location for these early theatres because it was outside the jurisdiction of the somewhat puritanical City fathers. So, they drew the wrath of contemporary moralists, as did the local "base tenements and houses of unlawful and disorderly resort" and the "great number of dissolute and insolent people harboured in such and the like noisome and disorderly houses, as namely poor cottages, habitations of beggars and people without trade, inns, taverns, garden-houses converted to dwellings, dicing houses, bowling alleys, brothel houses". During the 17th century, wealthy traders and French Huguenot silkweavers moved to the area, establishing a textile industry centred to the south around Spitalfields. By the 19th century, Shoreditch was the locus of the furniture industry, now commemorated in the Geffrye Museum on Kingsland Road.
These industries declined in the late 19th century. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Shoreditch was a centre of entertainment to rival the West End and boasted many theatres and music halls: The National Standard Theatre, 2/3/4 Shoreditch High Street. In the late 19th century this was one of the largest theatres in London. In 1926, it was converted into a cinema called The New Olympia Picturedrome; the building was demolished in 1940. Sims Reeves, Mrs Marriott and James Anderson all appeared here. There was considerable rivalry with the West End theatres. John Douglass wrote a letter to The Era following a Drury Lane first night, in which he commented that "seeing that a hansom cab is used in the new drama at Drury Lane, I beg to state that a hansom cab, drawn by a live horse was used in my drama... produced at the Standard Theatre... with real rain, a real flood, a real balloon." The Shoreditch Empire known as The London Music Hall, 95–99 Shoreditch High Street. The theatre was rebuilt in 1894 by Frank Matcham.
The architect of the Hackn
English Renaissance theatre
English Renaissance theatre—also known as Renaissance English theatre and Elizabethan theatre—refers to the theatre of England between 1562 and 1642. This is the style of the plays of Christopher Marlowe and Ben Jonson; the term English Renaissance theatre encompasses the period between 1562—following a performance of Gorboduc, the first English play using blank verse, at the Inner Temple during the Christmas season of 1561—and the ban on theatrical plays enacted by the English Parliament in 1642. The phrase Elizabethan theatre is sometimes used, improperly, to mean English Renaissance theatre, although in a strict sense "Elizabethan" only refers to the period of Queen Elizabeth's reign. English Renaissance theatre may be said to encompass Elizabethan theatre from 1562 to 1603, Jacobean theatre from 1603 to 1625, Caroline theatre from 1625 to 1642. Along with the economics of the profession, the character of the drama changed towards the end of the period. Under Elizabeth, the drama was a unified expression as far as social class was concerned: the Court watched the same plays the commoners saw in the public playhouses.
With the development of the private theatres, drama became more oriented towards the tastes and values of an upper-class audience. By the part of the reign of Charles I, few new plays were being written for the public theatres, which sustained themselves on the accumulated works of the previous decades; the English grammar schools, like those on the continent, placed special emphasis on the trivium: grammar and rhetoric. Though rhetorical instruction was intended as preparation for careers in civil service such as law, the rhetorical canons of memory and delivery and voice, as well as exercises from the progymnasmata, such as the prosopopoeia, taught theatrical skills. Students would analyze Latin and Greek texts, write their own compositions, memorize them, perform them in front of their instructor and their peers. Records show that in addition to this weekly performance, students would perform plays on holidays, in both Latin and English. Choir schools connected with the Elizabethan court included St. George’s Chapel, the Chapel Royal, St. Paul’s.
These schools never performed other court entertainments for the Queen. Between the 1560s and 1570s these schools had begun to perform for general audiences as well. Playing companies of boy actors were derived from choir schools. An earlier example of a playwright contracted to write for the children's companies is John Lyly, who wrote Gallathea and Midas for Paul’s Boys. Another example is Ben Jonson. Academic drama stems from late medieval and early modern practices of miracles and morality plays as well as the Feast of Fools and the election of a Lord of Misrule; the Feast of Fools includes mummer plays. The universities Oxford and Cambridge, were attended by students studying for bachelor's degrees and master's degrees, followed by doctorates in Law and Theology. In the 1400s, dramas were restricted to mummer plays with someone who read out all the parts in Latin. With the rediscovery and redistribution of classical materials during the English Renaissance and Greek plays began to be restaged.
These plays were accompanied by feasts. Queen Elizabeth I viewed dramas during her visits to Cambridge. A well-known play cycle, written and performed in the universities was the Parnassus Plays. Upon graduation, many university students those going into law, would reside and participate in the Inns of Court; the Inns of Court were communities of working lawyers and university alumni. Notable literary figures and playwrights who resided in the Inns of Court include John Donne, Francis Beaumont, John Marston, Thomas Lodge, Thomas Campion, Abraham Fraunce, Sir Philip Sidney, Sir Thomas More, Sir Francis Bacon, George Gascoigne. Like the university, the Inns of Court elected their own Lord of Misrule. Other activities included participation in moot court and masques. Plays written and performed in the Inns of Court include Gorboduc, Gismund of Salerne, The Misfortunes of Arthur. An example of a famous masque put on by the Inns was James Shirley’s The Triumph of Peace. Shakespeare’s The Comedy of Errors and Twelfth Night were performed here, although written for commercial theater.
The first permanent English theatre, the Red Lion, opened in 1567 but it was a short-lived failure. The first successful theatres, such as The Theatre, opened in 1576; the establishment of large and profitable public theatres was an essential enabling factor in the success of English Renaissance drama. Once they were in operation, drama could become a fixed and permanent, rather than transitory, phenomenon, their construction was prompted when the Mayor and Corporation of London first banned plays in 1572 as a measure against the plague, formally expelled all players from the city in 1575. This prompted the construction of permanent playhouses outside the jurisdiction of London, in the liberties of Halliwell/Holywell in Shoreditch and the Clink, at Newington Butts near the established entertainment district of St. George's Fields in rural Surrey; the Theatre was constructed in Shoreditch in 1576 by James Burbage with his brother-in-law John Brayne and the Newington Butts playhouse was set up by Jerome Savage, some time between 1575 and 1577.
The Theatre was followed by the nearby Curtain Theatre, the Rose, the Swan, the Globe, the Fortune, the Red Bull. Archaeological excavations on the foundations of the Rose and the Globe in the late 20th century showed th
Benjamin Jonson was an English playwright, poet and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy. He popularised the comedy of humours, he is best known for the satirical plays Every Man in His Humour, Volpone, or The Fox, The Alchemist and Bartholomew Fair and for his lyric and epigrammatic poetry. "He is regarded as the second most important English dramatist, after William Shakespeare, during the reign of James I."Jonson was a classically educated, well-read and cultured man of the English Renaissance with an appetite for controversy whose cultural influence was of unparalleled breadth upon the playwrights and the poets of the Jacobean era and of the Caroline era. In midlife, Jonson claimed that his paternal grandfather, who'served King Henry 8 and was a gentleman', was a member of the extended Johnston family of Annandale in the Dumfries and Galloway, a genealogy, attested by the three spindles in the Jonson family coat of arms: one spindle is a diamond-shaped heraldic device used by the Johnston family.
Jonson's father lost his property, was imprisoned, suffered forfeiture under Queen Mary. Jonson's mother married a master bricklayer two years later. Jonson attended school in St Martin's Lane. A family friend paid for his studies at Westminster School, where the antiquarian, historian and officer of arms, William Camden was one of his masters. In the event, the pupil and the master became friends, the intellectual influence of Camden's broad-ranging scholarship upon Jonson's art and literary style remained notable, until Camden's death in 1623. On leaving Westminster School, Jonson was to have attended the University of Cambridge, to continue his book learning but did not, because of his unwilled apprenticeship to his bricklayer stepfather. According to the churchman and historian Thomas Fuller, Jonson at this time built a garden wall in Lincoln's Inn. After having been an apprentice bricklayer, Ben Jonson went to the Netherlands and volunteered to soldier with the English regiments of Francis Vere in Flanders.
The Hawthornden Manuscripts, of the conversations between Ben Jonson and the poet William Drummond of Hawthornden, report that, when in Flanders, Jonson engaged and killed an enemy soldier in single combat, took for trophies the weapons of the vanquished soldier. After his military activity on the Continent, Jonson returned to England and worked as an actor and as a playwright; as an actor, Jonson was the protagonist “Hieronimo” in the play The Spanish Tragedy, by Thomas Kyd, the first revenge tragedy in English literature. Moreover, by 1597, he was a working playwright employed by Philip Henslowe, the leading producer for the English public theatre. Regarding his marriage Jonson described his wife to William Drummond as "a shrew, yet honest"; the identity of Jonson's wife has always been obscure, yet she sometimes is identified as "Ann Lewis", the woman who married a Benjamin Jonson in 1594, at the church of St Magnus-the-Martyr, near London Bridge. Concerning the family of Anne Lewis and Ben Jonson, the St. Martin's Church registers indicate that Mary Jonson, their eldest daughter, died in November 1593, at six months of age.
A decade in 1603, Benjamin Jonson, their eldest son, died of Bubonic plague when he was seven years old. Moreover, 32 years a second son named Benjamin Jonson, died in 1635. In that period, Ann Lewis and Ben Jonson lived separate lives for five years. By summer 1597, Jonson had a fixed engagement in the Admiral's Men performing under Philip Henslowe's management at The Rose. John Aubrey reports, on uncertain authority. By this time Jonson had begun to write original plays for the Admiral's Men. None of his early tragedies survive, however. An undated comedy, may be his earliest surviving play. In 1597 a play which he co-wrote with Thomas Nashe, The Isle of Dogs, was suppressed after causing great offence. Arrest warrants for Jonson and Nashe were issued by Queen Elizabeth I's so-called interrogator, Richard Topcliffe. Jonson was jailed in Marshalsea Prison and charged with "Leude and mutynous behaviour", while Nashe managed to escape to Great Yarmouth. Two of the actors, Gabriel Spenser and Robert Shaw, were imprisoned.
A year Jonson was again imprisoned, this time in Newgate Prison, for killing Gabriel Spenser in a duel on 22 September 1598 in Hogsden Fields. Tried on a charge of manslaughter, Jonson pleaded guilty but was released by benefit of clergy, a legal ploy through which he gained leniency by reciting a brief bible verse, forfeiting his'goods and chattels' and being branded on his left thumb. While in jail Jonson converted to Catholicism through the influence of fellow-prisoner Father Thomas Wright, a Jesuit priest. In 1598 Jons
In theatre, a thrust stage is one that extends into the audience on three sides and is connected to the backstage area by its upstage end. A thrust has the benefit of greater intimacy between performers and the audience than a proscenium, while retaining the utility of a backstage area. Entrances onto a thrust are most made from backstage, although some theatres provide for performers to enter through the audience using vomitory entrances. A theatre in the round, exposed on all sides to the audience, is without a backstage and relies on entrances in the auditorium or from under the stage; as with an arena, the audience in a thrust stage theatre may view the stage from three or more sides. Because the audience can view the performance from a variety of perspectives, it is usual for the blocking and scenery to receive thorough consideration to ensure that no perspective is blocked from view. A high backed chair, for instance, when placed stage right, could create a blind spot in the stage left action.
The thrust stage is the earliest stage type in western theatre, first appearing in Greek theatres, its arrangement was continued by the pageant wagon. As pageant wagons evolved into Elizabethan theatre, many of that era's works, including those of Shakespeare, were performed on theatre with an open thrust stage, such as those of the Globe Theatre; the thrust stage concept was out of use for centuries, was resurrected in 1953 by the Stratford Shakespeare Festival of Canada. Their Festival Theatre was under a tent, until a permanent thrust stage theatre facility was constructed in 1957. Since that time dozens of other thrust stage venues have been built using the concept. Prairie Theatre Exchange in Winnipeg, Manitoba The Maclab Theatre at the Citadel Theatre in Edmonton, Alberta The Festival Theatre at the Atlantic Theatre Festival in Wolfville, Nova Scotia The Festival Theatre at the Stratford Shakespeare Festival in Stratford, Ontario The Studio-théâtre at Place des Arts, Quebec The UFV Theatre at the University of the Fraser Valley in Chilliwack, British Columbia The BMO Mainstage at Bard on the Beach in Vancouver, British Columbia The Chief Dan George Theatre at the University of Victoria in Victoria, British Columbia A Noise Within in Pasadena, CA The ANTA Washington Square Theatre in Greenwich Village, New York The Octagon Stage at the Alabama Shakespeare Festival in Montgomery, Alabama The Mark Taper Forum in Los Angeles, CA The Berkeley Repertory Theatre in Berkeley, CA The SLO Repertory Theatre in San Luis Obispo, CA The PCPA Marian Theatre in Santa Maria, CA The PCPA Solvang Festival Theatre in Solvang, CA The John W. Huntington Theatre at Hartford Stage in Hartford, Connecticut The La Nouba stage in Downtown Disney in Florida The Alhambra Dinner Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida The Gateway Theatre in Chicago The Chicago Shakespeare Theatre in Chicago The Ethel M. Barber Theater at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois The Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis The Greenbelt Arts Center in Greenbelt, Maryland The Court Street Theatre in Nashua, New Hampshire The Seacoast Repertory Theatre in Portsmouth, New Hampshire The Crossroads Theater in New Brunswick, New Jersey The George Street Playhouse in New Brunswick, New Jersey The Circle in the Square Theatre, New York City The Vivian Beaumont Theater at Lincoln Center, New York The Mystère theater in the Treasure Island hotel in Paradise, Nevada The Carolina Actors Studio Theatre in Charlotte, North Carolina The Paul Green Theatre at PlayMakers Repertory Company in Chapel Hill, North Carolina The O'Reilly Theater in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania The Kleberg Stage at the Zach Theatre in Austin, Texas The Blackfriars Playhouse at the American Shakespeare Center in Staunton, Virginia The Playhouse at the Overture Center for the Arts in Madison, Wisconsin The American Players Theatre in Spring Green, Wisconsin ArtsWest Playhouse and Gallery in Seattle, Washington The Todd Wehr Theater at the Marcus Center for the Performing Arts in Milwaukee, Wisconsin The Barksdale Theatre at the Shops at Willow Lawn in Richmond, Virginia The Lowell Davies Festival Theatre at the Old Globe in San Diego, California Centre Stage-South Carolina in Greenville, South Carolina Theatre Suburbia in Houston, Texas Playcrafters Barn Theatre in Moline, Illinois Shanklin Theatre, University of Evansville, Indiana Shea's 710 Theatre, New York Waldbühne, Berlin Numerous Greek theatres, such as the one in Epidaurus The Questors Theatre, Ealing The Crucible Theatre in Sheffield, England The Gulbenkian Theatre in Canterbury, England The Globe Theatre in London, England.
All other Elizabethan Theatres were in the same style. The Olivier Theatre in the National Theatre, London The Everyman Theatre in Liverpool, England The Chichester Festival Theatre. Notable for the fact that the stage is hexagonal, is surrounded by the audience on three sides; the Swan Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon, England The Courtyard Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon, England Elmbank Studios, Ayr The Quarry Theatre at the West Yorkshire Playhouse, Leeds The Riverside Theatre in Coleraine, Northern Ireland Prithvi Theatre, Mumbai Ranga Shankara, Bangalore Jagriti Theatre, Bangalore Bhartendu Natya Academy, Uttar Pradesh The York Theatre, part of the Seymour Centre, Sydney George Jenkins Theatre in Frankston, Victoria "RSC Transformation: The thrust stage". Archived from the original on August 9, 2013. "Stage Types - Thrust". Theatre Design. Mystère theatre diagram Diagram of Cirque du Soleil's Mystère theatre Thrust stage diagram
Long View of London from Bankside
Long View of London from Bankside is a panoramic etching made by Wenceslas Hollar in Antwerp in 1647. It depicts a panorama of London, based on drawings done while Hollar was in London in the early 1640s. Unlike earlier panoramas of London, Hollar's panorama takes a single viewpoint, the tower of St Saviour in Southwark, from where he made the drawings, it shows the River Thames curving sinuously from left to right past the viewpoint. Hollar was born in Prague. After spending time in Stuttgart and Cologne, he travelled with Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel to Vienna and Prague and accompanied Lord Arundel when he returned to England in 1627. Hollar created a 3 feet long "View of Greenwich" in his first year in England, a similar panoramic drawing in two parts has survived from 1638, he remained in the Earl's household in England for several years. Lord Arundel was a recusant Roman Catholic. Hollar passed into the service of the Duke of York, but Hollar left London himself in 1644 to escape the English Civil War.
After eight years in Antwerp, he returned to London in 1652, where he died in 1677. The work was etched on six plates, with the two ends printed from a single plate so the impression must be cut in half to assemble the full panorama; each print measures about 18 inches by 15 inches, so the assembled work is about 9 feet long. The prints were published by Cornelis Danckerts; the panorama includes, from left to right, on the north bank, on the first plate, the Palace of Whitehall, Scotland Yard, Suffolk House, York House, Durham House. On the south bank are the Bankside theatres the Globe and Hope, Winchester House, St Olave's; each large sheet frames a particular view: the Bankside theatres, St Paul's Cathedral, the City and Southwark, the Bridge, the Tower. Downstream of London Bridge, the Pool of London throngs filled with a variety of ocean-going vessels; the view is not accurate, with some alignments adjusted for aesthetic effect. For example, St Paul's Cathedral is depicted too far west, St Olave's in line with the Tower.
Hollar's dependence on old drawings is demonstrated by the presence of the Globe Theatre in a print made three years after it was demolished. Copying an error in the 1616 Visscher panorama, the round theatre labelled "The Globe" is the Hope); the Swan and the Rose theatres had fallen into disuse by the 1630s. Various decorative elements are arranged around the scene. To the lower left of the first plate is a symbolic figure representing the law above a dedication to Mary, daughter of the Duke of York and wife of William of Orange, the future Queen Mary II, a poem to "Nympha Britannorum", with an inset panel denoted with an asterisk continuing the panorama to the left past Westminster Hall and Westminster Abbey; the second plate has three cherubs in the sky with a pile of books, one bearing aloft a caduceus. Above St Paul's in the third plate is a figure of Mercury in Roman costume, with winged boots and hat, holding a caduceus; the central fourth plate has a large decorative cartouche with the word "LONDON" with the arms of the City of London and lion supporters.
A winged figure Fame, blows a trumpet at the top of the fifth plate. The sixth plate has three more cherubs, carrying a chain, a crown, a jewel chest, a bird; the seventh plate has a river god above a 34 line Latin poem by Edward Benlowes, with another cherub in the sky above, dressed as an American Indian and leading with an ostrich. Hollar's panorama was preceded by the Visscher panorama of 1616, which straightens out the river so buildings on each bank are displayed in a line, John Norden's Civitas Londini of 1600, both of which are composite drawings made from a variety of different viewpoints. Hollar published another panorama of London and Westminster in 1666, showing views of the city from Lambeth "before" and "after" Great Fire of London. Two of Hollar's preliminary sketches were sold at Sotheby's in 1931, are now held by the Yale Center for British Art. A 1661 reprint by Justus Danckerts has a few changes, with a maypole in Covent Garden, a dome for St Paul's, the Monument. An copied lithograph was printed by Robert Martin in 1832.
A Descriptive Catalogue of the Etched Work of Wenceslaus Hollar 1607-1677, Richard Pennington], p. 175-6 "A New Hollar Panorama of London", John Orrell, The Burlington Magazine, Vol. 124, No. 953, pp. 498–499 and 501-502 Lithographed copy of Wenceslaus Hollar's 1647 Long View of London, by Robert Martin, 1832, Museum of London The Prospect of London and Westminster taken from Lambeth by W Hollar, c.1647, British Museum London, British Museum Sheet 1 and 7, 1864,0813.331, British Museum Sheet 2, 1864,0611.434 British Museum Sheet 3, 1864,0611.435