Hollywood High School
In September 1903, a two-room school was opened on the second floor of an empty storeroom at the Masonic Temple on Highland Avenue, north of Hollywood Boulevard. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in November 1903, the Hollywood High Organ Opus 481 was a gift from the class of 1924. After suffering severe damage from the Northridge earthquake in 1994. The campus was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on January 4,2012, the schools mascot was derived from the 1921 Rudolph Valentino film of the same name, The Sheik. In the 2015-2016 Fall Football Season the boys Varsity football team played in the schools 3rd championship game led by head coach Frank Galvan and they finished the season with a 12-2 overal record. Hollywood High has been the location for movies, television shows. Tony Hawks American Wasteland Grease In 2002, artist Eloy Torrez painted a mural of 13 famous entertainers, titled Portrait of Hollywood, across the entire east wall of the schools auditorium. In 2007, Torrez added a 50-foot tall mural of John Ritter, all but four of the entertainers, Lee and Valentino, were students at Hollywood High School.
The artist said the mural is a celebration of a diverse range of actors and entertainers. Hollywood High School is an excellent school for teenagers to find their calling, known for preparing its graduates for careers in teaching and the performing arts, it has become a diverse and well-rounded school. Students have many opportunities in different fields of study, Hollywood High School offers four academies to its students, each of them with a different purpose. Teaching Career Academy Hollywood High school offers a Teaching Career Academy to students who seek to work with children as a career, potential careers range from becoming a teacher to being a social worker. In order to give a student an experience, the school works with other elementary schools to allow elementary students to receive tutoring by Hollywood High School students. Performing Arts Magnet For students seeking an entertainment career, Performing Arts Magnet is the best choice and this academy helps students develop their talents and personalities to become performing artist.
The academy focuses on training students to develop their skills of actors, New Media Technology If students prefer to go into the filmmaking industry, this academy offers the best opportunities. The New Media Technology academy helps students build their knowledge of technology and they are afforded hands-on experience with equipment usually found inside a film studio. The software used is the newest on the market and this academy provides internships to permit graduates to immediately start working in that field. School for Advanced Studies This academy does not focus on a specific career, If a student likes to be challenged, this academy offers classes that are at the same level of difficulty as a college class
Gloria Graham is an American artist based in New Mexico. Her work includes sculpture and photography, Graham received a Bachelor of Fine Arts from Baylor University in Waco and attended the University of California in Berkeley, as well as the University of Wisconsin in Madison. She studied sculpture in Paris and she began her artistic career in 1975 with a series of ceramic artifacts and later, in the mid 80s onward, creating works on canvas and wooden panels. Collector Panza di Biumo has written, Gloria Grahams work is inspired to a spiritual research and she has done large works of a similar nature by drawing the molecular structure of things such as salt and quartz on walls. Though best known for her paintings, Graham has worked in other media and her earlier work was mostly pottery, cylindrical shapes and round objects. Graham has stated however that when she first began using kaolin, other materials she has used include aluminum, transparent paper, and graphite. In her Famine Series, the flags of eight African countries were painted on used damask napkins, a comment on our relationship to the fed and to the hungry
Along with Londons West End theatres, Broadway theatres are widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. The Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City, the great majority of Broadway shows are musicals. They presented Shakespeare plays and ballad operas such as The Beggars Opera, in 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager. They established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice, the company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida. The Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the Bowery Theatre opened in 1826, followed by others. Blackface minstrel shows, a distinctly American form of entertainment, became popular in the 1830s, by the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in lower Manhattan.
In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblos Garden opened, the 3, 000-seat theatre presented all sorts of musical and non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmos Opera House opened and presented opera for four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burtons Theatre. The Astor Opera House opened in 1847, booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, and would revive the role at his own Booths Theatre. Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, lydia Thompson came to America in 1868 heading a small theatrical troupe, adapting popular English burlesques for middle-class New York audiences. Thompsons troupe called the British Blondes, was the most popular entertainment in New York during the 1868–1869 theatrical season, the six-month tour ran for almost six extremely profitable years. Theatre in New York moved from downtown gradually to midtown beginning around 1850, in 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, and by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square.
Broadways first long-run musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857, New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keenes musical burletta The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keenes troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, the production was a staggering five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a musical comedy, Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of repute who had starred in earlier musical forms. Plays could run longer and still draw in the audiences, leading to better profits, as in England, during the latter half of the century, the theatre began to be cleaned up, with less prostitution hindering the attendance of the theatre by women
The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the Academy Award of Merit, which has become commonly known by its nickname Oscar. The awards, first presented in 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, are overseen by AMPAS, the awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now live in more than 200 countries and can be streamed live online. The Academy Awards ceremony is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony and its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music and recording – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 89th Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2016, were held on February 26,2017, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, the ceremony was hosted by Jimmy Kimmel and was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,048 Oscars have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 88th, the first Academy Awards presentation was held on May 16,1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people.
The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel, the cost of guest tickets for that nights ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the industry of the time. The ceremony ran for 15 minutes, winners were announced to media three months earlier, that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since then, for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11,00 pm on the night of the awards. The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and he had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier, this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, for the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on March 27,1957, until then, foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies always end with the Academy Award for Best Picture.
The Academy awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting, see § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. The five spokes represent the branches of the Academy, Writers, Producers. The model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio El Indio Fernández, sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons design. The statuettes presented at the ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze
Howard Robard Hughes Jr. was an American businessman, pilot, film director, and philanthropist, known during his lifetime as one of the most financially successful individuals in the world. He first made a name for himself as a film producer, in life, he became known for his eccentric behavior and reclusive lifestyle, oddities that were caused in part by a worsening obsessive–compulsive disorder and chronic pain from a plane crash. As a maverick film tycoon, Hughes gained prominence in Hollywood beginning in the late 1920s, when he made big-budget and often controversial films like The Racket, Hells Angels, he controlled the RKO film studio. Hughes formed the Hughes Aircraft Company in 1932, hiring numerous engineers and designers and he spent the rest of the 1930s setting multiple world air speed records and building the Hughes H-1 Racer and H-4 Hercules. He acquired and expanded Trans World Airlines and acquired Air West, Hughes was included in Flying Magazines list of the 51 Heroes of Aviation, ranked at No.25.
Today, his legacy is maintained through the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the birthplace of Howard Hughes is recorded as either Humble or Houston, Texas. The date remains uncertain due to conflicting dates from various sources and he repeatedly claimed that his birthday was on Christmas Eve. A1941 affidavit birth certificate of Hughes that was signed by his aunt Annette Gano Lummis and Estelle Boughton Sharp states that he was born on December 24,1905, in Harris County, Texas. Hughes was the son of Allene Stone Gano and Howard R. Hughes Sr. a successful inventor and he was of English, and some French Huguenot and was a descendant of John Gano, a minister who allegedly baptized George Washington. His father had patented the two-cone roller bit, which allowed rotary drilling for petroleum in previously inaccessible places, the senior Hughes made the shrewd and lucrative decision to commercialize the invention by leasing the bits instead of selling them, and founded the Hughes Tool Company in 1909.
Hughes uncle was the famed novelist and film director Rupert Hughes, at a young age, Hughes demonstrated interest in science and technology. In particular, he had great engineering aptitude and built Houstons first wireless radio transmitter at age 11 and he went on to be one of the first licensed ham radio operators in Houston, having the assigned callsign W5CY. At 12, Hughes was photographed in the newspaper, identified as being the first boy in Houston to have a motorized bicycle. He was an indifferent student, with a liking for mathematics, flying and he took his first flying lesson at 14, and attended math and aeronautical engineering courses at Caltech. The red brick house where Hughes lived as a teenager at 3921 Yoakum St. Houston today serves as the headquarters of the Theology Department of the University of St. Thomas and his mother Allene died in March 1922 from complications of an ectopic pregnancy. Howard Hughes Sr. died of an attack in 1924. Their deaths apparently inspired Hughes to include the creation of a research laboratory in the will that he signed in 1925 at age 19.
Howard Sr. s will had not been updated since Allenes death, on his 19th birthday, Hughes was declared an emancipated minor, enabling him to take full control of his life
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Friedrich Christian Anton Fritz Lang was an Austrian-German filmmaker and occasional film producer and actor. One of the best-known émigrés from Germanys school of Expressionism, he was dubbed the Master of Darkness by the British Film Institute. His most famous include the groundbreaking futuristic Metropolis and the influential M. Lang was born in Vienna as the son of Anton Lang, an architect and construction company manager. He was baptized on December 28,1890, at the Schottenkirche in Vienna, Langs parents were of Moravian descent and practicing Roman Catholics. His parents took their religion seriously and were dedicated to raising Fritz as a Catholic, Lang frequently had Catholic-influenced themes in his films. Late in life, he described himself as born Catholic, after finishing school, Lang briefly attended the Technical University of Vienna, where he studied civil engineering and eventually switched to art. In 1910 he left Vienna to see the world, traveling throughout Europe and Africa and Asia, in 1913, he studied painting in Paris, France.
At the outbreak of World War I, Lang returned to Vienna and volunteered for service in the Austrian army and fought in Russia and Romania. While recovering from his injuries and shell shock in 1916, he wrote some scenarios, Langs writing stint was brief, as he soon started to work as a director at the German film studio Ufa, and Nero-Film, just as the Expressionist movement was building. In 1920, he met his wife, the writer. Considered by many scholars to be his masterpiece, M is a disturbing story of a child murderer who is hunted down. M remains a work, it was remade in 1951 by Joseph Losey, but this version had little impact on audiences. During the climactic scene in M, Lang allegedly threw Peter Lorre down a flight of stairs in order to give more authenticity to Lorres battered look. Lang, who was known for being hard to work with, epitomized the stereotype of the tyrannical German film director and his wearing a monocle added to the stereotype. At the end of 1932, Lang started filming The Testament of Dr.
Mabuse, adolf Hitler came to power in January 1933, and by March 30, the new regime banned it as an incitement to public disorder. Testament is sometimes deemed an anti-Nazi film as Lang had put phrases used by the Nazis into the mouth of the title character. Lang had stated that it was during this meeting that he had decided to leave for Paris –, Lang has stated that he fled that very evening
An architect is someone who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. The terms architect and architecture are used in the disciplines of landscape architecture, naval architecture. In most jurisdictions, the professional and commercial uses of the terms architect, throughout ancient and medieval history, most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Until modern times, there was no distinction between architect and engineer. In Europe, the architect and engineer were primarily geographical variations that referred to the same person. It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the gentleman architect. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century, pencils were used more often for drawing by 1600.
The availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals, until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only qualified people with appropriate license, certification, or registration with a relevant body, such licensure usually requires an accredited university degree, successful completion of exams, and a training period. To practice architecture implies the ability to independently of supervision. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses, in the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, and an understanding of business are as important as design. However, design is the force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client, the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them.
The architect participates in developing the requirements the client wants in the building, throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, the architect hired by a client is responsible for creating a design concept that meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. In that, the architect must meet with and question the client to ascertain all the requirements, often the full brief is not entirely clear at the beginning, entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make proposals to the client which may rework the terms of the brief
Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L. A. is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California. With a census-estimated 2015 population of 3,971,883, it is the second-most populous city in the United States, Los Angeles is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States. The citys inhabitants are referred to as Angelenos, historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California. The city was founded on September 4,1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence, in 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4,1850, the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city.
The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California, nicknamed the City of Angels, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, and sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles has an economy in culture, fashion, sports, education, medicine. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index, the city is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields, and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States. The Los Angeles combined statistical area has a gross metropolitan product of $831 billion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Greater Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. The city has hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1932 and 1984 and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics and thus become the second city after London to have hosted the Games three times. The Los Angeles area hosted the 1994 FIFA mens World Cup final match as well as the 1999 FIFA womens World Cup final match, the mens event was watched on television by over 700 million people worldwide.
The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva, a Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning poison oak place. Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2,1769, in 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary, two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African and European ancestry. The settlement remained a small town for decades, but by 1820. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, during Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta Californias regional capital
Born Yesterday (1950 film)
Born Yesterday is a 1950 American comedy-drama film directed by George Cukor. The screenplay was credited to Albert Mannheimer based on the play of the same name by Garson Kanin. Because of some legal entanglements, Kanin did not receive screen credit and he hires a journalist to educate Billie, and, in the process, she learns just how deep Harrys corruption goes. According to Cohn biographer Bob Thomas, Cohn knew of the connection but was not bothered by it, in 2012 this film was deemed culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry. Uncouth tycoon Harry Brock goes to Washington, D. C. with his girlfriend, Emma Billie Dawn. The lawyer presses Harry to marry Billie on the grounds that a wife cannot be forced to testify against her husband, Harry becomes disgusted with Billies ignorance and lack of manners. He hires a tutor for her—journalist Paul Verrall, blossoming under Pauls encouragement and her own hard work, Billie learns about literature, history and the law, and turns out to be much smarter than anybody knew.
She begins to think for herself and apply her reading and learning to her life situation, the two begin to fall in love. Meanwhile, Devery has persuaded Harry to sign many of his assets to Billie to hide them from the government. When Harry needs to get back, he comes into conflict with Billies new-found independence. She and Paul use her leverage to escape from Harrys domination and she promises to give him back his property little by little as long as he leaves them alone. The film was nominated for five Academy Awards, with Judy Holliday winning the Academy Award for Best Actress, the other nominations were for Best Costume Design - Black-and-White, Best Director, Best Picture and Best Writing - Screenplay. Holliday won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture Actress - Musical or Comedy, the film received Golden Globe nominations for Best Motion Picture - Drama, and Best Motion Picture Director. The film was nominated for the Venice Film Festival Golden Lion Award, in addition, Holliday received a Jussi Award, the primary film award in Finland for Best Foreign Actress.
The magazine admired Hollidays performance and spoke of her in the breath as Carole Lombard. The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists,2000,100 Laughs – #242005, AFIs 100 Years.100 Movie Quotes, Billie Dawn, Wouldja do me a favor, Harry. – Nominated 2008, AFIs 10 Top 10, Nominated Romantic Comedy Film A new version of Born Yesterday was released in 1993, starring Melanie Griffith, Don Johnson and John Goodman. In the Stage 5 episode of The Sopranos, J. T. cites this film as the inspiration for the mob boss character in the film Cleaver
It's a Wonderful Life
The film is now among the most popular in American cinema and because of numerous television showings in the 1980s has become traditional viewing during the Christmas season. Clarence shows George all the lives he has touched and how different life in his community of Bedford Falls would be had he never been born. Despite initially performing poorly financially because of production costs and stiff competition at the time of its release. Theatrically, the films break-even point was $6.3 million, approximately twice the production cost, an appraisal in 2006 reported, Although it was not the complete box office failure that today everyone believes. Its a Wonderful Life is one of the most acclaimed films ever made, Capra revealed that the film was his personal favorite among those he directed, adding that he screened it for his family every Christmas season. On Christmas Eve 1945, in Bedford Falls, New York, prayers for him reach Heaven, where Clarence Odbody, Angel 2nd Class, is assigned to save George in order to earn his angel wings.
To prepare, Clarence is shown flashbacks of Georges life, the first is in 1919, when 12-year-old George saves his younger brother Harry, who falls through the ice on a frozen pond, from drowning, George loses his hearing in one ear as a result. On Harrys graduation night in 1928, George talks to Mary Hatch and they are interrupted by news of his fathers death. George postpones his plans in order to sort out the family business, Bailey Brothers Building and Loan, a longtime competitor to Henry F. Potter, the local banker. Potter wishes to dissolve the Building and Loan to take over its business, George convinces the board of directors to vote against Potter. They agree, on condition that George runs the business, along with his absent-minded uncle Billy, on their way to their honeymoon, they witness a run on the bank and use their honeymoon savings to lend financial support at the Building and Loan until the bank reopens. Potter, frustrated at losing control of the market, attempts to lure George into becoming his assistant, George is momentarily tempted.
During World War II, George is ineligible for service because of his bad ear, Harry becomes a Navy pilot and shoots down a kamikaze plane that would have bombed an amphibious transport, he is awarded the Medal of Honor. On Christmas Eve morning 1945, the town prepares a welcome for Harry. Uncle Billy goes to Potters bank to deposit $8,000 for the Building, upon seeing the money, Potter realizes the potential scandal could lead to the Building and Loans downfall. Potter hides the money, knowing its loss will cause severe problems for the Building. When Uncle Billy cannot find the money, he and George frantically search for it, when the bank examiner arrives to review their records, George berates his uncle for endangering the Building and Loan, goes home and takes out his frustration on his family. He apologizes to his wife and children, George desperately appeals to Potter for a loan
Film noir is a cinematic term used primarily to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas, particularly such that emphasize cynical attitudes and sexual motivations. Hollywoods classical film noir period is regarded as extending from the early 1940s to the late 1950s. Film noir of this era is associated with a low-key black-and-white visual style that has roots in German Expressionist cinematography. Many of the stories and much of the attitude of classic noir derive from the hardboiled school of crime fiction that emerged in the United States during the Great Depression. Cinema historians and critics defined the category retrospectively, before the notion was widely adopted in the 1970s, many of the classic films noir were referred to as melodramas. Whether film noir qualifies as a genre is a matter of ongoing debate among scholars. Although film noir was originally associated with American productions, films now so described have been made around the world, many pictures released from the 1960s onward share attributes with film noir of the classical period, and often treat its conventions self-referentially.
Some refer to such works as neo-noir. The clichés of film noir have inspired parody since the mid-1940s, the questions of what defines film noir, and what sort of category it is, provoke continuing debate. They emphasize that not every film noir embodies all five attributes in equal measure—one might be more dreamlike, while many critics refer to film noir as a genre itself, others argue that it can be no such thing. Because of the diversity of noir, certain scholars in the field, such as film historian Thomas Schatz, treat it as not a genre but a style. Other critics treat film noir as a mood, characterize it as a series, there is no consensus on the matter. By 1931, Curtiz had already been in Hollywood for half a decade, the Universal horror that comes closest to noir, in story and sensibility is The Invisible Man, directed by Englishman James Whale and photographed by American Arthur Edeson. Edeson photographed The Maltese Falcon, widely regarded as the first major film noir of the classic era, josef von Sternberg was directing in Hollywood at the same time.
Films of his such as Shanghai Express and The Devil Is a Woman, with their hothouse eroticism and baroque visual style, the commercial and critical success of Sternbergs silent Underworld was largely responsible for spurring a trend of Hollywood gangster films. Successful films in that such as Little Caesar, The Public Enemy. An important, possibly influential, cinematic antecedent to classic noir was 1930s French poetic realism, with its romantic, fatalistic attitude, the movements sensibility is mirrored in the Warner Bros. drama I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang, a forerunner of noir. Among films not considered films noir, perhaps none had an effect on the development of the genre than Citizen Kane