Glottal stop

The glottal stop or glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more the glottis. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʔ⟩; as a result of the obstruction of the airflow in the glottis, the glottal vibration either stops or becomes irregular with a low rate and sudden drop in intensity. Features of the glottal stop: Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked and the consonant is a stop, its phonation is voiceless. It is an oral consonant; because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central–lateral dichotomy does not apply. The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds. In the traditional Romanization of many languages, such as Arabic, the glottal stop is transcribed with an apostrophe, ⟨’⟩, the source of the IPA character ⟨ʔ⟩.

In many Polynesian languages that use the Latin alphabet, the glottal stop is written with a reversed apostrophe, ⟨ʻ⟩, used to transcribe the Arabic ayin as well and is the source of the IPA character for the voiced pharyngeal fricative ⟨ʕ⟩. In Malay the glottal stop is represented by the letter ⟨k⟩, in Võro and Maltese by ⟨q⟩. Other scripts have letters used for representing the glottal stop, such as the Hebrew letter aleph ⟨א⟩ and the Cyrillic letter palochka ⟨Ӏ⟩, used in several Caucasian languages. Modern Latin alphabets for various Indigenous Languages of the Caucasus use the letter heng. In Tundra Nenets, it is represented by the letters apostrophe ⟨ʼ⟩ and double apostrophe ⟨ˮ⟩. In Japanese, glottal stops occur at the end of interjections of surprise or anger and are represented by the character ⟨っ⟩. In the graphic representation of most Philippine languages, the glottal stop has no consistent symbolization. In most cases, however, a word that begins with a vowel-letter is always pronounced with an unrepresented glottal stop before that vowel.

Some orthographies use a hyphen instead of the reverse apostrophe if the glottal stop occurs in the middle of the word. If it occurs in the end of a Tagalog word, the last vowel is written with a circumflex accent if both a stress and a glottal stop occur in the final vowel or a grave accent if the glottal stop occurs at the final vowel, but the stress occurs at the penultimate syllable; some Canadian indigenous languages some of the Salishan languages, have adopted the phonetic symbol ʔ itself as part of their orthographies. In some of them, it occurs as a pair of uppercase and lowercase characters, Ɂ and ɂ; the numeral 7 is preferred in some languages such as Squamish. In 2015, two women in the Northwest Territories challenged the territorial government over its refusal to permit them to use the ʔ character in their daughters' names: Sahaiʔa, a Chipewyan name, Sakaeʔah, a Slavey name; the territory argued that territorial and federal identity documents were unable to accommodate the character.

The women registered the names with hyphens instead of the ʔ, while continuing to challenge the policy. Use of the glottal stop is a distinct characteristic of the Southern Mainland Argyll dialects of Scottish Gaelic. In such a dialect, the standard Gaelic phrase Tha Gàidhlig agam, would be rendered Tha Gàidhlig a'am. In English, the glottal stop occurs as an open allophonically in t-glottalization. In British English, the glottal stop is most familiar in the Cockney pronunciation of "butter" as "bu'er". Additionally, there is the glottal stop as a null onset for English, in other words, it is the non-phonemic glottal stop occurring before isolated or initial vowels. A glottal stop happens at the beginning of vowel phonation after a silence. Although this segment is not a phoneme in English, it occurs phonetically in nearly all dialects of English, as an allophone of /t/ in the syllable coda. Speakers of Cockney, Scottish English and several other British dialects pronounce an intervocalic /t/ between vowels as in city.

In Received Pronunciation, a glottal stop is inserted before a tautosyllabic voiceless stop: sto’p, tha’t, kno’ck, wa’tch lea’p, soa’k, hel’p, pin’ch. In many languages that do not allow a sequence of vowels, such as Persian, the glottal stop may be used to break up such a hiatus. There are intricate interactions between falling tone and the glottal stop in the histories of such languages as Danish and Thai. In many languages, the unstressed intervocalic allophone of the glottal stop is a creaky-voiced glottal approximant, it is known to be contrastive in only one language, Gimi, in which it is the voiced equivalent of the stop. The table below demonstrates how the sound of glottal stop is found among the world's spoken languages, it is not intended to be a complete list. Any of these languages may have varieties not represented in the table. Saltillo Index of phonetics articles List of languages with on PHOIBLE

UEFA Super Cup

The UEFA Super Cup is an annual super cup football match organised by UEFA and contested by the reigning champions of the two main European club competitions, the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League. It is not recognised as one of UEFA's'major' competitions. From 1972 to 1999, the UEFA Super Cup was contested between the winners of the European Cup/UEFA Champions League and the winners of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup. After the discontinuation of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, it has been contested by the winners of the UEFA Champions League and the winners of the UEFA Cup, renamed the UEFA Europa League in 2009; the current holders are Liverpool. The most successful teams in the competition are Barcelona and A. C. Milan, who have won the trophy five times each; the European Super Cup was created in 1971 by Anton Witkamp, a reporter and sports editor of Dutch newspaper De Telegraaf. The idea came to him in a time when Dutch total football was Europe's finest and Dutch football clubs were enjoying their golden era.

Witkamp was looking for something new to decide, the best team in Europe and to further test Ajax's legendary team, led by their star player Johan Cruyff. It was proposed that the winner of the European Cup would face the winner of the European Cup Winners' Cup. All was set for a new competition to be born. However, when Witkamp tried to get an official endorsement to his competition, the UEFA president turned it down; the 1972 final between Ajax and Scotland's Rangers is considered unofficial by UEFA, as Rangers were banned from European competition due to the behaviour of their fans during the 1972 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Final. As a result, UEFA refused to endorse the competition until the following season, it was financially supported by De Telegraaf. Ajax won the first European Super Cup; the 1973 final, in which Ajax defeated Milan 6–1 on aggregate, was the first Super Cup recognised and supported by UEFA. Although the two-legged format was kept until 1997, the Super Cup was decided in one single match because of schedule issues or political problems in 1984, 1986, 1991.

In 1974, 1981 and 1985, the Super Cup was not played at all: 1974's competition was abandoned because Bayern Munich and Magdeburg could not find a mutually convenient date, 1981's was abandoned when Liverpool could not make space to meet Dinamo Tbilisi, while 1985's was abandoned due to a ban on English clubs' participation preventing Everton from playing Juventus. In the 1992–1993 season, the European Cup was renamed the UEFA Champions League and the winners of this competition would face the winners of the Cup Winners' Cup in the European Super Cup. In the 1994–1995 season, the European Cup Winners' Cup was renamed the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup; the following season, the Super Cup renamed the UEFA Super Cup. After the 1998–1999 season, the Cup Winners' Cup was discontinued by UEFA; the 1999 Super Cup was the last one contested by the winners of the Cup Winners' Cup. Lazio, winners of the 1998–99 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, defeated Manchester United, winners of the 1998–99 UEFA Champions League, 1–0.

Since the UEFA Super Cup was contested between the winners of the UEFA Champions League and the winners of the UEFA Cup. The 2000 Super Cup was the first one contested by the winners of the UEFA Cup. Galatasaray, winners of the 1999–2000 UEFA Cup, defeated Real Madrid, winners of the 1999–2000 UEFA Champions League, 2–1. In the 2009–10 season, the UEFA Cup was renamed the UEFA Europa League and the winners of this competition would continue to face the winners of the Champions League in the UEFA Super Cup. Chelsea is the first club to contest the Super Cup as holders of all three UEFA club honours, having entered as holders of the Cup Winners' Cup, Champions League, Europa League. Manchester United shared this honour in 2017 after their Europa League win, having qualified as Cup Winners' Cup holders in 1991. After 15 consecutive Super Cups being played at Stade Louis II in Monaco between 1998 and 2012, the Super Cup is now played at various stadiums, it was started with the 2013 edition, played at Eden Stadium in Prague, Czech Republic.

Starting in 2014, the date of the UEFA Super Cup was moved from Friday in late August, to Tuesday in mid-August, following the removal of the August international friendly date in the new FIFA International Match Calendar. The competition was played over two legs, one at each participating club's stadium, except in exceptional circumstances. Since 1998, the Super Cup was played as a single match at a neutral venue. Between 1998 and 2012, the Super Cup was played at the Stade Louis II in Monaco. Since 2013 various stadiums have been used. 1998–2012: Stade Louis II, Monaco 2013: Eden Arena, Czech Republic 2014: Cardiff City Stadium, Wales 2015: Boris Paichadze Dinamo Arena, Georgia 2016: Lerkendal Stadion, Norway 2017: Philip II Arena, Macedonia 2018: A. Le Coq Arena, Estonia 2019: Vodafone Park, Turkey 2020: Estádio do Dragão, Portugal 2021: Windsor Park, Northern Ireland 2022: Olympic Stadium, Finland 2023: Ak Bars Arena, Russia The UEFA Super Cup trophy is retained by UEFA at all times. A full-size replica trophy is awarded to the winning club.

Forty gold medals are presented to the winning club and forty silver medals to the r

Great Coalition

The Great Coalition was a grand coalition of political parties that brought the two Canadas together in 1864. The previous collapse after only three months of a coalition government formed by George-Étienne Cartier and Conservative John A. Macdonald and liberal George Brown, had demonstrated that continued governance of Canada East and Canada West under the 1840 Act of Union had become untenable. In order to reform the political system, a coalition was formed between the Clear Grits under George Brown, the Parti bleu under George-Étienne Cartier, the Liberal-Conservatives under John A. Macdonald; the formation of this coalition took place between June 14 and June 30, 1864 and was completed on June 22, 1864 under George-Étienne Cartier and John A. Macdonald, as the colonies of the Canadas, was significant to Canadian Confederation in 1867; the coalition persisted by the government of the Province of Canada until the moment of Confederation. The Great Coalition was created to eradicate the political deadlock between Canada West and Canada East.

The government at that time was unable to pass any legislation because of the need for a double majority. In order for a bill to pass in the Legislative Assembly, there had to be a vote in both Canada East and Canada West sections of the assembly; as the French and the English could never agree on anything, this caused political deadlock. This coalition was intended to create resolution with long-term impacts in solving some of these problems and unify Canada; the deadlock led to three conferences. The first was the Charlottetown Conference, convened for the purpose of negotiating a Maritime union. However, the politicians began to discuss the possibility of a larger union that would include all of British North America; this continued at the Quebec Conference where they further discussed the union of British North America and defined the details of the government's shape. They settled on the division of provincial and federal responsibilities; the London Conference revised the Quebec Resolutions