Bonham Road is a main road in West Mid-Levels, Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong, running East-West. The road connects Pokfulam Road in the west, near the University of Hong Kong, Caine Road in the east, at the junction with Hospital Road and Seymour Road, it was named after the third Governor of Hong Kong. It was renamed Nishi-Taisho Dori during Japanese occupation of Hong Kong. Several historical buildings are located on the road, including Fung Ping Shan building, Hung Hing Ying building and the Main Building of The University of Hong Kong. There are a few well known schools located on the road, including King's College, St. Paul's College, Hong Kong, St. Stephen's Girls' College, St. Clare's Primary School, Bonham Road Government Primary School, Chinese Rhenish Church Hong Kong, there in the 19th century. Sai Ying Pun Community Complex MTR Sai Ying Pun Station St. Stephen's Girls' College King's College, Hong Kong University of Hong Kong St. Paul's College, Hong Kong St. Stephen's Church College Chinese Rhenish Church Hong Kong List of streets and roads in Hong Kong High Street, Hong Kong Bonham Strand Google Maps of Bonham Road http://www.rhenish-hk.org.hk/
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent
Route 4 (Hong Kong)
Route 4 is an east-west road artery along the Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. Divided into routes 7 and 8, it was absorbed into Route 4 in 2004; the current Route 4 could be divided into two sections: From Chai Wan the route travels west towards Central via Island Eastern Corridor, Victoria Park Road, Gloucester Road, Harcourt Road Flyover, to Connaught Road Central. The section from Victoria Park Road to Connaught Road Central would be replaced and bypassed by the new Central–Wan Chai Bypass planned to be open by January 20, 2019. Part two of the roadway extension, which took Route 4 from Connaught Road Central to Kennedy Town via the Connaught Road West Flyover, was completed in 1997; the areas covered by the route include Kennedy Town, Shek Tong Tsui, Sai Ying Pun, Sheung Wan, Wan Chai, Causeway Bay, Quarry Bay, Taikoo Shing, Shau Kei Wan, A Kung Ngam, Heng Fa Chuen and Chai Wan. The section of Route 4 from Kennedy Town to Aberdeen was included in the proposal when construction commenced, but this section has yet to be built.
Route map from Transport Department Hong Kong Guide 2004, HKSAR Government
Aberdeen Street is a border street dividing Sheung Wan and Central on Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. It ascends from Queen's Road Central to Caine Road in the Mid-levels; the street is named after George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, Foreign Secretary at the time of the cession of Hong Kong Island to the United Kingdom in 1842. In the early days after 1841, while Choong Wan was planned to be business centre of Victoria City and an area of Westener population, Chinese population was removed from Choong Wan to the area around Tai Ping Shan Street in Sheung Wan and Sheung Wan became the area of Chinese population. South of Hollywood Road was the Alice Memorial Hospital and the College of Medicine where Sun Yat-sen graduated with distinction in 1892. After the college was merged into the University of Hong Kong, the hospital was moved to Bonham Road and renamed to Nethersole Hospital. After reclamation of island north, Aberdeen Street was extended in the north by Wing Kut Street, a pedestrian lane which hosts a street market.
The following list follows a north-south order. Indicates the western side of the street, while indicates the eastern side. > Junction with Queen's Road Central This section is a ladder street > intersection with Wellington Street Lin Heung Tea House Located at 160–164 Wellington Street, at the corner with Aberdeen Street. The restaurant opened in 1928 and changed location several times before opening at its present location, it serves traditional Cantonese dishes for dinner. > junction with Kau U Fong Lan Kwai Fong Hotel Located at No. 3 Kau U Fong, at the corner with Aberdeen Street. Despite the name, it is not located at Lan Kwai Fong. > junction with Wa on Lane > junction with Gough Street > junction with Gage Street Original site of the school where Yang Quyun was assassinated by Qing agents in 1911. Located at No. 52 Gage Street, at the corner with Aberdeen Street. A marker, part of the Dr Sun Yat-sen Historical Trail is located in Aberdeen Street; the site is included in the Central and Western Heritage Trail.
> junction with Sam Ka Lane > intersection with Hollywood Road PMQ The compound occupies the block west of Aberdeen Street, between Hollywood Road and Staunton Street. It is located on the site of the former Central School; the school had been established in 1862 at Gough Street and moved to the Aberdeen Street location in 1889, while being renamed Victoria College. At that time, the school was one of the largest and most expensive buildings in Hong Kong, it was renamed Queen's College in 1894. The campus was destroyed during World War II, the school was subsequently relocated; the buildings at Aberdeen Street were demolished in 1948 and the Quarters were opened in 1951. They were vacated in 2000, it has been revitalised as a creative hub for local design talents in 2014. > intersection with Staunton Street Kwong Hon Terrace Garden Albron Court, at the corner with Caine Road The current building occupies the site of a former two-storey-mansion of the same name, built in the 1870s for H. N. Mody.
A gatepost of the mansion remains in front of the building on Caine Road. St. Margaret's Girls' College, at the corner with Caine Road > intersection with Caine Road List of streets and roads in Hong Kong An article about the street in Sing Pao Google Maps of Aberdeen Street Waters, Dan, "The Hungry Ghosts Festival in Aberdeen Street, Hong Kong", pp. 41–55, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong Branch, Vol. 44
Percival Street is a street in the East Point and Happy Valley, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. The street spans from Gloucester Road in the north to Leighton Road in the south. Between Hennessy Road and Leighton Road, the street is with a branch of Hong Kong Tramway leading to Happy Valley, it is estimated that on average the annual rent per square feet for retailing here is USD$2300 annually on average, second to USD$2500 in Fifth Avenue, United States. It is one of the major streets occupied during Occupy movement in 2014; the road was named after a 19th-century tai-pan of Jardine Matheson. The land of the present-day Times Square was a tram depot at Matheson Street. Trams returned to the depot via Russell Street. Another historical building was the Lee Theatre, it was demolished to build Lee Theatre Plaza shopping mall. Apart from Lee Theatre Plaza, two shopping centres Causeway Bay Plaza 1 and Causeway Bay Plaza 2 are located along the road. List of streets and roads in Hong Kong Street named after British officials