Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Glucose is a subcategory of carbohydrates. Glucose is made by plants and most algae during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight. There it is used to make cellulose in cell walls, the most abundant carbohydrate. In energy metabolism, glucose is the most important source of energy in all organisms. Glucose for metabolism is stored as a polymer, in plants as starch and amylopectin and in animals as glycogen. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar; the occurring form of glucose is d-glucose, while l-glucose is produced synthetically in comparatively small amounts and is of lesser importance. Glucose is a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group and is therefore referred to as an aldohexose; the glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain and ring form, the latter being the result of an intramolecular reaction between the aldehyde C atom and the C-5 hydroxyl group to form an intramolecular hemiacetal.

In water solution both forms are in equilibrium and at pH 7 the cyclic one is the predominant. Glucose is a primary source of energy for living organisms, it is occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. In animals glucose arises from the breakdown of glycogen in a process known as glycogenolysis. Glucose, as intravenous sugar solution, is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system; the name glucose derives through the French from the Greek γλυκός, which means "sweet," in reference to must, the sweet, first press of grapes in the making of wine. The suffix" - ose" is a chemical classifier. Glucose was first isolated from raisins in 1747 by the German chemist Andreas Marggraf. Glucose was discovered in grapes by Johann Tobias Lowitz in 1792 and recognized as different from cane sugar. Glucose is the term coined by Jean Baptiste Dumas in 1838, which has prevailed in the chemical literature.

Friedrich August Kekulé proposed the term dextrose, because in aqueous solution of glucose, the plane of linearly polarized light is turned to the right. In contrast, d-fructose and l-glucose turn linearly polarized light to the left; the earlier notation according to the rotation of the plane of linearly polarized light was abandoned in favor of the d- and l-notation, which refers to the absolute configuration of the asymmetric center farthest from the carbonyl group, in concordance with the configuration of d- or l-glyceraldehyde. Since glucose is a basic necessity of many organisms, a correct understanding of its chemical makeup and structure contributed to a general advancement in organic chemistry; this understanding occurred as a result of the investigations of Emil Fischer, a German chemist who received the 1902 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his findings. The synthesis of glucose established the structure of organic material and formed the first definitive validation of Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff's theories of chemical kinetics and the arrangements of chemical bonds in carbon-bearing molecules.

Between 1891 and 1894, Fischer established the stereochemical configuration of all the known sugars and predicted the possible isomers, applying van't Hoff's theory of asymmetrical carbon atoms. The names referred to the natural substances, their enantiomers were given the same name with the introduction of systematic nomenclatures, taking into account absolute stereochemistry. For the discovery of the metabolism of glucose Otto Meyerhof received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1922. Hans von Euler-Chelpin was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry along with Arthur Harden in 1929 for their "research on the fermentation of sugar and their share of enzymes in this process". In 1947, Bernardo Houssay as well as Carl and Gerty Cori received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. In 1970, Luis Leloir was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of glucose-derived sugar nucleotides in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates. With six carbon atoms, it is classed as a subcategory of the monosaccharides.

D-Glucose is one of the sixteen aldohexose stereoisomers. The d-isomer, d-glucose known as dextrose, occurs in nature, but the l-isomer, l-glucose, does not. Glucose can be obtained by hydrolysis of carbohydrates such as milk sugar, cane sugar, cellulose, etc, it is commercially manufactured from cornstarch by hydrolysis via pressurized steaming at controlled pH in a jet followed by further enzymatic depolymerization. Unbonded glucose is one of the main ingredients of honey. All forms of glucose are colorless and soluble in water, acetic acid, several other solvents, they are only sparingly soluble in ethanol. Glucose is a monosaccharide with formula C6H12O6 or H--5-H, whose five hydroxyl groups are arranged in a specific way along its six-carbon back. Glucose is present in solid form as a monohydrate with a closed pyran ring. In aqueous solution, on the other hand, it is an open-chain to a small extent and is present predominantly as α- or β-pyranose, which mutually merge by mutarotation. From aqueous solutions, the three known forms can be crystallized: α-glucopyranose, β-glucopyranose and β-glucopyranose hydr

The Pope Song

The Pope Song is a song written by Tim Minchin in 2010 in response to the allegations surrounding the Pope protecting members of the Catholic Church from being accused of child molestation charges. The song has received a fair amount of controversy due to its religious crudeness; the song was inspired by both Pope Benedict's 2010 visit to the UK, the abuse controversy that resurfaced that year. Tim Minchin released it to the Internet with a cartoon of multi-ethnic cardinals and the pope dancing the can-can without any underwear; the song contains over 80 instances of "motherfucker" and derivatives of these. Tim Minchin said "I don't like upsetting people...and I never do it myself unless it is an carefully thought-out polemic like the Phil Daoust song or the pope song which have constructed points to them." And "It's a thing of great beauty because it's a challenge, a desecration of something people hold sacred. I want to make people realise that being angry about being mean about the Pope is inappropriate in the context of talking about child abuse."He explained: That song's an examination of what we find offensive.

It challenges people. I'm outraged by that. If you listen to the song it justifies its language: this is the language you should use when you're angry at kiddie-fucking. Tim Minchin explains in this song that removing religion debate from the discussion anyone protecting other "kiddy fuckers" is a "motherfucker", that this has made him so angry he has been reduced to swearing, which he acknowledges is still not as offensive as a person claiming "moral authority" when allowing such acts; the purpose of the song being written in a crude and juvenile way is to demonstrate that "the actions of the Vatican, who made it a matter of public policy to protect and shelter child rapist priests while covering their actions is revolting, orders or magnitude more revolting than any repeated expletive should be". JT Eberhard from Patheos lists these crimes by the pope as follows: "A guy who fails to act against a known pedophile priest" "A guy who allows a priest who molested boys to resume pastoral duties after therapy" "A guy who halts a secret church trial for a pedophile priest molesting boys after that priest begs him" "Protect The Pope" released a statement regarding this issue: Tim Minchin is the composer of the disgusting anti-Catholic rant,'Pope Song' designed to offend Catholics and incite hate against the Catholic Church.

Imagine the uproar if Minchin had performed a similar foul-mouthed rant against Muslims, Jews or homosexuals! Members of all three groups have been involved in child sexual abuse; the lyrics are offensive and a rant of obscene words." In early 2012, reported that "Tim Minchin performed The Pope Song at the National Mall, which has about a million people upset, because his song contained...a "few" expletives and said some bad things about the pope". The site argues that opposition to the song is because "people don't get it"; the site does acknowledge the argument that "Freedom of speech is awesome, but some venues are more appropriate than others saying "fuck" an absurdly frequent number of times in a song played publicly". Patheos explained one of the fears people have against the anti-religious, curse-word heavy material that Minchin performed: "Maybe bad words are like invisible lightning bolts of evil, radiating through the child's body and causing irreparable damage and turning them into atheists who will burn in hell". said those whose mental processes are blocked by the swearing, "rendering them incapable of hearing what the song had to say", are "delicate flowers on their fainting couches", therefore provided a censored version for their benefit. It further explained "curse words are bad because they make some people feel momentarily uncomfortable. Child rape is bad because it causes physical harm and psychological trauma for a lifetime...if you're not angry enough at the church to swear what's wrong with you?". An investigation was lodged about Tim Minchin vs The Sydney Symphony Orchestra after a complaint said "'The Pope Song' was'distasteful and offensive'; the ABC explained "the purpose...was to illustrate that the behaviour being criticised, namely pedophilia, is more offensive that the language being used to criticise it", that "the coarse language formed a legitimate part of the song and was not gratuitous." It was concluded that "The ACMA therefore finds that the ABC did not breach clauses 7.1 of the Code" and "The ACMA finds that the ABC did not breach clauses 7.7 of the Code".

The Independent reported "on his American tour in he found himself piano-less in Dallas when the hire company cancelled his contract, calling him a "God-hater" and a "demon"". JT Eberhard from wrote "The message of the song is clear from the lyrics, is brilliantly written, in my opinion." PZ Myers from described the song as "utterly delightful", explained "it's catchy. You might end up singing it around the house". Den of Geek described the song as "gloriously obscene"; the Sydney Morning Herald deemed the song "gloriously offensive". Metro described it as "an expletive-strewn yet neatly phrased anti-Pope song backed by an oompah band". Video

Lou Bandy

Lodewijk Ferdinand Dieben, better known under his pseudonym Lou Bandy, was a Dutch singer and conferencier, one of the most popular artists in the Netherlands, between both world wars. Among his most famous songs are: Zoek de zon op', Schep vreugde in het leven and Louise zit niet op je nagels te bijten. Lodewijk Ferdinand Dieben was raised in a working-class family in The Hague. Dieben worked as a piccolo, house servant, street singer and as a conscriptionist with the Navy before he started a serious career in variety in 1915. At first he performed together with his brother Willy Derby under the name The Bandy Brothers Soon ts became apparent that the characters of the brothers were too different to work together. Lou continued under the name Lou Bandy. In 1921 he married the pianist Eugenie Küch, a German officer's daughter who would have a great impact on his career: she taught him decent social skills, taught him the importance of speaking proper Dutch, helped him get his first lucrative contracts.

With her support, the young man from the Hague found himself within a few years working with the top artists and theater impresarios. Bandy was known by the public as a singer of happy lyrics, but to those who knew him better, he had a less upbeat image, he married the much younger Sinia Franke in 1948, in 1952 married the 19-year-old girl Carla van den Hurk. He was getting lonely; when he was not popular anymore and he became lonely he killed himself in his Zandvoort apartment close to the sea. Works by or about Lou Bandy at Internet Archive