Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO−, a hydrogen ion, H+. The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy molecules ATP and NADH. Glycolysis is a sequence of ten enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Most monosaccharides, such as fructose and galactose, can be converted to one of these intermediates; the intermediates may be directly useful rather than just utilized as steps in the overall reaction. For example, the intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate is a source of the glycerol that combines with fatty acids to form fat. Glycolysis is an oxygen-independent metabolic pathway; the wide occurrence of glycolysis indicates. Indeed, the reactions that constitute glycolysis and its parallel pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway, occur metal-catalyzed under the oxygen-free conditions of the Archean oceans in the absence of enzymes. In most organisms, glycolysis occurs in the cytosol; the most common type of glycolysis is the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas, discovered by Gustav Embden, Otto Meyerhof, Jakub Karol Parnas.
Glycolysis refers to other pathways, such as the Entner–Doudoroff pathway and various heterofermentative and homofermentative pathways. However, the discussion here will be limited to the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas pathway; the glycolysis pathway can be separated into two phases: The Preparatory Phase – wherein ATP is consumed. The Pay Off Phase – wherein ATP is produced; the overall reaction of glycolysis is: The use of symbols in this equation makes it appear unbalanced with respect to oxygen atoms, hydrogen atoms, charges. Atom balance is maintained by the two phosphate groups: Each exists in the form of a hydrogen phosphate anion, dissociating to contribute 2 H+ overall Each liberates an oxygen atom when it binds to an ADP molecule, contributing 2 O overallCharges are balanced by the difference between ADP and ATP. In the cellular environment, all three hydroxyl groups of ADP dissociate into −O− and H+, giving ADP3−, this ion tends to exist in an ionic bond with Mg2+, giving ADPMg−. ATP behaves identically except that it has four hydroxyl groups, giving ATPMg2−.
When these differences along with the true charges on the two phosphate groups are considered together, the net charges of −4 on each side are balanced. For simple fermentations, the metabolism of one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate has a net yield of two molecules of ATP. Most cells will carry out further reactions to'repay' the used NAD+ and produce a final product of ethanol or lactic acid. Many bacteria use inorganic compounds as hydrogen acceptors to regenerate the NAD+. Cells performing aerobic respiration synthesize much more ATP, but not as part of glycolysis; these further aerobic reactions use pyruvate and NADH + H+ from glycolysis. Eukaryotic aerobic respiration produces 34 additional molecules of ATP for each glucose molecule, however most of these are produced by a mechanism vastly different than the substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis; the lower-energy production, per glucose, of anaerobic respiration relative to aerobic respiration, results in greater flux through the pathway under hypoxic conditions, unless alternative sources of anaerobically oxidizable substrates, such as fatty acids, are found.
The pathway of glycolysis as it is known today took 100 years to discover. The combined results of many smaller experiments were required in order to understand the pathway as a whole; the first steps in understanding glycolysis began in the nineteenth century with the wine industry. For economic reasons, the French wine industry sought to investigate why wine sometimes turned distasteful, instead of fermenting into alcohol. French scientist Louis Pasteur researched this issue during the 1850s, the results of his experiments began the long road to elucidating the pathway of glycolysis, his experiments showed. Insight into the component steps of glycolysis were provided by the non-cellular fermentation experiments of Eduard Buchner during the 1890s. Buchner demonstrated that the conversion of glucose to ethanol was possible using a non-living extract of yeast; this experiment not only revolutionized biochemistry, but allowed scientists to analyze this pathway in a more controlled lab setting. In a series of experiments, scientists Arthur Harden and William Young discovered more pieces of glycolysis.
They discovered the regulatory effects of ATP on glucose consumption during alcohol fermentation. They shed light on the role of one compound as a glycolysis intermediate: fructose 1,6-bisphosphate; the elucidation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate was accomplished by measuring CO2 levels when yeast juice was incubated with glucose. CO2 production increased then slowed down. Harden and Young noted that this process would restart if an inorganic phosphate was added to the mixture. Harden and Young deduced that this process produced organic phosphate esters, further experiments allowed them to extract fructose diphosphate. Arthur Harden and William Young along with Nick Sheppard determined, in a second experiment, that a heat-sensitive high-molecular-weight subcellular fraction and a heat-insensitive low-molecular-weight cytoplasm fraction (ADP, ATP and NAD+ and
Helmut Aris became in 1962 the President of the Association of Jewish Communities in the German Democratic Republic, retaining the position till his death in 1987. Helmut Aris was the son of Julius Aris, a metal worker from East Prussia, his wife Recha Aris, née Stein, he was born in the Striesen district of Dresden in Saxony during the first decade of the twentieth century, a period of rapid industrialisation and social tensions. He attended the academically focused King George Gymnasium and in 1925, embarked on an apprenticeship on the commercial side of the textile business with a firm called "Hirsch & Co.", for whom he worked till 1929. He worked in the textile sector till 1938. Aris married Susanne Reinfeld in 1933. Two children were born to the couple, named Renate. In November 1938 Aris was arrested; this was a manifestation of the anti-Jewish policies of the Nazi Party which had taken power in January 1933. Helmut Aris was Jewish. However, his wife Susanne came from an Evangelical Christian family and for this reason he was, at this stage released.
A period of unemployment followed, after which, between 1940 and 1945, Aris was placed under a forced labour regime in a succession of businesses. His father died in 1940 and his mother was deported to Riga where she was murdered in 1942. Helmut Aris was scheduled to be deported on 16 February 1945, but it was never carried out on account of the heavy bombing to which the city was subjected that week by British and American bombers. In May 1945 World War II ended and his hometown of Dresden found itself in that part of what had been Germany, now designated by the winning side as the Soviet occupation zone. Membership of political parties was no longer illegal and Aris joined the newly formed Social Democratic Party. However, the Soviet Military Administration had a plan for what now began to mutate into the German Democratic Republic; the plan involved a return to a one-party state, in 1946 the SPD merged with the former Communist Party of Germany: members of both parties were invited, with a simple signature, to switch their party allegiance to the Socialist Unity Party.
In 1946 Helmut Aris joined the SED. Aris worked as CEO of a succession of industrial concerns from 1945, till 1965 he served as Executive Director at the Dresden-based Institute for the Chemical Industry businesses. In the immediate post-war years Aris worked to rebuild what remained of the Jewish community and in 1953 he became a member of the Central Saxony Community Leadership council in succession to Leon Löwenkopf, the Union of Persecutees of the Nazi Regime founder, imprisoned since 1950 and fled to the west in 1953. Aris was elected to leadership of the Dresden Community Leadership in succession to Hans Ogrodek who had fled East Germany, it was reported that following the vast scale of the state mandated killings and deportations there were only 5,000 Jews remaining in what was becoming East Germany, of whom 10% were active in the communities. In 1952 Aris was a co-founder of the Association of Jewish Communities in the German Democratic Republic, he became the association's vice-president in 1958 and in 1962 he succeeded Hermann Baden as president of the Association of Jewish Communities in the German Democratic Republic.
From March 1954 to July 1956 he is listed in the Stasi records among the country's thousands of Informal collaborators under the code name "IM Lanus", but he denied having provided reports to the Security Services on Jewish Community members. Between 1962 and 1987 Aris was a member of the presidium for the National Council of the National Front, an alliance of minor political parties and mass movements that were represented on a quota basis in the National Assembly and controlled through the National Front by the country's ruling SED party, he was a member of the East German committee for the "Fight against Racism Decade", the central leadership of the East German Committee of Anti-Fascist Resistance fighters, of the East German "League for the United Nations" and of the presidium of the East German Peace Council. Helmut Aris died on 22 November 1987 in Dresden and was buried with his wife Gertrud in the city's New Jewish Cemetery. 1964 Service medal of the German Democratic Republic 1969 Ernist Moritz Arnt Medal of the East German National Front 1978 Patriotic Order of Merit 1983 Patriotic Order of Merit Honour claspAris was a recipient of the German Peace medal
Fabrice Ziolkowski is a French-American screenwriter, director and voice director, best known for scripting the Oscar-nominated feature animation film The Secret of Kells, writing the animated television series Gawayn, directing and producing the avant-garde documentary film L. A. X.. Fabrice Ziolkowski was born on January 1954, in Charleville-Mézières, France, his family emigrated, first to Montreal, Canada to the United States. He studied at the Brooks Institute of Photography, received a BA and MA in film and literature from the University of California at Santa Barbara, did doctoral work at the University of California, Los Angeles. Ziolkowski started his career as a member of the Lumina film group which included experimental filmmaker MM Serra, he is foremost a screenwriter, but has directed and produced films. Since the 2000s, he has emerged as a voice director, he is owner of Mozaic Productions and Vox Dub. He was development executive of TF1 subsidiary Protecrea from 1999 to 2002. Ziolkowski resides in France with his partner Luli Barzman.
He met Barzman at UCLA. He has Marina Ziolkowski, now a third-generation filmmaker in the family. Ziolkowski is best known for his screenplay of the internationally acclaimed feature animation film The Secret of Kells; the Hollywood Reporter described it as a "stirring tale" of "universal themes of the transcendent power of imagination and following one's dreams" in an "Irish-legend-and-lore-laced script " The New York Times noted that "A gentle spirit of syncretism suffuses The Secret of Kells." Variety called it a "Gorgeous hand-drawn 2D animation, so retro that it looks like a direct descendent of the medieval illuminated manuscript tradition complements its tale... A tour-de-force."His documentary L. A. X. Continues to receive notice: film scholar David James has called it "a disabused, skeptical rendering of the city’s grittier underside" which reveals "the noir realities behind the sunshine." It has been described as "an essay" on Los Angeles, an "experimental documentary, "a fictional structure... a journey through the city."
Ziolkowski has directed, produced, and/or voice-directed feature films, television films and series in live-action and animation. Yeah! Yeah! Yeah! Documentary Mazopo music video Death Letters documentary L. A. X. Documentary The 1001 Lives of Lia Rodrigues documentary Back to Kinshasa documentary Ziolkowski has written, co-written, or edited scores of films, television series and episodes animation. Alvin and the Chipmunks television series Sonic Boom Season 3 and onward Yeah! Yeah! Yeah! Documentary The Bellflower Bunnies television series Gawayn animated television series The Secret of Kells feature film Hairy Scary television series Atout 5 television series Khochkhach feature movie Viva Carthago television series Les énigmes de providence television series The Southern Star animation movie Mysterious Island animation movie The Greatest Show on Ice animation movie Death Letters documentary film Baby Monitor television movie L'amerloque television movie Billy the Cat television series Indaba television series Highlander television series Counterstrike television series Tattle Tale television movie The Venture feature film Hot Chocolate television movie Fly by Night television series The New Adventures of the Black Stallion television series Circles in a Forest feature film L.
A. X. Documentary film Ziolkowski has served as voice director, actor or dialogue coach on the following: Scary Larry voice direction Sherlock Yack: Zoo-Detective television series - voice direction Lulu Vroumette television series - voice direction Tales of Tatonka television series - voice and voice direction Miss Missouri feature film - dialogue coach Nocturne indien feature film - dialogue coach Man on Fire dialogue coach and uncredited translation Ziolkowski has written non-fiction and fiction books and articles, which include: Ashes 2 Ashes novel Introduction au scenario "Comedies and Proverbs: An Interview with Eric Rohmer" Fabrice Ziolkowski on IMDb "Fabrice Ziolkowski". Mozaic Productions. Retrieved 26 September 2015. "Fabrice Ziolkowski". Vox Dub. Retrieved 26 September 2015