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Gná and Hófvarpnir

In Norse mythology, Gná is a goddess who runs errands in other worlds for the goddess Frigg and rides the flying, sea-treading horse Hófvarpnir. Gná and Hófvarpnir are attested in the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson. Scholarly theories have been proposed about Gná as a "goddess of fullness" and as cognate to Fama from Roman mythology. Hófvarpnir and the eight-legged steed Sleipnir have been cited examples of transcendent horses in Norse mythology. In chapter 35 of the Prose Edda book Gylfaginning, the enthroned figure of High provides brief descriptions of 16 ásynjur. High lists Gná thirteenth, says that Frigg sends her off to different worlds to run errands. High adds that Gná rides the horse Hófvarpnir, that this horse has the ability to ride through the air and atop the sea. High continues that "once some Vanir saw her path as she rode through the air" and that an unnamed one of these Vanir says, in verse: "What flies there? What fares there? or moves through the air?"

Gná responds in doing so providing the parentage of Hófvarpnir. The source for these stanzas is not provided and they are otherwise unattested. High ends his description of Gná by saying that "from Gna's name comes the custom of saying that something gnaefir when it rises up high." In the Prose Edda book Skáldskaparmál, Gná is included among a list of 27 ásynjur names. Rudolf Simek says that the etymology that Snorri presents in Gylfaginning for the name Gná may not be correct, yet it is unclear what the name may otherwise mean, though Gná has been etymologically theorized as a "goddess of fullness." John Lindow calls the verse exchange between the Vanir and Gná "strange" and points out that it's unclear why it should be the Vanir that witness Gná flying through the air. Ulla Loumand cites Hófvarpnir and the eight-legged horse Sleipnir as "prime examples" of horses in Norse mythology as being able to "mediate between earth and sky, between Ásgarðr, Miðgarðr and Útgarðr and between the world of mortal men and the underworld."

In the 19th century, Jacob Grimm proposed a cognate in the personified rumor in Roman mythology. However, Grimm notes that unlike Fama, Gná is not described as winged but rather that Hófvarpnir, like the winged-horse Pegasus, may have been

Sprint kayak

Sprint kayak is a sport held on calm water. The paddler is seated, facing forward, uses a double-bladed paddle pulling the blade through the water on alternate sides to propel the boat forward. Kayak sprint has been in every summer olympics. Racing is governed by the International Canoe Federation. Boats may have one rudder; the rudder is controlled by the feet of the paddler. The boat to be designed. Crews or individuals race over 200m, 500m, 1000m or 5000m with the winning boat being the first to cross the finish line. In competition the number of paddlers within a boat is indicated by a figure besides the type of boat. A K-3 kayak has been developed in South Africa for use in the Fish River Canoe Marathon. Modern sprint kayaks are made of lightweight composite materials such as carbon fiber and fiberglass, they are narrow unstable, expensive. Due to this, they are not intended to be used in anything other than flatwater courses - they can capsize and/or be dragged underwater in moderate waves; the beam of a flatwater boat is barely wider than the hips of its paddlers and require the paddler to bend their legs in the boat, allowing for a long and narrow shape to reduce drag.

Canoe sprint kayaks are similar to sprint canoes, with both styles of boat at the same club or with the same team. Paddles used for sprint boats are made out of carbon fiber and/or fiberglass. At the discretion of the paddler, the paddle may be angled to fit with the paddler's stroke. In addition, wing tip paddles, with the upper cusp of the paddle angled to form a cup are used to assist with speed increases and control in turns and drag while maintaining balance

Gondal, India

Gondal is a city and a municipality in the Rajkot district of the Indian state of Gujarat. Gondal state was one of the eight first class princely states of Kathiawar Agency, Bombay Presidency in British India. Ruled by a Hindu Rajput dynasty of the Jadeja clan, the capital of the state was Gondal town. In 2011, the Population of the Gondal City Was 113,000 approximately. Gondal is mentioned in texts like Mirat-i-Ahmadi as a Vaghela state in Sorath; the Gondal state in Kathiawar Agency was founded in 1634 by Thakore Shri Kumbhoji I Meramanji from the Jadeja dynasty, who received Ardoi and other villages from his father Meramanji. Kumbhoki's fourth descendant, Kumbhoji IV, increased the size of the state by acquiring parganas such as Doraji and Sarai. Sir Bhagwant Singhji, who reigned from 1888 until his death in 1944, was noted for tax reforms, compulsory education for women, for stopping the practice of purdah at a time when the royal households of India were known for this tradition. In 1901, Gondal city had a population of 19,592, was a stop on the branch line between Rajkot and Jetalsar on the Viramgam-Rajkot and Rajkot-Somnath lines.

The ancestors of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan, belong to Paneli village in Gondal state. The Naulakha Palace is the oldest extant palace in Gondal, dating back to the 17th century, it has stone carvings with jharokhas, a pillared courtyard, delicately carved arches, a unique spiral staircase. The large chandelier-lit durbar contains stuffed panthers, gilt wooden furniture, antique mirrors; the Private Palace Museum has a display of silver caskets which were used to carry messages and gifts for Maharajah Bhagwat Sinhji during his silver jubilee as ruler of Gondal. The Riverside Palace was built in 1875 by Maharajah Bhagwat Sinhji for Yuvraj Bhojraji, it has groomed lawns and gardens, a living room furnished in typical colonial style with chandelier, antique wooden furniture and sofas, an "Indian room" decorated with beadwork and paintings. The palace has now become a heritage hotel; the Huzoor Palace is the current royal residence. One wing of this palace, called the Orchard palace, is open to the public.

It was built as an annex of the Huzoor Palace in the late 19th century to host guests of the Maharajas. The property gets its name from the fruit orchards and gardens that surround the palace. Orchard Palace was converted into a seven-room heritage hotel decorated with 1930s–1940s art deco furniture and handicrafts; the garden contains many types including a large population of peacocks. The Room of Miniatures is a sitting room with a collection of miniature paintings and furniture. One of the highlights of the palace is the Rail Saloon of the royal family of Gondal, converted into a suite with a drawing room, dining room and bedroom; the royal garages have an extensive collection of classic cars. The rulers of Gondal were Thakurs of the Jadeja dynasty, they bore the title'Thakur Sahib' from 1866 onwards. The people of the Gondal, as in most of the other parts of Saurashtra, are considered spiritual; the temples in Gondal include Akshar Mandir and Deri, Shri Trikamrayji Haveli, Shri Madanmohanji ni haveli, Shri Ramji Mandir, Bhuvneshwari Mandir, Ashapura Mata, Sureshwar Mahadev, Dhareshwar Mahadev, Kashi Vishwanath Mahadev and the massive Ambey Dham Temple.

There is another Pushtimargiya Haveli and Swaminarayan temple in the city centre. The Akshar Deri, housed within the Akshar Mandir, is the samadhi sthan of Gunatitanand Swami, a paramhansa of Swaminarayan, is accepted as the first spiritual successor of Swaminarayan by the Bochasanwasi Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha; this temple is visited by people from all over the world. Dasi Jeevan Mandir in Ghoghavadar, 6 km from Gondal, is a site; every Gujarati New Year day, people gather to celebrate the holy saint's birthday. Anand Ashrama, located easterly to Gondal close to Ghoghavadar, is a research center for folklore and Gujarati literature. Gondal is located at 21.97°N 70.8°E / 21.97. It has an average elevation of 132 metres. Total Population of Gondal City as per last census was 113,000 Approx. While the Average Literacy rate is 84.3% much higher than the national average of 59%. The Demographic Distribution of the Gondal city as per 2011 census is as mentioned below: Gondal has a history of art and literature.

It is the birthplace of poets and artists like Pankaj Udhas, Manhar Udhas, Nirmal Udhas, Makarand Dave, Jay Vasavada. The first Gujarati dictionary was compiled by the Chief Education Officer, Chandrakant Bechardas Patel in Gondal with the financial support of Sir Bhagvatsighji Maharaj; the Patel family was awarded the king's summer palace on Palace Road called Geeta Bhuvan and its surrounding lands for their life's work. This all-encompassing Gujarati dictionary called the Bhagvat GoMandal is available on both the App Store & Play Store in form of an appJanmashtami is a major and important festival and a week-long holiday. The'Janmashtami Lok Mela' is organized for five to seven days at Sangramsinhji highschool ground to celebrate Janmashtami; the largest factors in the economy of Gondal are oil mills and marketing yards. Gondal is the largest producer of ground nut oil with 300 -- 500 oil mills; the marketing yard is one of the biggest in the Kathiawar region and the second largest in Gujarat, after Unjha.

Gondal is growing in the cotton trade with