Gnaphalium palustre, known by the common name western marsh cudweed, is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family. The plant is native to much of western North America, where it is common in many habitats and from valley floor to mountain alpine elevations of Western Canada, the Western United States, Northwestern Mexico, it is found from British Columbia and Saskatchewan south as far as Baja California Sur and New Mexico. Gnaphalium palustre is an annual herb growing erect stems which may be short or up to about 30 centimeters tall; the stems and foliage are nearly white due to their coating of woolly hairs. The leaves are lance-shaped to scoop-shaped; the inflorescence holds a cluster of flower heads in a nest of woolly fibers. Each head has brownish to pale yellowish phyllaries surrounding a center of many tiny flowers. Jepson Manual Treatment: Gnaphalium palustre United States Department of Agriculture Plants Profile Gnaphalium palustre — Calphotos Photo gallery, University of California Media related to Gnaphalium palustre at Wikimedia Commons
Euchiton is a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family. They are native to the Pacific; some have been introduced far outside their native ranges. These are perennial herbs; some have rhizomes, most have stolons. The leaves are green and hairless on top and silver-haired on the undersides. Most have purple florets; the taxonomy of the genus is still unclear and is to change. Several species were transferred into the new genus Argyrotegium, for example. SpeciesEuchiton argentifolius - New South Wales, Victoria Euchiton audax - New Zealand Euchiton brassii - Papua New Guinea Euchiton breviscapus - New Guinea Euchiton collinus - Tasmania, Queensland, Western Australia Euchiton delicatus - New Zealand Euchiton ensifer - New Zealand Euchiton involucratus - common cudweed, star cudweed - Taiwan, New Guinea, New Zealand, New Caledonia Euchiton japonicus - father-and-child plant - New South Wales, Japan Euchiton lateralis - New Zealand, Tasmania Euchiton limosus - New Zealand, South Australia Euchiton litticola - Tasmania Euchiton paludosus - New Zealand Euchiton polylepis - New Zealand Euchiton ruahinicus - New Zealand Euchiton sphaericus - star cudweed, tropical creeping cudweed - Taiwan, Philippines, Norfolk Island, New Zealand, New Caledonia Euchiton traversii - New South Wales, Victoria, New Zealand Euchiton umbricola - New South Wales, Victoria Euchiton.
New South Wales Flora Online. National Herbarium, Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney
Blumea is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the Asteraceae family. Genus Blumea is found in the tropical and sub-tropical zones of Asia the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia. A few species are still fewer in Africa; the plants of this genus are relatively small weeds. Some of them are ruderal species. A few of the species were included in genus Conyza. Many species of genus Blumea are used in traditional Chinese medicine. Other uses include as decorative dry plants. Blumea balsamifera is reputed to ward off spirits in Thai folklore, is used in Philippines herbal medicine as well. Blumea mollis leaf essential oil contains linalool, γ-elemene, estragole, allo-ocimene, γ-terpinene and allo-aromadendrene; the essential oil had significant toxic effect against early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 = 71.71 and LC90 = 143.41 ppm. Blumea is the name of the Journal of Plant Taxonomy and Plant Geography published by the National Herbarium of the Netherlands. Accepted species John Lindley & Thomas Moore, The treasury of botany Media related to Blumea at Wikimedia Commons Flowers of India - Blumea paniculata Herbal medicine - Blumea densiflora
The genus Helichrysum consists of an estimated 600 species of flowering plants in the sunflower family. The type species is Helichrysum orientale; the name is derived from the Greek words ἑλίσσω and χρῡσός. It occurs in Africa, Madagascar and Eurasia; the plants may be annuals, herbaceous perennials or shrubs, growing to a height of 60–90 cm. The genus was a wastebasket taxon, many of its members have been reclassified in smaller genera, most notably the Everlastings, now in the genus Xerochrysum, their leaves are oblong to lanceolate. They are pubescent on both sides; the bristles of the pappus are barbellate, or plumose. The receptacle is smooth, with a fringed margin, or honey-combed, resemble daisies, they may be in all colors, except blue. There are many capitula and flat-topped corymbs or panicles; the corolla lobes show glandular hairs at the abaxial surface. Helichrysum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the bucculaticid leaf-miners Bucculatrix gnaphaliella and Bucculatrix helichrysella and the Coleophora case-bearers C. caelebipennella, C. gnaphalii and C. helichrysiella.
Hilliard divided this heterogeneous genus in 30 morphological groups. But this genus is considered by many as an artificial genus; the taxonomy of the large polymorphic and polyphyletic genus Helichrysum is complex and not yet satisfactorily resolved. Several Australian species, such as H. acuminatum and H. bracteatum, have been reclassified in the genus Xerochrysum in 1991, resp. as X. subundulatum and X. bracteatum. In 1989, misaligned species of Helichrysum were reclassified in Syncarpha. Species included in Pseudognaphalium, Anaphalis and Humeocline are congeneric with Helichrysum. Established species include Helichrysum stoechas is similar to the Helichrysum arenarium, but the leaves are all linear, with rolled under edges, it is found in western France on dunes near the sea. New species In 2004, A. Miller identified five new species that have not yet been published but were included in the IUCN Red List data, given their restricted range in Yemen, they are as follows: Helichrysum sp. nov.
A - Its natural habitat is rocky areas. It was given a status of "Vulnerable" by the IUCN. Helichrysum sp. nov. B - Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry shrubland and rocky areas, it was given a status of "Vulnerable". Helichrysum sp. nov. C - Its natural habitat is rocky areas, it is threatened by habitat loss. It was given a status of "Endangered". Helichrysum sp. nov. D - Its natural habitat is rocky areas, it was given a status of "Endangered". Helichrysum sp. nov. E - Its natural habitat is rocky areas, it was given a status of "Data deficient". Several species are grown as ornamental plants, for dried flowers; when cut young and dried, the open flowers and stalks preserve their colour and shape for long periods. Helichrysum italicum is steam distilled to produce a yellow-reddish essential oil popular in fragrance for its unique scent, best described as a mixture of burnt sugar and ham; the epithet angustifolium means narrow leaved. It is misspelled as augustifolium. HILLIARD, O. 1983.
Flora of Southern Africa, Part 7 Inuleae, Fascicle 2 Gnaphaliinae. Government Printer, South Africa. WILSON, P. G. 1992c. The classification of some Australian species included in Helipterum and Helichrysum: part 3 Anemocarpa and Argentipallium, two new genera from Australia. Nuytsia 8: 447–460. Mesfin Tadesse & Reilly, T. 1995. 17. A contribution to studies on Helichrysum - a revision of the species of north-east tropical Africa. In: Advances in Compositae Systematics. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 379–450. Xeranthemum annuum photo Phylogenetic relationships within this genus Helichrysum Essential Oil species PHYLOGENY OF SOUTH AFRICAN GNAPHALIEAE Details of botanical naming Dressler, S.. "Helichrysum". African plants – a Photo Guide. Frankfurt/Main: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg
The flowering plants known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families 13,164 known genera and c. 369,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants. However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant; the term comes from the Greek words sperma. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms in the Triassic Period, 245 to 202 million years ago, the first flowering plants are known from 160 mya, they diversified extensively during the Early Cretaceous, became widespread by 120 mya, replaced conifers as the dominant trees from 100 to 60 mya. Angiosperms differ from other seed plants in several ways, described in the table below; these distinguishing characteristics taken together have made the angiosperms the most diverse and numerous land plants and the most commercially important group to humans.
Angiosperm stems are made up of seven layers. The amount and complexity of tissue-formation in flowering plants exceeds that of gymnosperms; the vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the phloem form concentric rings. In the dicotyledons, the bundles in the young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative tissue known as cambium. By the formation of a layer of cambium between the bundles, a complete ring is formed, a regular periodical increase in thickness results from the development of xylem on the inside and phloem on the outside; the soft phloem becomes crushed, but the hard wood persists and forms the bulk of the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to differences in the character of the elements produced at the beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of growth, called annual rings.
Among the monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young stem and are scattered through the ground tissue. They once formed the stem increases in diameter only in exceptional cases; the characteristic feature of angiosperms is the flower. Flowers show remarkable variation in form and elaboration, provide the most trustworthy external characteristics for establishing relationships among angiosperm species; the function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds. The floral apparatus may arise terminally from the axil of a leaf; as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf. More the flower-bearing portion of the plant is distinguished from the foliage-bearing or vegetative portion, forms a more or less elaborate branch-system called an inflorescence. There are two kinds of reproductive cells produced by flowers. Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens.
The "female" cells called megaspores, which will divide to become the egg cell, are contained in the ovule and enclosed in the carpel. The flower may consist only of these parts, as in willow, where each flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Other structures are present and serve to protect the sporophylls and to form an envelope attractive to pollinators; the individual members of these surrounding structures are known as petals. The outer series is green and leaf-like, functions to protect the rest of the flower the bud; the inner series is, in general, white or brightly colored, is more delicate in structure. It functions to attract bird pollinators. Attraction is effected by color and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower; the characteristics that attract pollinators account for the popularity of flowers and flowering plants among humans. While the majority of flowers are perfect or hermaphrodite, flowering plants have developed numerous morphological and physiological mechanisms to reduce or prevent self-fertilization.
Heteromorphic flowers have short carpels and long stamens, or vice versa, so animal pollinators cannot transfer pollen to the pistil. Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains. In other species, the male and female parts are morphologically separated, developing on different flowers; the botanical term "Angiosperm", from the Ancient Greek αγγείον, angeíon and σπέρμα, was coined in the form Angiospermae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of one of his primary divisions of the plant kingdom. This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked; the term and its antonym were maintained by Carl Linnaeus with the same sense, but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his class Didynamia. Its use with any
Edmondia ia a genus of plants in the sunflower family, endemic to the Fynbos shrublands in the Cape Province area of South Africa. SpeciesEdmondia fasciculata Hilliard Edmondia pinifolia Hilliard Edmondia sesamoides Hilliard