A gnome is a diminutive spirit in Renaissance magic and alchemy, first introduced by Paracelsus in the 16th century and adopted by more recent authors including those of modern fantasy literature. Its characteristics have been reinterpreted to suit the needs of various story tellers, but it is said to be a small humanoid that lives underground; the word comes from Renaissance Latin gnomus, which first appears in the Ex Libro de Nymphis, Pygmaeis, Salamandris et Gigantibus, etc by Paracelsus, published posthumously in Nysa in 1566. The term may be an original invention of Paracelsus deriving the term from Latin gēnomos. In this case, the omission of the ē is, as the Oxford English Dictionary calls a blunder. Paracelsus classifies them as earth elementals, he describes them as two spans high reluctant to interact with humans, able to move through solid earth as as humans move through air. The chthonic, or earth-dwelling, spirit has precedents in numerous ancient and medieval mythologies guarding mines and precious underground treasures, notably in the Germanic dwarfs and the Greek Chalybes, Telchines or Dactyls.
The English word is attested from the early 18th century. Gnomes are used in Alexander Pope's "The Rape of the Lock"; the creatures from this mock-epic are small, celestial creatures which were prudish women in their past lives, now spend all of eternity looking out for prudish women. Other uses of the term gnome remain obscure until the early 19th century, when it is taken up by authors of Romanticist collections of fairy tales and becomes synonymous with the older word goblin. Pope's stated source, the French satire Comte de Gabalis describes gnomes as such: "The Earth is filled to the Center with Gnomes or Pharyes, a People of small Stature, the Guardians of Treasures, of Mines, of Precious Stones, they are Ingenious, Friends of Men, easie to be commandded. They furnish the Children of the Sages with as much Money; the Gnomides or Wives of these Gnomes or Pharyes, are Little, but Handson. Villars used the term gnomide to refer to female gnomes. Modern fiction instead uses the word "gnomess" to refer to female gnomes.
In 19th-century fiction, the chthonic gnome became a sort of antithesis to the more airy or luminous fairy. Nathaniel Hawthorne in Twice-Told Tales contrasts the two in "Small enough to be king of the fairies, ugly enough to be king of the gnomes". Gnomes are contrasted to elves, as in William Cullen Bryant's Little People of the Snow, which has "let us have a tale of elves that ride by night, with jingling reins, or gnomes of the mine". One of the first movements in Mussorgsky's 1874 work Pictures at an Exhibition, named "Gnomus", is written to sound as if a gnome is moving about, his movements changing in speed. Franz Hartmann in 1895 satirized materialism in an allegorical tale entitled Unter den Gnomen im Untersberg; the English translation appeared in 1896 as Among the Gnomes: An Occult Tale of Adventure in the Untersberg. In this story, the Gnomes are still subterranean creatures, guarding treasures of gold within the Untersberg mountain; as a figure of 19th-century fairy tales, the term gnome became synonymous with other terms for "little people" by the 20th century, such as goblin, kobold, Heinzelmännchen and other instances of the "domestic spirit" type, losing its strict association with earth or the underground world.
Creatures called gnomes have been used in the fantasy genre of fiction and gaming since the mid-nineteenth century in a cunning role, e.g. as an inventor. In L. Frank Baum's Oz series, the Nomes their king, are the chief adversaries of the Oz people, they are ugly, hot-tempered, round-bodied with spindly legs and arms, have long beards and wild hair, live underground, are the militant protectors/hoarders of jewels and precious metals. Baum does not depict any female gnomes. Ruth Plumly Thompson, who continued the series after Baum's death, reverted to the traditional spelling. L. Frank Baum featured the classical gnomes in his book The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus, they are in charge of watching over the rocks and their king is part of the Council of Immortals. In addition, they created the sleigh bells for Santa Claus' reindeer. J. R. R. Tolkien, in the legendarium surrounding his Elves, uses "Gnomes" as the initial and dropped name of the Noldor, the most gifted and technologically minded of his elvish races, in conscious exploitation of the similarity with the word gnomic.
Gnome is thus Tolkien's English loan-translation of the Quenya word Noldo, "those with knowledge". Tolkien's "Gnomes" are tall, dark-haired, light-skinned and wise but suffer from pride, tend towards violence, have an overweening love of the works of their own hands gemstones. Many of them live in cities in secluded mountain fortresses, he uses "Gnomes" to refer to both females. In The Father Christmas Letters, which Tolkien wrote for his children
From the 1960s through the 1980s, proponents of the Equal Rights Amendment were seeking ratification in each state throughout the United States. Although the Senate approved an unamended version in March 22, 1972, attempts at ratification of the amendment in the state of Utah failed. Organizations formed and took positions on both sides of the issue, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, one of the major opponents of the ERA; the Church organized women and other church members in opposition, while networking with other anti-ERA organizations. The Utah Legislature voted down the amendment in 1975. However, Utah still houses a wide variety of organized groups and opinions for and against the Equal Rights Amendment, which remains unratified to the present. Written by Alice Paul and introduced to U. S. Congress in 1923, the Equal Rights Amendment was passed in 1972, it was up to thirty-eight states to ratify the amendment within the next seven years. As explained by Kimberly Voss, a Professor at the Nicholson School of Communication at the University of Central Florida, the ERA could be broken down into three parts: “Section 1.
Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex. Section 2; the Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of the article. Section 3; this amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification.”Nationwide, there were coalitions in support of the amendment and against it. While some looked to the ERA as a means to legal equality, which would provide equal economic and academic access, more conservative groups grew wary of the amendment as it could strip away protections that women had under the law; some arguments against the ERA included the right women had to be exempt from the military draft, anti-unisex bathrooms, opposition to homosexual marriage. The nationally involved anti-ERA leader Phyllis Schlafly was directly involved in the movement against the ERA in Utah. Schlafly organized the National Committee to Stop ERA in 1972, in 1975 the group became the Eagle Forum.
The Eagle Forum became a popular network for anti-ERA women in Utah. Phyllis Schlafly continued to exercise influence among women in Utah. One woman stated that in the International Women’s Year convention in Salt Lake City that many attendees carried Phyllis Schlafly material as they voted in opposition to the ERA. Along with the Eagle Forum, other groups organized in opposition to the ERA, including Humanitarians Opposed to Degrading Our Girls. While the Equal Rights Amendment was going through construction and revision during the 1960s and early 1970s, the LDS Church made little to no response; when the House of Representatives passed the bill in 1971, LDS Congressmen responded differently from each other following their party lines. However, as the ERA moved to the states for ratification, the LDS Church began making statements in opposition to the amendment. In the Ensign in 1971, the President of the Church, Joseph Fielding Smith, made a statement focused on the role of women in society and in the home.
He warned that growing media sent messages aimed at tearing down the calling of mothers, which God had ordained. At the general conference of the Church in April of 1971, H. Burke Peterson from the Presiding Bishopric stated that the involvement of women in employment would lead to neglect in the family and a focus on worldly gain. N. Eldon Tanner further strengthened the connection between the temptations of Satan and the liberality of women in the October 1973 general conference; the Relief Society, a women’s organization in the church continued to spread this anti-ERA message through informal lessons. However, the Relief Society played a more organized part in these politics when the Special Affairs Committee of the LDS Church enlisted Relief Society leaders to work directly in opposition to the amendment; this brought women in Utah directly into the political sphere and made them a central force in the defeat of the ERA. The Church further established their position by a series of more official statements beginning in 1975 with a Church News editorial.
The editorial clarified the separate roles of men and women and claimed that the ERA was unnecessary. While support for the ERA in Utah had been about sixty-three percent in November of 1974, the official statement from the Church in 1975 led to a drop in support to thirty-one percent in February of 1975; as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints viewed the fight against the ERA as a broader fight against second-wave feminism, the International Women’s Year state conference provided the opportunity for Mormon women to mobilize against the feminist movement. Hoping to overwhelm the conference and provide the opinions of many conservative minded women, the church communicated that each ward in the state should send ten conservative women to the conference; the total population for the state conference resulted in 13,867 women. Coordinated with the help of men on walkie-talkies, these women voted down any proposal without discussion some proposals that their goals could have supported.
This same process occurred in other states. Through these efforts to overwhelm the IWY, other pushes to fight the ratification of the ERA, the Church became a staunch opponent to the passing of the ERA in Utah, on a national scale. Following the example of the President’s Commission on the Status of Women, the Governor’s Commission on the Status of Women in Utah was organized by Governor Clyde in 1964. While the President's Commission on the Status of Women had discreetly formed against the ERA, as me
Loose connective tissue is a category of connective tissue which includes areolar tissue, reticular tissue, adipose tissue. Loose connective tissue is the most common type of connective tissue in vertebrates, it attaches epithelial tissue to other underlying tissues. For example, it forms telae, such as the tela submucosa and tela subserosa, which connect mucous and serous membranes to the muscular layer, it surrounds the blood vessels and nerves. Cells called fibroblasts are dispersed in this tissue; the cells of this type of tissue are separated by quite some distance by a gelatinous substance made up of collagenous and elastic fibers. "loose connective tissue" is considered a parent category that includes the mucous connective tissue of the fetus, areolar connective tissue, reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue. It is a pliable, mesh-like tissue with a fluid matrix and functions to cushion and protect body organs. Fibroblasts are dispersed in this tissue; the cells of this type of tissue are connected by a gelatinous substance known as ground substance made up of collagenous and elastic fibers.
It may be found in tissue sections from every part of the body. It surrounds blood vessels and nerves and penetrates with them into the small spaces of muscles and other tissues, it may be present in the mediastinal extremities. Nearly every epithelium rests on a layer of areolar tissue, whose blood vessels provide the epithelium with nutrition, waste removal, a ready supply of infection-fighting leukocytes when needed; because of the abundance of open, fluid-filled space, leukocytes can move about in areolar tissue and can find and destroy pathogens. The areolar tissue is found beneath the epidermis layer and is underneath the epithelial tissue of all the body systems that have external openings, it makes the skin elastic and helps it to withstand pulling pain It is a component of the lamina propria of the digestive and respiratory tracts, the mucous membranes of reproductive and urinary systems, the stroma of glands, the hypodermis of the skin. It is found in the mesentery, surrounding the intestine.
Loose connective tissue is named based on type of its constituent fibers. There are three main types: Collagenous fibers: collagenous fibers are made of collagen and consist of bundles of fibrils that are coils of collagen molecules. Elastic fibers: elastic fibers are made of elastin and are "stretchable." Reticular fibers: reticular fibers consist of one or more types of thin collagen fibers. They join connective tissues to other tissues. Areolar tissue is a common type of loose connective tissue, it is so-named because its fibers are far enough apart to leave ample open space for interstitial fluid in between. It is strong enough to bind different tissue types together, yet soft enough to provide flexibility and cushioning, it exhibits interlacing, loosely organized fibers, abundant blood vessels, significant empty space filled with interstitial fluid. Many adjacent epithelial tissues get their nutrients from the interstitial fluid of areolar tissue, its fibers run in random directions and are collagenous, but elastic and reticular fibers are present.
Areolar tissue is variable in appearance. In many serous membranes, it appears as a loose arrangement of collagenous and elastic fibers, scattered cells of various types. In the skin and mucous membranes, it is more compact and sometimes difficult to distinguish from dense irregular connective tissue. Areolar connective tissue holds organs in place and attaches epithelial tissue to other underlying tissues, it serves as a reservoir of water and salts for surrounding tissues. All cells obtain their nutrients from and release their wastes into areolar connective tissue. Organs that are rich in loose connective tissue are sites that undergo oedema, indicating kidney failure or nephrotic syndrome. Therefore, periorbital swelling is one characteristic finding in severe kidney disease. Dense connective tissue
The 2015–16 Columbia Lions men's basketball team represented Columbia University during the 2015–16 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The Lions, led by sixth year head coach Kyle Smith, played their home games at Levien Gymnasium and were members of the Ivy League, they finished the season 10 -- 4 in Ivy League play to finish in third place. They were invited to the CollegeInsider.com Tournament where they defeated Norfolk State, Ball State, NJIT and UC Irvine to become CIT champions. On March 30, one day after winning the CIT, head coach Kyle Smith resigned to become the head coach at San Francisco, he finished at Columbia with a six-year record of 101–82. The Lions finished the season 13–15, 5–9 in Ivy League play to finish in a tie for fifth place
Peletier is a town in Carteret County, North Carolina, United States. The population was 644 at the 2010 census; the town was named for the late-18th century Pelletier family. Peletier is located in western Carteret County at 34°43′37″N 77°04′42″W, it is bordered to the south by the towns of Cedar Point. To the west is the tidal White Oak River, which forms the Carteret/Onslow County line. To the north and east is Croatan National Forest. North Carolina Highway 58 passes through Peletier, leading south 5 miles to Emerald Isle on the Atlantic shoreline, northwest 15 miles to Maysville and U. S. Route 17. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 3.7 square miles, of which 3.6 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 1.56%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 487 people, 206 households, 146 families residing in the town; the population density was 148.2 people per square mile. There were 282 housing units at an average density of 85.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the town was 97.13% White, 0.62% African American, 0.62% Native American and 1.64% Asian.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.03% of the population. There were 206 households out of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.3% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.1% were non-families. 21.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.74. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, 20.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $33,641, the median income for a family was $34,653. Males had a median income of $25,250 versus $16,667 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,484. About 9.9% of families and 11.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.5% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over.
Town of Peletier official website
The Eureka Lilly Headframe is the surviving headframe at the Eureka Lilly mine in the Tintic Mining District in Dividend, United States, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The headframe is a "wood four-post type headframe with one sheave instead of two... and stands twenty-five feet high...." It is the only four post headframe of its type within the Tintic Mining District. The headframe is located just east of Dividend Road, about 3 miles east of Eureka. From 1909 to 1949 the mine produced gold, lead and zinc, but copper and bismuth and some manganese and arsenic; the headframe was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on March 14, 1979. At the time of NRHP listing it was owned by Kennecott Copper Corporation. National Register of Historic Places listings in Utah County, Utah HISTORIC RESOURCES OF THE TINTIC MINING DISTRICT NRHP nomination form