A gnomon is the part of a sundial that casts a shadow. The term is used for a variety of purposes in other fields. A painted stick dating from 2300 BC, excavated at the astronomical site of Taosi is the oldest gnomon known in China; the gnomon was used in ancient China from the second century BC onward in order determine the changes in seasons and geographical latitude. The ancient Chinese used shadow measurements for creating calendars that are mentioned in several ancient texts. According to the collection of Zhou Chinese poetic anthologies Classic of Poetry, one of the distant ancestors of King Wen of the Zhou dynasty used to measure gnomon shadow lengths to determine the orientation around the 14th century BC; the ancient Greek philosopher Anaximander is credited with introducing this Babylonian instrument to the Ancient Greeks. The ancient Greek mathematician and astronomer Oenopides used the phrase drawn gnomon-wise to describe a line drawn perpendicular to another; the term was used for an L-shaped instrument like a steel square used to draw right angles.
This shape may explain its use to describe a shape formed by cutting a smaller square from a larger one. Euclid extended the term to the plane figure formed by removing a similar parallelogram from a corner of a larger parallelogram. Indeed, the gnomon is the increment between two successive figurate numbers, including square and triangular numbers; the ancient Greek mathematician and engineer Hero of Alexandria defined a gnomon as that which, when added to an entity, makes a new entity similar to the starting entity. In this sense Theon of Smyrna used it to describe a number which added to a polygonal number produces the next one of the same type; the most common use in this sense is an odd integer when seen as a figurate number between square numbers. Perforated gnomons projecting a pinhole image of the Sun were described in the Chinese Zhoubi Suanjing writings; the location of the bright circle can be measured to tell the time of year. In Arab and European cultures its invention was much attributed to Egyptian astronomer and mathematician Ibn Yunus around 1000 AD.
Italian astronomer and cosmographer Paolo Toscanelli is associated with the 1475 placement of a bronze plate with a round hole in the dome of the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence to project an image of the Sun on the cathedral's floor. With markings on the floor it tells the exact time of each midday as well as the date of the summer solstice. Italian mathematician, engineer and geographer Leonardo Ximenes reconstructed the gnomon according to his new measurements in 1756. In the Northern Hemisphere, the shadow-casting edge of a sundial gnomon is oriented so that it points due northward and is parallel to the rotational axis of Earth; that is, it is inclined to the northern horizon at an angle that equals the latitude of the sundial's location. At present, such a gnomon should thus point precisely at Polaris, as this is within 1° of the north celestial pole. On some sundials, the gnomon is vertical; these were used in former times for observing the altitude of the Sun when on the meridian.
The style is the part of the gnomon. This can change as the Sun moves. For example, the upper west edge of the gnomon might be the style in the morning and the upper east edge might be the style in the afternoon. A three-dimensional gnomon is used in CAD and computer graphics as an aid to positioning objects in the virtual world. By convention, the x-axis direction is the y-axis green and the z-axis blue. NASA astronauts used a gnomon as a photographic tool to indicate local vertical and to display a color chart when they were working on the Moon's surface; the 1985 novel Masters of Atlantis by Charles Portis is a satirical chronicle of a fictional secret society called Gnomonism. In the book The Tower at the End of the World by Brad Strickland, a giant tower and thin stairs turn out to be the gnomon of a giant sundial; the island the tower is found on is called "Gnomon Island". The Gnomon of Saint-Sulpice inside the church of Saint Sulpice in Paris, built to assist in determining the date of Easter, was fictionalized as a "Rose Line" in the novel The Da Vinci Code.
The 2017 novel Gnomon by Nick Haraway is a novel set in a high-tech surveillance state. MarsDial Gazalé, Midhat J. Gnomons, from Pharaohs to Fractals, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1999. ISBN 0-691-00514-1. Heath, Thomas Little, A History of Greek Mathematics, Dover publications, ISBN 9780486240732. Laërtius, The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, trans. C. D. Yonge. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1853. Mayall, R. Newton. 1994, ISBN 0-486-41146-X Waugh, Albert E. Sundials: Their Theory and Construction, Dover Publications, Inc. 1973, ISBN 0-486-22947-5
Minami-Kumamoto Station is a railway station on the Hōhi Main Line, operated by JR Kyushu in Chūō-ku, Japan. The station is served by the Hōhi Main Line and is located 3.6 km from the starting point of the line at Kumamoto. The station consists of two side platforms serving two tracks at grade; the station building is a wooden structure of western design and houses a waiting area and a staffed ticket window. Access to the opposite side platform is by means of a footbridge. Management of the station has been outsourced to the JR Kyushu Tetsudou Eigyou Co. a wholly owned subsidiary of JR Kyushu specialising in station services. It staffs the ticket booth, equipped with a POS machine but does not have a Midori no Madoguchi facility. On 21 June 1914, Japanese Government Railways opened the Miyagi Light Rail Line from Kumamoto eastwards to Higo-Ōzu. On the same day, this station was opened with the name Harutake as one of several intermediate stations along the track. By 1928, the track had been extended eastward and had linked up with the Inukai Line, built westward from Ōita.
On 2 December 1928, the entire track from Kumamoto to Ōita was designated as the Hōhi Main Line. On 1 May 1940, the station was renamed Minami-Kumamoto. With the privatization of Japanese National Railways, the successor of JGR, on 1 April 1987, the station came under the control of JR Kyushu. In fiscal 2016, the station was used by an average of 970 passengers daily, it ranked 170th among the busiest stations of JR Kyushu. List of railway stations in Japan Minami-Kumamoto
Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski referred to as Ostrowiec, is a town in Poland, in the historical region of Lesser Poland, with 70,000 residents. The town is one of historic centers of Polish industry and metallurgy, was part of the Old-Polish Industrial Region, the oldest industrial basin of the country. Ostrowiec is the capital city of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski County, part of Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship it belonged to Kielce Voivodeship, it received town charter in 1613. Ostrowiec lies on the Kamienna river, its northern districts are located in the Iłża Foothills, while southern part belongs to the Opatów Upland. Swietokrzyskie Mountains lie a few kilometers away, southwest of Ostrowiec. There are two interesting places near Ostrowiec: the archaeological reserve at Krzemionki and dinosaur park in Bałtów. Ostrowiec is located at the intersection of National Road No. 9, local roads 751, 754, 755. Furthermore, since 1884 the town has had a rail connection, along electrified rail line No. 25, which goes from Łódź Kaliska to Dębica.
In the 1960s, Polish government planned construction of a rail line from Kielce to Lublin via Ostrowiec. The area of the town is 46 km2, it is divided into 20 osiedla; the oldest testimonies of human habitation date back to the Stone Age. At that time, there were nomadic tribes belonging to, among others, the Lengyel and Globular Amphora cultures, they came here from Danube river region. The earliest documents about Ostrowiec village, that gave beginning to the contemporary Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski come from 14th century. At that time the village was called Ostrow, was located on the right bank of the Kamienna. In the early 16th century, a local nobleman Kacper Maciejewski tried to establish here a town, but failed to do so. In 1564 town charter was granted to the settlement of Denków, now one of the Ostrowiec districts; the city itself, at that time part of Sandomierz Voivodeship, was built from scratch in 1597 by Jakub Gawroński of Rawa coat of arms on the left bank of the Kamienna river, situated in the Vistula river basin.
It received town privileges in 1613. It became a property of Janusz Ostrogski, a statesman and one of the richest magnates of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, it belonged to many Polish aristocratic families: Tarnowski family, Czartoryski family, Lubomirski family, Radziwiłł family, Zasławski family, Sanguszko family, Wielopolski family, Dobrzański family, Łubieński family. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Ostrowiec emerged as a main center of Polish industry. Following the idea of Stanislaw Staszic, who promoted industrialization of the Kamienna river valley, based on local deposits of coal and iron ore, numerous plants were opened in the area. In 1837 - 1839, the Klimkiewicz Steelworks was opened, which came to be known as the Ostrowiec Works; the plant became the second largest in Congress Poland, in its vicinity, various enterprises were opened, together with workers establishment. Ostrowiec was one of main centers of the Revolution in the Kingdom of Poland. On December 27, 1905, the so-called Ostrowiec Republic was established, for two weeks, the town and the county were ruled by the Polish Socialist Party, headed by Ignacy Boerner.
The Republic was ended after the arrival of two infantry regiments of the Imperial Russian Army. The Ostrowiec Works was damaged during World War I, on November 3, 1918, newly established Polish authorities took control over Ostrowiec. In the Second Polish Republic Ostrowiec due to its location in Central Industrial Area; the town belonged to Opatow County, before World War II its population was app. 30,000. In 1937 it was named Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski. Earlier on, the names Ostrowiec Kielecki and Ostrowiec nad Kamienna had been used; the Wehrmacht captured the town on September 8, 1939. Most of its Jewish community of app. 11,000 were murdered in the Holocaust, in 1943-1944. During the Second World War, Ostrowiec was a lively centre of resistance activity against the Nazi occupation. There was an independent underground press. A significant action carried out by the local Polish underground during the German occupation was the kidnapping of the German city commissioner Bruno Motschall. In 1943, Motschall was kidnapped in broad daylight in the town center by a Home Army unit in his own car.
The Poles fled towards the nearby village of Chmielów. A German pursuit group of 60 people followed the car; because of a car defect, the kidnappers were caught up in Chmielów, where a shootout ensued, which resulted in three Poles being killed. German troops withdraw westwards on January 16, 1945. Ostrowiec continued its development in the postwar period. In 1954, several villages were annexed, including Denków. In the 1970s, a new metallurgical plant was opened. In the 1990s, the metallurgical industry experienced a big crisis; the steel plant was bought by Spanish CELSA Group. Collegiate church of Michael the Archangel, St. Stanislaus church in Denków, Wielopolski family park and palace in the district of Czestocice, now housing the Historic-Archeological Museum Wielopolski family hunting palace, now a hotel Mountain style wooden church, Remnants of a Jewish cemetery on a park hill, Late 19th century rail station, Post office, St. Florian roadside figure at St. Florian square. Krzemionki Prehistoric Striped Flint Mining Region, a UNESCO World Her
Enter the Gungeon is a bullet hell roguelike video game developed by Dodge Roll and published by Devolver Digital. The game was released worldwide for Microsoft Windows, OS X, PlayStation 4 on April 5, 2016, on Xbox One on April 5, 2017, as well as on Nintendo Switch on December 14, 2017; the games follows four adventurers as they descend into the Gungeon to find a gun to kill their past. The game present procedurally-generated levels to the player, where they fight enemies and acquire new guns with various behaviors through their journey. A spin-off, Exit the Gungeon, which uses a platform game-approach instead of the top-down dungeon crawler but otherwise with similar mechanics, was first released on iOS in October 2019, will release on computers and consoles in early 2020. Enter the Gungeon is a fast-paced bullet hell shooter with roguelike elements, is therefore compared to The Binding of Isaac and Nuclear Throne; the player chooses one of four protagonists named the Marine, Convict and Hunter, all of whom have different special abilities, such as calling for support or lock picking chests.
A second player is able to control a fifth character. While the player descends the Gungeon, they are set to go through multiple floors, each with a random number of rooms in it. While the rooms are pre-defined, the constellation of rooms in a floor, the enemies that appear in the rooms, treasure are procedurally generated; each room contains a set of enemies, which vary in strength and attack behavior, where the attack can range from simple, straightforward shots to a complicated mixture of shots fired at the same time. The player may dodge attacks by performing a dodge roll, inspired by the Souls series of video games, are invulnerable during the action, or alternatively flip tables and use them as covers, although tables can be destroyed if they are shot at; the player has a limited number of "blanks" for each floor that can be used to eliminate all current projectiles and temporarily stun enemies. To defeat enemies, the player must use guns, which can be found in chests, won by defeating bosses, or bought at shops scattered around the floors in the Gungeon.
The game features over 300 different guns and items that can be combined to achieve more powerful effects. At the end of each floor, a boss awaits the player; as the player progresses through multiple playthroughs, they may encounter non-player characters that can be rescued from the Gungeon. Once rescued, these characters take residence at the Breach, a safe level above the Gungeon, where the player, prior to starting a new playthrough, can spend a type of in-game currency earned from boss fights to permanently unlock special items that will have a chance of appearing within the Gungeon for all subsequent playthroughs. In the game's "A Farewell to Arms" update, a new game mode, Rainbow Mode, assures that each level will contain one rainbow colored chest with a collection of guns in it, but the player can only select one gun from those, no other chests will be offered. Enter the Gungeon is set in the Gungeon, an eldritch dungeon on a distant planet named Gunymede, inhabited by living bullets and other strange gun-related lifeforms.
At an unspecified point in the past, a giant bullet from the sky destroyed a fortress, its resulting magic created a weapon of legendary proportions: The Gun That Can Kill The Past. The fortress was rebuilt with the highest of security measures to guard the gun, adventurers known as "gungeoneers" hailed from places over the galaxy to claim their chance at changing their past; the player can play as eight gungeoneers, each with their own stories and regrets, as they decide to enter the fortress and descend into the Gungeon to seek the legendary gun in order to defeat their past. Development on Enter the Gungeon started in 2014, with four Mythic Entertainment employees leaving the company to fulfill their own project just before the company would shut down that year. According to developer Dave Crooks, he had been listening to the soundtrack to the game Gun Godz by Vlambeer, the name "gungeon" came to him the next day. Crooks presented the name Enter the Gungeon to his fellow team members, they fleshed out the game's lore over a lunch meeting and spent the next few weeks to prototype the game mechanics.
Though Crooks stated that The Binding of Isaac was one of the game's biggest influences, they were influenced by Nuclear Throne, Dark Souls and Metal Gear Solid. Dungeons in the game are generated in a procedural manner, but they found it was better to handcraft the individual rooms, playtesting those individually, using their random generation to connect these rooms into a dungeon; the designs of the guns took place over the two years of development, with most of the designs by team artist Joe Harty. The boss character designs were made by a combination of ideas from Crooks and Harty, which fed into the gameplay programmer David Rubel to determine appropriate bullet hell patterns associated with that idea; the dodge roll mechanic was inspired by trying to include a similar mechanic of Ikaruga that enabled a player to dodge numerous bullets and took the ideas used in the Dark Souls series to have the character dodge out of the way. The team loved this mechanic so much that t
Three Sailors and a Girl is a 1953 Technicolor musical film made by Warner Bros. It was directed by Roy Del Ruth and written by Devery Freeman and Roland Kibbee, based on the George S. Kaufman play The Butter and Egg Man. Ray Heindorf was the musical director, with orchestrations by Gus Levene, vocal arrangements by Norman Luboff. Choreography was by LeRoy Prinz; the soundtrack features original songs with music composed by lyrics by Sammy Cahn. As was the practice at the time, the soundtrack album was a studio recording; the Capitol Records album was released early in 1954, featured eight of the songs from the Fein/Cahn songwriting team. The film's stars Jane Powell and Gordon MacRae are the featured vocalists. George Greeley conducted the chorus; the album was re-issued and released on CD in 2006. While their submarine is docked in New York City, three sailors on liberty invest the money they've earned at sea in a Broadway musical and its up-and-coming star. Choirboy Jones carries. Joe Woods, producing a new show starring the singer Emilio Rossi, is delighted to find a new investor, but female lead Penny Weston is worried that the boys are in over their heads.
After the show's out-of-town opening is a flop, Woods and the author want out. Penny consults some distinguished Broadway artists for their advice, which includes casting the talented singer Jones, dancer Twitch and comic Porky in key roles; the show is a smash and the sailors reap a handsome return on their investment, with Jones and Penny falling in love as a bonus. Jane Powell as Penny Weston Gordon MacRae as "Choirboy" Jones Gene Nelson as Twitch Sam Levene as Joe Woods Jack E. Leonard as Porky George Givot as Emilio Rossi Veda Ann Borg as Faye Foss Archer MacDonald as Webster Raymond Greenleaf as Morrow Henry Slate as Hank the SailorBurt Lancaster made an uncredited cameo appearance at the end, playing a Marine who hesitantly asks about taking over the starring role in the musical after Jones has to return to the Navy. Joe Woods brushes him off; when a woman asks why he was so brusque, Joe tells her that the Marine looked too much like Burt Lancaster. Merv Griffin appeared uncredited as one of the sailors.
Trackin' is an album by saxophonist Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis recorded in 1962 for the Prestige label. Critic Don Nelsen wrote in his Down Beat review in the December 19, 1963 issue: "This is a blue-chip performance from Davis & Co; as usual the tenorist swings with big sound and unabashed attack, but has he been so inventive with his horn as he is here."The Allmusic review states "A five piece with Don Patterson on the Hammond B-3 and Paul Weeden on guitar". "There Will Never Be Another You" - 4:46 "What's New?" - 4:00 "Too Marvelous for Words" - 4:35 "A Foggy Day" - 5:07 "Beano" - 5:18 "Day by Day" - 6:45 "Robbins Nest" - 5:38 Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis - tenor saxophone Don Patterson - organ Paul Weeden - guitar George Duvivier - bass Billy James - drums