New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Norman John Rowe AM is an Australian singer and songwriter of pop music and an actor of theatre and soap opera for which he remains best known as Douglas Fletcher in 1980s serial Sons and Daughters. As a singer he was credited for his bright and edgy tenor dynamic stage presence. Many of Rowe's most successful recordings were produced by Nat Kipner and by Pat Aulton, house producers for the Sunshine Records label. Backed by his band, The Playboys, Rowe released a string of Australian pop hits on the label that kept him at the top of the Australian charts and made him the most popular solo performer of the mid-1960s. Rowe's double-sided hit the A-side, a reworking of the Doris Day hit "Que Sera Sera" /with b-side "Shakin' All Over" was one of the most successful Australian singles of the 1960s. Between 1965 and 1967 Rowe was Australia's most popular male star but his career was cut short when he was drafted for compulsory military service in late 1967, his subsequent tour of duty in Vietnam ended his pop career and having never been able to recapture the success in music he enjoyed at his peak in the 1960s, instead carving out a career in theatre and television.
Rowe was born in Melbourne. He was drawn to music early in life, he began singing with his local church choir in Melbourne while at primary school. He was hooked on rock and roll music before his teens and Col Joye became one of his early idols and inspirations, he took up guitar and formed his first amateur band, The Valiants, whilst attending Northcote High School. They performed once a month at Alphington Methodist Hall, he concentrated on singing and made his first stage appearance as a lead vocalist in a music school concert, aged 14. When I was just aspiring to be a singer, only nine years of age, Col Joye was my idol, he was the boy. In fact it was as my first concert, at the Lou Toppano Music School end of the year concert in 1959 or'60, that I sang Col's "Rock'n' Rollin' Clementine". I still have the trophy, it reads: "The Best Performance of the Night". By luck, the show was compered by top Melbourne radio DJ Stan Rofe. Rofe was impressed by Rowe's talent and arranged for him to work with local dance promoter Kevin McClellan.
He began performing at Melbourne dances and discos, backed by instrumental groups like The Thunderbirds, The Impostors and The Playboys, who became his permanent band until 1967. After leaving high school at the end of 1962, Rowe had joined the Postmaster-General's Department on 14 January 1963, he worked as a trainee technician, but in late 1964 his long hair became an issue with his employers and, in the face of a "cut it or quit" ultimatum, he left the PMG to become a professional entertainer. Working on the Melbourne dance circuit, he became a popular attraction and it was not long before he was picked to become a regular on Melbourne pop TV shows like Teen Scene and The Go!! Show. According to music historian Ed Nimmervoll, EMI had the chance to sign him but turned him down, claiming that he could not sing, he was signed to a recording deal with the independent label Sunshine which included a management deal with the Ivan Dayman organisation. Rowe's first single, released in April 1965, was a brooding "beat" arrangement of Gershwin's "It Ain't Necessarily So" a choice suggested by Stan Rofe.
It was a Number 1 hit in Melbourne and a Top Ten hit in most other capitals cities though Sydney pop station 2SM banned it because of its sacrilegious lyrics. The inspiration for Rowe's version was a 1963 version by the United Kingdom band Ian and the Zodiacs; some references cite the course as a version by The Merseybeats, but that band never recorded "It Ain't Necessarily So". The name of the Ian & The Zodiacs' album This Is Merseybeat has been confused with the name of the band The Merseybeats. Rowe's first LP was released in July 1965, his second single, released in August, was a cover of Ben E. King's "I", it became his second Top 10 hit. Although Rowe's third single, "I Confess" / "Everything's Alright", was withdrawn before or soon after release, the next single became the biggest hit of his career; the A-side was a cover of "Que Sera Sera", given a "Merseybeat" treatment. Paired with a powerful version of the Johnny Kidd & The Pirates' classic "Shakin' All Over", the single became a double-sided No. 1 hit in most capitals in September, charting for 28 weeks and selling in unprecedented numbers—rock historian Ian McFarlane reports sales of 80,000 copies while 1970s encyclopedist Noel McGrath claimed sales of 100,000, it is reputed to be the biggest-selling Australian single of the 1960s.
Normie scored another first in October by having three hit singles in the Melbourne Top 40 simultaneously. An oft-repeated story that the whistle used in the arrangement was an innovation by the record's producer appears to be unfounded because similar arrangements, complete with whistle, had been recorded on earlier versions by Earl Royce & The Olympics and by The High Keys. Rowe's success continued through late 1965 and into the first half of 1966, during which time he scored another three consecutive Top Ten s
Small Faces were an English rock band from East London. The group was founded in 1965 by members Steve Marriott, Ronnie Lane, Kenney Jones, Jimmy Winston, although by 1966 Winston was replaced by Ian McLagan as the band's keyboardist; the band is remembered as one of the most acclaimed and influential mod groups of the 1960s with memorable hit songs such as "Itchycoo Park", "Lazy Sunday", "All or Nothing", "Tin Soldier", as well as their concept album Ogdens' Nut Gone Flake. They evolved into one of the UK's most successful psychedelic bands until 1969; the Small Faces never disbanded. This practice has continued on all subsequent North American reissues of the album to this day. A revived version of the original Small Faces existed from 1975 to 1978. Small Faces were one of the biggest musical influences on the Britpop movement of the 1990s. Despite the fact the band were together for just four years in their original incarnation, Small Faces' music output from the mid to late sixties remains among the most acclaimed British mod and psychedelic music of that era.
They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2012. Lane and Marriott met in 1965 while Marriott was working at the J60 Music Bar in London. Lane came in with his father Stan to buy a bass guitar, struck up a conversation with Marriott, bought the bass and went back to Marriott's house after work to listen to records, they recruited friends Kenney Jimmy Winston, who switched from guitar to the organ. They progressed from rehearsals at The Ruskin Arms public house in Manor Park, London, to ramshackle pub gigs, to semi-professional club dates; the group chose the name, Small Faces, because of the members' small physical stature and "A'Face' was somebody special, more than just a snappy dresser, he was someone in Mod circles as a leader, someone to look up to. A Face had the sharpest clothes, the best records and always was seen with the prettiest girl on his arm."The band's early song set included R&B/soul classics such as "Jump Back", James Brown's "Please Please Please", Smokey Robinson's "You've Really Got a Hold on Me" and Ben E. King's "Stand by Me".
The band performed two Marriott/Lane original compositions, a fast and loud "Come on Children" and the "speed enhanced" song "E too D", in which Marriott would display his considerable vocal abilities in the style of his heroes and role models, Otis Redding and Bobby Bland. "E too D", which appears on their first album, Small Faces, is named after the guitar chord structure. On US compilation albums the track is titled "Running Wild". Marriott's unique and powerful voice attracted rising attention. Singer Elkie Brooks was struck by Marriott's vocal prowess and stage presence, recommended them to a local club owner, Maurice King. Impressed, King began finding them work in London and beyond, their first out-of-town concert was at a working men's club in Sheffield. Since the crowd was made up of Teddy boys and hard-drinking workers, the band were paid off after three songs. Despondent, they walked into the mod-orientated King Mojo Club nearby and offered to perform for free, they played a set. During a crucial residency at Leicester Square's Cavern Club, they were supported by Sonny & Cher, who were living in London at the time.
The band signed a management contract with management impresario Don Arden, they were in turn signed to Decca Records for recording. They released a string of high-energy mod/soul singles on the label, their debut single was in 1965 with "Whatcha Gonna Do About It", a Top 20 UK singles chart hit. Marriott and Lane are credited with creating the instrumental to the song, "borrowing" the guitar riff from the Solomon Burke record "Everybody Needs Somebody to Love"; the lyrics were co-written by Drifters band member Ian Brian Potter. The group failed to capitalise on the success of their first single with the follow-up, written by Marriott/Lane, the hard-edged mod number "I've Got Mine"; the band appeared as themselves in a 1965 crime film titled Dateline Diamonds starring Kenneth Cope as the band's manager and it featured the band playing their second single release. Arden thought. Shortly thereafter, Jimmy Winston left the band for an music solo career, he became a successful business man. In a 2000 interview, Kenney Jones'stated' the reason Winston was fired from the band was because "He got above his station and tried to compete with Steve Marriott."
Reality is. Winston was replaced by Ian McLagan, whose keyboard talents and diminutive stature fit with the groove of the band perfectly; the new Small Faces line-up hit the charts with their third single, "Sha-La-La-La-Lee", released on 28 January 1966. It was written for the group by popular English entertainer and singer Kenny Lynch; the song was a big hit in Britain, peaking at number three in the UK singles chart. Their first album, Small Faces, released on 11 May 1966, was a
The Palais Theatre is a multi-use events venue located in the Melbourne suburb of St Kilda. Opening in 1919 as a cinema, the structure was destroyed in a fire, in 1925; the renovated theatre opened in 1927. With a capacity of nearly 3,000 people, it is the largest seated theatre in Australia, it is one of the few early 20th century picture palaces to survive in Australia, is included on the Victorian Heritage Register. It is a major local landmark, an important part of the early 20th century development of the St Kilda beach foreshore as an entertainment precinct; the Palais Theatre was owned by the Phillips brothers from Spokane, Washington, associated with fellow American showman James Dixon Williams, with whom they established Luna Park on the adjacent site in 1912. Williams left the partnership and returned to the United States in about 1913, leaving the Phillips brothers to expand their entertainment business; the Phillips' next ventures were a series of dance halls and picture theatres on the site across a small road from Luna Park.
They began in 1913 with the first Palais de Danse, on the site of the current Palais Theatre. In 1915, this building was converted into the Palais Pictures. In 1919, an arched truss steel-framed structure, to be a new Palais Pictures was built over the old Palais, dismantled and relocated next door, to the north, becoming a dance hall again, the twin towered arched roofed Palais de Danse. In 1922 the interior of Palais De Danse was remodelled to a design by the architect Walter Burley Griffin. In 1925, Griffin was again employed to design a substantial remodelling of the Palais Pictures next door; the Philips brothers commissioned a new architect, theatre specialist Henry E. White, to build a larger, grander theatre; this renovated theatre, with the largest seating capacity outside the main central city theatres, was opened by the Mayor of St Kilda on 12 November 1927. The next night the first films screened were "Across the Pacific", starring Monte Blue, "Rough House Rosie", starring Clara Bow, with interval entertainment provided by Harry Jacobs and his orchestra.
When the last of the Phillips brothers died in 1957, the Palais, the Palais de Danse and Luna Park were sold to local entrepreneurs. A brass plaque, still in place on the second level of the Palais, bears a tribute to Leon Phillips from members of the American community of Victoria; the theatre, which had operated as a cinema until the 1950s, became popular as a live performance venue, hosting top overseas stars such as Johnnie Ray, Bob Hope, the Rolling Stones, Tom Jones and many others. At some point in the 1950s, the name was changed from Palais Pictures to Palais Theatre, reflecting its new role, the neon sign on the front was changed accordingly. In the 1960s and 70s, the Palais hosted live acts and opera and ballet; the Bolshoi Theatre, the Kirov Ballet, Stars of World Ballet performed, it was the Melbourne venue for The Australian Ballet, who premiered Anne Woolliams' production of Swan Lake on 19 October 1977, its first commissioned Nutcracker choreographed by Leonid Kozlov and Valentina Kozlova on 8 October 1982.
The Melbourne Film Festival was based at the Palais from 1962 until 1982. Jesus Christ Superstar played at the Palais in 1973 and 1976, Joan Sutherland appeared with the Australian Opera in The Merry Widow in 1979. In 1974/5, a Warner Brothers movie, A Film about Jimi Hendrix, had its Australian premiere at the Palais by special arrangement with the Paul Dainty Corporation; this was the first time that a 1,000 watt sound system was used at a cinema screening in Australia. In the mid 2000s, the City of Port Phillip, managers of the land, proposed a large scale redevelopment of the St Kilda'Triangle', the site including the Palais and the adjacent car park; the lease of the site and building, nearing its end, was not renewed with the lessee, who controversially removed a number of items, notably the spanish style lobby chandelier. After various court cases, it was determined that their ownership by the former lessee was valid, they remain in storage as of 2017. Between 2007 and 2016 the venue was managed by Palais Theatre Management Pty Ltd, a body set up by the local City of Port Phillip.
In 2016 a new 30 year lease was granted to Live Nation, the Premier of Victoria Daniel Andrews announced a $20 million restoration. The renovated theatre, repainted in its original sand colour after decades as off-white, reopened in May 2017. Typical of 1920s picture theatres, the architectural style is ornate and exotic; the arched roof and twin domed towers of the facade is an arrangement shared by other entertainment buildings in the foreshore area, notably Luna Park next door, the St Kilda Sea Baths, long demolished landmarks like the Palais de Danse to the north, the St. Moritz Ice Rink on the Upper Esplanade; the architect Henry White stated that he adopted no particular style in the design of the Palais Pictures building, the interior has been described at times as Spanish, French and Italian. The exterior does features Spanish Baroque detailing on top of the towers, while the interior is broadly Neoclassical with tall columns and pilasters and a shallow dome in the auditorium, with elaborate textured plaster surfaces and detailing in the Adam style, extensive concealed lighting.
The movie Stork, featuring Jacki Weaver and Bruce Spence, premiered at the theatre in 1971 The theatre is featured in the 1976 Australian film Oz Michael Nesmith, former member of the 1960s group the Monkees, recorded an album at the theatre titled
Herman's Hermits are an English beat rock band, formed in Manchester in 1964. Called Herman & The Hermits, they were discovered by Harvey Lisberg, who signed them up to management. Lisberg sent a return plane ticket to Mickie Most so that he could come up from London to see the band play in Bolton. Most became the group's record producer, he emphasised a simple, non-threatening, clean-cut image, although the band played R&B numbers. This helped, their first hit was a cover of Earl-Jean's "I'm into Something Good", which reached No. 1 in the UK Singles Chart and No. 13 in the US in late 1964. They never topped the British charts again, but had two US Billboard Hot 100 No.1s with "Mrs. Brown, You've Got a Lovely Daughter" and "I'm Henry the Eighth, I Am"; these songs were aimed with Noone exaggerating his Mancunian accent. In the US, their records were released on the MGM label, a company which featured musical performers signed to record deals in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer films; the Hermits appeared in several MGM movies, including When the Boys Meet the Girls and Hold On!.
They starred in the film Mrs. Brown You've Got a Lovely Daughter and appeared in the 1965 anthology film Pop Gear. Herman's Hermits had four Top 3 hits in the US in 1965, with the aforementioned No. 1 hits, "Listen People", "Can't You Hear My Heartbeat". They recorded The Rays' "Silhouettes", Sam Cooke's "Wonderful World", "Just a Little Bit Better", "A Must to Avoid" in 1965. On Chicago radio station WLS "Mrs. Brown" and "Silhouettes" were 1–2 on 14 May 1965 and exchanged positions the next week, a distinction matched only by The Beatles' "I Want to Hold Your Hand" and "She Loves You" during 14 February–6 March 1964; the group appeared on The Dean Martin Show and The Jackie Gleason Show. Continued success in the US proved elusive beyond 1967, although they had as many Top Ten hits in Britain in the period 1967 through 1970 as they had had there in the years of the mid-'sixties when the band were wowing American audiences and British audiences seemed more diffident. By the time the group recorded their final album of the 1960s, Rock'n' Roll Party, the band's success in the US was history and the album was not released by MGM there.
Peter Noone left the band in 1971. Herman's Hermits reunited in 1973 to headline a successful British invasion tour of the US culminating with a standing-room-only performance at Madison Square Garden and an appearance on The Midnight Special. A lineup with lead guitarist Derek Leckenby and drummer Barry Whitwam as the remaining original members opened for The Monkees on their 80s reunion tours of the US; the band still continues to tour today, with Whitwam as the only remaining member from the original lineup. Herman's Hermits was formed from two different local bands. Keith Hopwood, Karl Green, Alan Wrigley, Steve Titterington and Peter Noone came from the Heartbeats; the second-youngest member of a young group, 15-year-old Noone was an experienced actor on the popular British TV soap opera Coronation Street. Derek "Lek" Leckenby and Barry Whitwam joined from another local group, the Wailers. Whitwam replaced Titterington on drums, Green switched to bass guitar, Leckenby took over for Green as lead guitarist.
After Leckenby joined the band, the group made a deal with producer Mickie Most and signed with EMI's Columbia label in Europe and MGM Records in the United States. The band's name came from a resemblance, noted by a publican in Manchester, between Noone and Sherman in the Rocky and Bullwinkle cartoon. Sherman was shortened to Herman, became Herman and his Hermits, soon shortened to Herman's Hermits; the band played on most of its singles, including "I'm into Something Good", "Listen People", "Can't You Hear My Heartbeat", "Leaning on a Lamp Post", "Mrs. Brown, You've Got a Lovely Daughter", "A Must to Avoid", "You Won't Be Leaving", "I'm Henry VIII, I Am". Leckenby soloed on "Henry", Hopwood played rhythm guitar on "Mrs. Brown". Despite the group's competent musicianship, some subsequent singles employed session musicians – including Big Jim Sullivan, Jimmy Page, John Paul Jones, Vic Flick and Bobby Graham – with contributions from the band, although the role of session players on Herman's Hermits records has been exaggerated in the rock media and in liner notes on their ABKCO Records Retrospective.
Mickie Most used session musicians on many records he produced. Such respected groups as The Yardbirds were required by Most to use session musicians on their Most-produced recordings. Continuing acrimony among former members of Herman's Hermits has increased the amount of misinformation about the group's role on their records. Mickie Most commented on the VH1 My Generation: Herman's Hermits episode that the Hermits "played on a lot of their records, and
Network 10 is an Australian commercial television network. One of five national free-to-air networks, 10's owned-and-operated stations can be found in the state capital cities of Sydney, Brisbane and Perth, while affiliates extend the network to regional areas of the country; the network is owned by a subsidiary of CBS Studios International. From the introduction of TV in 1956 until 1965 there were only two commercial television networks in Australia, the National Television Network and the Australian Television Network, as well as the public Australian Broadcasting Commission. In the early 1960s, the Australian Government began canvassing the idea of licensing a third commercial television station in each capital city; this decision was seen by some as a way for the government to defuse growing public dissatisfaction with the dominance of imported overseas programming and the paucity of local content. The first of these "third" licences was granted to United Telecasters Sydney was granted on 4 April 1963.
Structurally, the Australian television industry was modelled on the two-tiered system, in place in Australian radio since the late 1930s. One tier consisted of a network of publicly funded television stations run by the ABC, funded by government budget allocation and by fees from television viewer licences; the second tier consisted of the commercial networks and independent stations owned by private operators, whose income came from selling advertising time. The network was launched as ATV-0 in Melbourne opened on 1 August 1964 and was owned by the Ansett transport and media group, which at the time owned one of Australia's two domestic airlines. TEN-10 in Sydney, which opened on 5 April 1965, was owned by United Telecasters Sydney Ltd, which in July that year opened TVQ-0 in Brisbane, Queensland. Opened that month was SAS-10, serving the city of Adelaide in South Australia; the new television network was dubbed the "Independent Television System" or ITS, but in 1970 adopted the title "The 0/10 Network", which reflected the names of the first two stations launched in the group, ATV and TEN.
Melbourne's ATV was the first station of the network to stage colour broadcasts in 1967, the broadcast was that of the Pakenham races, seen by network and RCA executives and invited members of the media and press. This would the first of many test colour telecasts for the station, in tribute to this event, the 0-10 Network adopted the First in Colour slogan in 1974, within months before 1 March 1975 transition to colour broadcasting. For its first five years, the 0/10 Network led a hand-to-mouth existence. By the beginning of the 1970s the network was in a precarious financial position and there were predictions that it would fail. In 1971, the 0/10 Network first aired Young Talent Time, a huge ratings success, ran for 17 years. However, the network's true financial reprise came about due to the controversial adult soap opera serial Number 96, which premiered in March 1972 on the night that "Australian TV lost its virginity"; the series broke new ground for Australian television and captured the imagination of viewers like few programs before or since.
For the next three years it was Australia's top-rating television program and, not its huge popularity attracted advertisers to Ten en masse, with the result that its revenue increased from A$1 million in 1971 to more than A$10 million in 1972. However, the pattern of ratings dominance was set, for most of the next five decades from the mid-1960s there was little deviation from the prevalent rankings, with the Nine Network in first place, the Seven Network second, 0/10 third and ABC fourth; the gradual evolution of Network Ten into its current form has its origins in the ongoing attempts by media mogul Rupert Murdoch to acquire a prized commercial television licence in Australia's largest capital city market, Sydney. This began when Murdoch's News Limited purchased the Wollongong station WIN Television in the early 1960s, around the same time he bought Festival Records. In 1977, frustrated by regulatory blocks that prevented him from expanding into the Sydney market, Murdoch sold WIN and purchased a 46% share in Ten Sydney.
In 1979, Murdoch made an unsuccessful takeover bid for the Melbourne-based The Herald and Weekly Times media group, which owned HSV-7. Although the bid failed, he gained a 50% stake in Ansett, which thus gave him control of channel 0 in Melbourne. In 1979, 0/10 first aired the soap opera Prisoner, a huge ratings success. On 20 January 1980, the 0/10 Network became known as Network Ten to reflect ATV moving from channel 0 to channel 10 – although the Brisbane station continued to broadcast as TVQ-0 until 10 September 1988 when the station changed to TVQ-10. In 1987 Adelaide's Network Ten affiliate and Seven Network affiliate negotiated to exchange affiliation rights and channel frequencies due to ownership problems. On 27 December 1987, the exchange came into effect and ADS-7, owned by the same owners as the main Network Ten stations, became ADS-10 with SAS-10 converting to SAS-7, operated by TVW-7 in Perth; when Murdoch became an American citizen in 1985 so that he could expand his media empire in the United States, Australia's media ownership laws obliged him to dispose of the flagship television stations, which were sold to The Northern Star, an offshoot of the Westfield Group conglomerate controlled by property tycoon Frank Lowy.
However, Westfield was badly hit by the stock market crash of 1987, in 1989 sold Network Ten to a consortium led by Charles Curran and form
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most a military service. Conscription dates back to antiquity and continues in some countries to the present day under various names; the modern system of near-universal national conscription for young men dates to the French Revolution in the 1790s, where it became the basis of a large and powerful military. Most European nations copied the system in peacetime, so that men at a certain age would serve 1–8 years on active duty and transfer to the reserve force. Conscription is controversial for a range of reasons, including conscientious objection to military engagements on religious or philosophical grounds; those conscripted may evade service, sometimes by leaving the country, seeking asylum in another country. Some selection systems accommodate these attitudes by providing alternative service outside combat-operations roles or outside the military, such as Siviilipalvelus in Finland, Zivildienst in Austria and Switzerland.
Several countries conscript male soldiers not only for armed forces, but for paramilitary agencies, which are dedicated to police-like domestic only service like Internal Troops, Border Guards or non-combat rescue duties like Civil defence troops – none of, considered alternative to the military conscription. As of the early 21st century, many states no longer conscript soldiers, relying instead upon professional militaries with volunteers enlisted to meet the demand for troops; the ability to rely on such an arrangement, presupposes some degree of predictability with regard to both war-fighting requirements and the scope of hostilities. Many states that have abolished conscription therefore still reserve the power to resume it during wartime or times of crisis. States involved in wars or interstate rivalries are most to implement conscription, whereas democracies are less than autocracies to implement conscription. Former British colonies are less to have conscription, as they are influenced by British anticonscription norms that can be traced back to the English Civil War.
Around the reign of Hammurabi, the Babylonian Empire used. Under that system those eligible were required to serve in the royal army in time of war. During times of peace they were instead required to provide labour for other activities of the state. In return for this service, people subject to it gained the right to hold land, it is possible that this right was not to hold land per se but specific land supplied by the state. Various forms of avoiding military service are recorded. While it was outlawed by the Code of Hammurabi, the hiring of substitutes appears to have been practiced both before and after the creation of the code. Records show that Ilkum commitments could become traded. In other places, people left their towns to avoid their Ilkum service. Another option was to sell Ilkum lands and the commitments along with them. With the exception of a few exempted classes, this was forbidden by the Code of Hammurabi. In medieval Scandinavia the leiðangr, leding, lichting, expeditio or sometimes leþing, was a levy of free farmers conscripted into coastal fleets for seasonal excursions and in defence of the realm.
The bulk of the Anglo-Saxon English army, called the fyrd, was composed of part-time English soldiers drawn from the freemen of each county. In the 690s Laws of Ine, three levels of fines are imposed on different social classes for neglecting military service; some modern writers claim. These thegns were the land-holding aristocracy of the time and were required to serve with their own armour and weapons for a certain number of days each year; the historian David Sturdy has cautioned about regarding the fyrd as a precursor to a modern national army composed of all ranks of society, describing it as a "ridiculous fantasy":The persistent old belief that peasants and small farmers gathered to form a national army or fyrd is a strange delusion dreamt up by antiquarians in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries to justify universal military conscription. Medieval levy in Poland was known as the pospolite ruszenie; the system of military slaves was used in the Middle East, beginning with the creation of the corps of Turkish slave-soldiers by the Abbasid caliph al-Mu'tasim in the 820s and 830s.
The Turkish troops soon came to dominate the government, establishing a pattern throughout the Islamic world of a ruling military class separated by ethnicity and religion by the mass of the population, a paradigm that found its apogee in the Mamluks of Egypt and the Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire, institutions that survived until the early 19th century. In the middle of the 14th century, Ottoman Sultan Murad I developed personal troops to be loyal to him, with a slave army called the Kapıkulu; the new force was built by taking Christian children from newly conquered lands from the far areas of his empire, in a system known as the devşirme. The captive children were forced to convert to Islam; the Sultans had the young boys trained over several years. Those who showed special promise in fighting skills were trained in advanced warrior skills, put into the sultan's personal service, turned into the Janissaries, the elite branch of the Kapıkulu. A n