Goal (sports)

In sport, a goal is a physical structure or area where an attacking team must send the ball or puck in order to score points. In several sports, a goal is the sole method of scoring, thus the final score is expressed in the total number of goals scored by each team. In other sports, a goal may be one of several scoring methods, thus may be worth a different set number of points than the others; the structure of a goal varies from sport to sport. Most it is a rectangular structure, placed at each end of the playing field; each structure consists of two vertical posts, called goal posts, supporting a horizontal crossbar. A goal line marked on the playing surface between the goal posts demarcates the goal area. Thus, the objective is to send the ball or puck between the goal posts, under or over the crossbar, across the goal line. Less as in basketball or netball, goals are ring-shaped; the structure is accompanied with an auxiliary net, which stops or slows down the ball when a goal is scored. In some sports, the goal is the sole method of scoring.

In these sports the final score is expressed as the number of goals scored by each team, with the winner being the team that accumulated more over the specified time period. In other sports, a goal is the primary, but not the sole method of scoring. In these sports, the goal is worth a set number of points, there is another method of scoring which scores fewer points. In these sports, the score is expressed as the number of goals plus the number of alternate scores and the combined total of points with the winner being decided on total points. For example, in Australian rules football the score may be expressed as follows: Brisbane 9.12 def. Sydney 10.4 In this example Sydney scored 4 behinds for a total of 64 points. Brisbane scored 12 behinds for a total of 66 points. Despite having fewer goals, Brisbane won the game. Other sports may use multiple methods of scoring, with the points earned for each type of score varying. In these sports, the object of the game is to score a greater number of total points than the opponent.

Scores are expressed as numbers of points. In many games, at each end of the field of play, there are two vertical posts supporting a horizontal crossbar. In some games, such as association football or hockey, the object is to pass the ball between the posts below the crossbar, while in others, such as those based on rugby, the ball must pass over the crossbar instead. In Gaelic football and hurling, in which the goalposts are similar to those used in rugby, the ball can be kicked either under the crossbar for a goal, or over the crossbar between the posts for a point; the vertical supports are called goal posts and the horizontal top is called the crossbar. A goal in these games requires that the ball or puck be sent between the posts, under the crossbar and behind the goal line. In Australian rules football, there is no crossbar but four uprights instead. In netball, a single post at each end of the court supports a horizontal hoop that the ball must fall through. In basketball, the hoop and net used for scoring can be supported on a post or mechanism at each end, or in smaller buildings attached directly to the wall.

Sports based on scoring goals include: The goal is the only method of scoring in several games. In each of these cases the winner is the team. In association football the goal is the only method of scoring, it is used to refer to the scoring structure. An attempt on goal is referred to as a "shot". To score a goal, the ball must pass over the goal line between the goal posts and under the crossbar and no rules may be violated on the play. See offside; the goal structure is defined as a frame 24 feet wide by 8 feet tall. In most organized levels of play a net is attached behind the goal frame to catch the ball and indicate that a goal has been scored. A goal in handball is scored when the ball is thrown over the goal line, below the crossbar and between the goal posts; the goal structure in team handball is 3 metres wide. A net is required to catch the ball. In hockey, a goal is scored when the ball or puck passes over the goal line under the crossbar and between the goal posts, after being shot from with a semicircle 14.63 metres from the goal.

The goal structure in field hockey is 3.66 metres wide by 2.14 metres tall. Nets are required to hold the ball in. In ice hockey, scoring a goal is similar to scoring a goal in football; the puck must be put over the goal line between the posts and under the bar either off an offensive player's stick or off any part of a defensive player's body. The puck may not be kicked, batted, or thrown into the goal, though a goal may be awarded if the puck is inadvertently deflected off an offensive player's skate or body into the goal; the goal structure is a frame 6 feet wide with a net attached. In most higher levels of play the goal structure is attached to the ice surface by flexible pegs and will break away for safety when hit by a player; the goal is placed within the playing surface, players may play the puck behind the goal. Another similarity is in bandy. Like in association football, the only way of scoring in bandy is to make a goal and the goal is used to refer to the scoring structure. If n

Ollie Hopkins

Oliver Thomas Hopkins was an English footballer who played as a centre half. In May 1954, Hopkins joined Barnsley from Burtonwood. Although a centre half by trade, Hopkins played as a striker for the club, scoring a hat-trick in a 3–2 away win against Newport County on 13 March 1954. After making 54 appearances in all competitions for Barnsley, Hopkins signed for Peterborough United in 1961. Hopkins made 104 Football League appearances at Peterborough over the course of four years, before signing for Chelmsford City following recommendations by former Barnsley teammates Peter Gillott and Ron Smillie. Hopkins made 91 appearances in his first spell at Chelmsford, before signing for Brentwood Town in 1967. In 1970, Hopkins returned to Chelmsford, following a merger between both clubs, in a coaching capacity as well as making three final appearances. In 1974, Hopkins left the club, following Dave Bumpstead's departure as manager. In 1978, Hopkins was appointed manager of Chelmsford, following a two year period managing the club's reserves.

In 2010, Hopkins was named president of Chelmsford, after witnessing his son and grandson turn out for the club

Bill Novey

William'Bill' Novey was an American special effects guru in Hollywood, Head of Special Effects at Walt Disney Imagineering in the 1970s, co-founder of Art & Technology, Inc. with Disney executive Joe Garlington in the 1980s. At Disney, Novey was tasked with overseeing 6000 special effects in the Epcot Center near Orlando and Tokyo Disneyland, he invented over 300 projectors and helped inspire a new wave of special effects and technological innovations including the first use of holograms and vector-scanning laser projections in a theme park. At Art & Technology, Novey developed a number of memorable special effects and high-tech exhibits seen in various theme parks around the world, including the first motion-simulator in a museum. Novey holds a number of US patents, he was born William E. Novey in 1948 in Illinois. Novey earned bachelor's degrees in mechanical and electrical engineering, a Master's in Theater Technology from California Institute of the Arts, he was married to entertainment executive Jody Van Meter.

He died in 1991 at age 43 from Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. He is buried at the Mount Sinai Memorial Park Cemetery in the Hollywood Hills. In October 2008, a bench was donated in Novey's honor in the Garden Walk at the library in his hometown of Downers Grove, Illinois with an inscription that reads: “William E. Novey, Who Made the World a Happier Place."