A touchdown is a scoring play in both American and Canadian football. Whether running, returning a kickoff or punt, or recovering a turnover, a team scores a touchdown by advancing the ball into the opponent's end zone. To score a touchdown, one team must take the football into the opposite end zone. In all gridiron codes, the touchdown is scored the instant the ball touches or "breaks" the plane of the goal line while in possession of a player whose team is trying to score in that end zone; this particular requirement of the touchdown is the exact opposite of the prerequisite to score most sports in which points are scored by moving a ball or equivalent object into a goal where the whole of the relevant object must cross the whole of the goal line for a score to be awarded. The play is dead and the touchdown scores the moment the ball touches plane in possession of a player, or the moment the ball comes into possession of an offensive player in the end zone; the slightest part of the ball touching or being directly over the goal line is sufficient for a touchdown to score.
However, only the ball counts, not a player's foot, or any other part of the body. Touching one of the pylons at either end of the goal line with the ball constitutes "breaking the plane" as well. Touchdowns are scored by the offense by running or passing the ball; the former is called a rushing touchdown, in the latter, the quarterback throws a touchdown pass or passing touchdown to the receiver, who makes a touchdown reception. However, the defense can score a touchdown if they have recovered a fumble or made an interception and return it to the opposing end zone. Special teams can score a touchdown on a kickoff or punt return, or on a return after a missed or blocked field goal attempt or blocked punt. In short, any play in which a player carries the ball across the goal line scores a touchdown, the manner in which he gained possession is inconsequential. In the NFL, a touchdown may be awarded by the referee as a penalty for a "palpably unfair act," such as a player coming off the bench during a play and tackling the runner, who would otherwise have scored.
A touchdown is worth six points. The scoring team is awarded the opportunity for an extra point or a two-point conversion. Afterwards, the team that scored the touchdown kicks off to the opposing team, if there is any time left. Unlike a try scored in rugby, contrary to the event's name, the ball does not need to touch the ground when the player and the ball are inside the end zone; the term touchdown is a holdover from gridiron's early days when the ball was required to be touched to the ground as in rugby, as rugby and gridiron were still similar sports at this point. This rule was changed to the modern-day iteration in 1889; when the first uniform rules for American football were enacted by the newly formed Intercollegiate Football Association following the 1876 Rugby season, a touchdown counted for 1⁄4 of a kicked goal and allowed the offense the chance to kick for goal by placekick or dropkick from a spot along a line perpendicular to the goal line and passing through the point where the ball was touched down, or through a process known as a "punt-out", where the attacking team would kick the ball from the point where it was touched down to a teammate.
If the teammate could fair catch the ball, he could follow with a try for goal from the spot of the catch, or resume play as normal. The governing rule at the time read: "A match shall be decided by a majority of touchdowns. A goal shall be equal to four touchdowns. In 1881, the rules were modified so that a goal kicked from a touchdown took precedence over a goal kicked from the field in breaking ties. In 1882, four touchdowns were determined to take precedence over a goal kicked from the field. Two safeties were equivalent to a touchdown. In 1883, points were introduced to football, a touchdown counted as four points. A goal after a touchdown counted as four points. In 1889, the provision requiring the ball to be touched to the ground was removed. A touchdown was now scored by possessing the ball beyond the goal line. In 1897, the touchdown scored five points, the goal after touchdown added another point. In 1900, the definition of touchdown was changed to include situations where the ball becomes dead on or above the goal line.
In 1912, the value of a touchdown was increased to six points. The end zone was added. Before the addition of the end zone, forward passes caught beyond the goal line resulted in a loss of possession and a touchback; the increase from five points to six did not come until much in Canada, the touchdown remained only five points there until 1956. In addition, the score continued to be called a try in Canada until the second half of the twentieth century; the ability to score a touchdown on the point-after attempt was added to NCAA football in 1958, high school football in 1969, the CFL in 1975 and the NFL in 1994. The short-lived World Football League, a professional American football league that operated in 1974 and 1975, gave touchdowns a 7-point value. American football scoring Conversion Touchdown celebration Touchdown Jesus Touchdown pass Conversion
Junior varsity team
Junior varsity players are the members of a team who are not the main players in a competition at the high school and college levels in the United States. The main players comprise the varsity team. Although the intensity of the JV team may vary from place to place, most junior varsity teams consist of players who are in their freshman and sophomore years in school, though upperclassmen may play on JV teams. For this reason, junior varsity teams are often called freshman/sophomore teams. Skilled or physically mature freshmen and sophomores may compete at the varsity level; some private school associations may permit skilled seventh- or eighth-graders to compete on varsity teams. At larger schools, there may be two junior varsity teams for some sports, with a lower-level team consisting only of freshmen. Members of a junior varsity team are underclassmen determined by the coaching staff to have less experience or ability than those on the varsity roster; as such, junior varsity teams are used to prepare these athletes to compete at the varsity level.
In other schools, the line between JV and varsity is arbitrary, with all players at a certain grade level at varsity and all others below that grade level at JV, with only a few exceptions for talented student athletes, or much smaller schools where - due to their low enrollment - are limited in the number of upperclassmen athletes. Some teams require participation on a junior varsity team before being eligible to try out for a varsity team; these players can provide the varsity team with their service as back-up players. The NCAA prohibited true freshmen from playing varsity college football and basketball; the NCAA repealed this limitation in the 1970s. Many sports teams have assistant coaches responsible for developing the talent of junior varsity players. A coach may call on one or more junior varsity players during a varsity game when a varsity player is injured, is not performing well, or is disqualified from further competition. If a junior varsity player does well, they will see more playing time in the future or may get moved up to the varsity level.
A team will have many talented players, but the coach is unable to come up with a rotation that allows everyone to play. The decision of when to play junior varsity players in a one-sided game is at the coach's discretion; this depends on the coach's strategy, the time remaining in the game, the point margin, the game situation. The coach of a losing team—especially if the players are not good or they are inexperienced players—sometimes may continue to play the main players against the winning team's junior varsity players to give the team experience; when the winning team is ahead by a substantial margin late in the game, the coaches of both the winning and losing teams may "empty their benches" -- that is, they remove the varsity players and play the junior varsity players for the remainder of the game. The junior varsity players can impress coaches during this "garbage time" in hopes of gaining more playing time in subsequent games, while at the same time reducing the risk of serious injury by varsity players by resting them in a game whose outcome has been decided.
Some games have rules which allow unlimited use such as basketball. Other sports have different ways of determining junior varsity participants. For instance, in high school wrestling, there can only be one wrestler competing for a team at a particular weight class in a given varsity match; the team's representative is determined by a "challenge match," in which the top two wrestlers at that weight compete for the right to participate in the varsity match. The loser wrestles that night's junior varsity match. A similar format is used for golf and badminton, with players who lose to varsity opponents participating in the junior varsity part of the meet. Junior varsity games are specially-scheduled events in which junior varsity players play to gain skills and experience; these games may be played before a varsity contest. Records and statistics are kept for the junior varsity team, some leagues offer a junior varsity championship. An assistant coach acts as the head coach for these games. In states that use ratings systems to determine playoff participation, junior varsity games do not factor in, are played with less hoopla than varsity games.
Attendance is far less, bands and media coverage are not present. In some sports, such as tennis and golf, a junior varsity meet will take place with the varsity event. In track and field, a junior varsity "heat" of a particular event may take place either before or after the varsity "heat". An underclassman who plays on a junior varsity team one year is expected to gain enough experience to be one of the varsity players the next season. A team's head coach will attend a junior varsity games to evaluate skill and decide if a player is ready to play in the main part of a varsity game. Junior varsity teams may or may not travel with or take the field/court with the varsity team, or in particula
Line of scrimmage
In American and Canadian football, a line of scrimmage is an imaginary transverse line beyond which a team cannot cross until the next play has begun. Its location is based on the spot where the ball is placed after the end of the most recent play and following the assessment of any penalty yards. A line of scrimmage is parallel to the goal lines and touches one edge of the ball where it sits on the ground prior to the snap. Under NCAA, NFHS rules, there are two lines of scrimmage at the outset of each play: one that restricts the offense and one that restricts the defense; the area between the two lines is called the neutral zone. Only the offensive player who snaps the ball is allowed to have any part of his body in the neutral zone. In order for there to be a legal beginning of a play, at least seven players on the offensive team, including two eligible receivers, must be at, on or within a few inches of their line of scrimmage. In American football, the set distance of the line of scrimmage between the offense and defense is 11 inches, the length of the ball.
In Canadian football, the set distance of the line of scrimmage is 1 yard three times as long as the American line. Many fans and commentators refer colloquially to the entire neutral zone as the "line of scrimmage," although this is technically not correct. In the NFL rulebook, only the defensive-side restraining line is considered a line of scrimmage. Referees, when explaining a penalty, will refer to "the previous spot" instead of the "line of scrimmage" in order to avoid confusion. Modern video techniques enable broadcasts of American football to display a visible line on the screen representing the line of scrimmage; the line is tapered according to camera angle and gets occluded by players and other objects as if the line were painted on the field. The line may represent the line of scrimmage or the minimum distance that the ball must be moved for the offensive team to achieve a first down; the line of scrimmage first came into use in 1880. Developed by Walter Camp, it replaced a contested scrimmage that had descended from the game's rugby roots.
This uncontested line of scrimmage would set into motion many more rules that led to the formation of the modern form of American football. Scrummage Glossary of American football Walter Camp, formal creator of the line of scrimmage in 1880 Comparison of Canadian and American football
Hash marks are short lines, running perpendicular to sidelines or sideboards, used to mark locations in sports. In ice hockey, the hash marks are two pairs of parallel lines on either side of the face-off circles in both ends of the rink. Players must remain on their team's side of the hash mark nearest their own goal during a face-off until the puck hits the ice. In US football and Canadian football, the hash marks are two rows of lines near the middle of the field that are parallel to the side lines; these small lines are used to mark the 1-yard sections between each of the 5-yard lines, which go from sideline to sideline. All plays start with the ball between the hash marks; that is, if the ball is downed in between a hash mark and the nearest sideline, it must be placed on that hash mark for the next play. Prior to the adoption of hash marks, all plays began where the ball was declared dead, including extra point attempts; the hashmarks in that indoor 1932 playoff game were 10 yards from the sideline, that width was adopted by the NFL for the 1933 season.
It was increased to 15 yards in 1935, 20 yards in 1945, to the current 23 yards, 1 foot, 9 inches in 1972. In most forms of professional football in the U. S. including the National Football League and most forms of indoor football, the hash marks are in line with the goal posts, both being 18 feet 6 inches apart in the NFL and between 9 and 10 feet in indoor football. High school football, college football and Canadian football have hash marks wider than the goal posts; the college football standard, the previous standard in the NFL, is 40 feet apart, introduced in 1993. The college width was the same as the high school standard, at one-third of the width of the field; the Canadian standard is 51 feet in width, 24 yards from each sideline. A Canadian football field width is 65 yards, 35 feet wider than those in the United States
The "sidelines" are the white or colored lines which mark the outer boundaries of a sports field, running parallel to each other and perpendicular to the goal lines. The sidelines are where the coaching staff and players out of play operate during a game; the area outside the sidelines is said to be out of bounds. The term is predominantly in use in American football, Canadian football, field lacrosse and basketball. In rugby union, rugby league and association football, they are known as touch-lines; the foul line is a similar concept in baseball. Sports in which the playing surface is bounded by walls, such as ice hockey, box lacrosse, indoor football, do not use sidelines; the sideline can be used metaphorically to refer to players who have been "benched", meaning that they have been taken out of the game purposefully by the coaching staff due to poor performance in the game or previous play. Establishing shots of these players may be used by televised sports programs to indicate potential roster switches, or to build a narrative of the failure or success of the coaching staff's decision.
Images of the sideline may suggest that the highlighted player had done something of interest outside the confines of play. For example, in American football, dousing the head coach with water or sports drink is a popular way of celebrating crucial victories, established as a tradition by the New York Giants of the National Football League in the mid-1980s; the term "to be sidelined" refers to a player in a sports event, unable to play for injury, suspension, or other similar reasons. This term has spread into a business context.
High school football
High school football is gridiron football played by high school teams in the United States and Canada. It ranks among the most popular interscholastic sports in both countries, it is popular amongst American High school teams in Europe. High school football began in the late 19th century, concurrent with the start of many college football programs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many college and high school teams played against one another. Today, the oldest high school football rivalry dates back to 1875 in Connecticut, between the Norwich Free Academy Wildcats and the New London High School Whalers. High school football traditions such as pep rallies, marching bands and homecomings are mirrored from college football. No true minor league farm organizations exist in American football. Therefore, high school football is considered to be the third tier of American football in the United States, behind professional and college competition, it is the first level of play in which a player will accumulate statistics, which will determine his chances of competing at the college level, the professional level if he is talented enough.
In the 2000s and beyond, there has been growing concern about safety and long-term brain health, both regarding the occasional concussion as well as the steady diet of lesser hits to the head. The National Federation of State High School Associations establishes the rules of high school football in the United States; as of the next high school season of 2019, Texas is the only state that does not base its football rules on the NFHS rule set, instead using NCAA rules with certain exceptions shown below. Through the 2018 season, Massachusetts based its rules on those of the NCAA, but it adopted NFHS rules for 2019 and beyond. With their common ancestry, the NFHS rules of high school football are similar to the college game, though with some important differences: The four quarters are each 12 minutes in length, as opposed to 15 minutes in college and professional football. Kickoffs take place at the kicking team's 40-yard line, as opposed to the 35 in college and the NFL. If an attempted field goal is missed it is treated as a punt it would be a touchback and the opposing team will start at the 20-yard line.
However, if it does not enter the end zone, it can be returned as a normal punt. Any kick crossing the goal line is automatically a touchback; the spot of placement after all touchbacks—including those resulting from kickoffs and free kicks following a safety—is the 20-yard line of the team receiving possession. Contrast with NCAA and NFL rules, which call for the ball to be placed on the receiving team's 25-yard line if a kickoff or free kick after a safety results in a touchback. All fair catches result in the placement of the ball at the spot of the fair catch. Under NCAA rules, a kickoff or free kick after a safety that ends in a fair catch inside the receiving team's 25-yard line is treated as a touchback, with the ball spotted on the 25. Pass interference by the defense results in a 15-yard penalty, but no automatic first down. Pass interference by the offense results in a 15-yard penalty, from the previous spot, no loss of down; the defense cannot return an extra-point attempt for a score.
Any defensive player that encroaches the neutral zone, regardless of whether the ball was snapped or not, commits a "dead ball" foul for encroachment. 5-yard penalty from the previous spot. Prior to 2013, offensive pass interference resulted in a loss of down; the loss of down provision was deleted from the rules starting in 2013. In college and the NFL, offensive pass interference is only 10 yards; the use of overtime, the type of overtime used, is up to the individual state association. The NFHS offers a suggested overtime procedure based on the Kansas Playoff, but does not make its provisions mandatory. Intentional grounding may be called if the quarterback is outside the tackle box; the home team must wear dark-colored jerseys, the visiting team must wear white jerseys. In the NFL, as well as conference games in the Southeastern Conference, the home team has choice of jersey color. Under general NCAA rules, the home team may wear white with approval of the visiting team. NFHS rules prohibit the use of replay review if the venue has the facilities to support it.
In Texas, the public-school sanctioning body, the University Interscholastic League, only allows replay review in state championship games, while the main body governing non-public schools, the Texas Association of Private and Parochial Schools, follows the NFHS in banning replay review. At least one unique high school rule has been adopted by college football. In 1996, the overtime rules utilized by Kansas high school teams were adopted by the NCAA, although the NCAA has made two major modifications: starting each possession from the 25-yard line, starting with the third overtime period, requiring teams to attempt a two-point conversion following a touchdown. Thirty-four states have a mercy rule that comes into play during one-sided games after a prescribed scoring margin is surpassed at halftime or any point thereafter; the type of mercy rule varies from state to state, with many using a "continuous clock" after the scoring margin is reached, while other states end the game once the margin is reached or passed.
For example, Texas uses a 45-point mercy rule only in six-man football.
Wheelchair Football (American)
Wheelchair Football is a fast-paced sport, best played when athletes are in maximum physical condition, at the top of their game in teamwork and wheelchair-handling skills for both manual wheelchair and power wheelchair users. The sport of wheelchair football was developed for interscholastic competition by the American Association of Adapted Sports Programs of Atlanta, Georgia, USA to incorporate both the manual and power wheelchair during game play. Wheelchair football is different from that of power football because the sport has been patterned after the game of American football and the rules are similar as such; the game of wheelchair football is played on a standard basketball court — 28 metres long by 15 metres wide. The required court markings are a center line and circle, a key area measuring 8 metres wide by 1.75 metres deep at each end of the court. It can be played either indoors or outside. All athletes must use either a power wheelchair when competing in the sport. Specified rules for manual and power wheelchair users Adaptive football players are classified into three different levels, the rules of play are different for each level.
Level 1 players: have full use of their arms and eyes. Level 2 players: may have some type of visual impairment. Level 3 players: have no arm-movement capability and/or have limited sight; the rules for Level 1 players are somewhat similar to "touch football," where players touch rather than tackle their opponents. In that adaptive game, the player - and not his or her chair - must be touched to count as a tackle. Players who have limited or no mobility in their arms use chair-to-chair contact for blocks and tackles. Level 1 players, kick offs, punts and goals are all scored using the hands. Level 2 and 3 players, points for pass completion are awarded if the ball hits the player in the area between the hands and their elbows. Although the players cannot grab the football, they still need to maneuver their wheelchairs so they can be in the right position for the ball to hit the right place to score. A team has six attempts to score. Teams may "run" the ball into the end zone. Field goals, kick -- punts are thrown.
A running game clock is used, as well as a play clock. Scoring is the same as in stand–up football, with one exception. A team that passes for the point–after–touchdown will receive two points. Field goals are scored when the ball is thrown through the first two vertical uprights that support the hanging basket. Powerchair Football Wheelchair soccer American Association for Adaptive Sports Programs