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Goalkeeper (association football)

The goalkeeper shortened to keeper or goalie, is one of the major positions of association football. It is the most specialised position in the sport; the goalkeeper's primary role is to prevent the opposing team from scoring. This is accomplished by the goalkeeper moving into the path of the ball and either catching it or directing it away from the vicinity of the goal line. Within the penalty area goalkeepers are able to use their hands, making them the only players on the field permitted to handle the ball; the special status of goalkeepers is indicated by them wearing different coloured kits from their teammates. The back-pass rule prevents goalkeepers handling direct passes back to them from teammates. Goalkeepers perform goal kicks, give commands to their defence during corner kicks and indirect free kicks, marking. Goalkeepers play an important role in directing on field strategy as they have an unrestricted view of the entire pitch, giving them a unique perspective on play development.

The goalkeeper is the only required position of a team. If they are injured or sent off, a substitute goalkeeper has to take their place, otherwise an outfield player must take the ejected keeper's place in goal. In order to replace a goalkeeper, sent off, a team substitutes an outfield player for the backup keeper, they play the remainder of the match with nine outfield players. If a team does not have a substitute goalkeeper, or they have used all of their permitted substitutions for the match, an outfield player has to take the dismissed goalkeeper's place and wear the goalkeeper shirt; the squad number for a first choice goalkeeper is number 1, although they may wear any jersey number between 1 and 99. Association football, like many sports, has experienced many changes in tactics resulting in the generation and elimination of different positions. Goalkeeper is the only position, certain to have existed since the codification of the sport. In the early days of organised football, when systems were limited or non-existent and the main idea was for all players to attack and defend, teams had a designated member to play as the goalkeeper.

The earliest account of football teams with player positions comes from Richard Mulcaster in 1581 and does not specify goalkeepers. The earliest specific reference to keeping goal comes from Cornish Hurling in 1602. According to Carew: "they pitch two bushes in the ground, some eight or ten foot asunder. One of these is appointed by lots, to the one side, the other to his adverse party. There is assigned for their guard, a couple of their best stopping Hurlers". Other references to scoring goals begin in English literature in the early 16th century. In a 1613 poem, Michael Drayton refers to "when the Ball to throw, And drive it to the Gole, in squadrons forth they goe", it seems inevitable that wherever a game has evolved goals, some form of goalkeeping must be developed. David Wedderburn refers to what has been translated from Latin as to "keep goal" in 1633, though this does not imply a fixed goalkeeper position; the word "goal-keeper" is used in the novel Tom Brown's School Days. The author is here referring to an early form of rugby football: You will see in the first place, that the sixth-form boy, who has the charge of goal, has spread his force so as to occupy the whole space behind the goal-posts, at distances of about five yards apart.

The word "goal-keeper" appeared in the Sheffield Rules of 1867, but the term did not refer to a designated player, but rather to "that player on the defending side who for the time being is nearest to his own goal". The goal-keeper, thus defined, did not enjoy any special handling privileges; the FA's first Laws of the Game of 1863 did not make any special provision for a goalkeeper, with any player being allowed to catch or knock-on the ball. Handling the ball was forbidden in 1870; the next year, 1871, the laws were amended to introduce the goalkeeper and specify that the keeper was allowed to handle the ball "for the protection of his goal". The restrictions on the ability of the goalkeeper to handle the ball were changed several times in subsequent revisions of the laws: 1871: the keeper may handle the ball only "for the protection of his goal". 1873: the keeper may not "carry" the ball. 1883: the keeper may not carry the ball for more than two steps. 1887: the keeper may not handle the ball in the opposition's half.

1901: the keeper may handle the ball for any purpose. 1912: the keeper may handle the ball only in the penalty area. 1931: the keeper may take up to four steps while carrying the ball. 1992: the keeper may not handle the ball after it has been deliberately kicked to him/her by a team-mate. 1997: the keeper may not handle the ball for more than six seconds. Goalkeepers played between the goalposts and had limited mobility, except when trying to save opposition shots. Throughout the years, the role of the goalkeeper has evolved, due to the changes in systems of play, to become more active; the goalkeeper is the only player in association football allowed to use their hands to c

Great Cheverell

Great Cheverell is a village and civil parish in Wiltshire, England, 5 miles south of Devizes. In some sources the Latinized name of Cheverell Magna is used when referring to the ecclesiastical parish; the parish includes Great Cheverell Hill, a biological Site of Special Scientific Interest consisting of unimproved species-rich chalk grassland on the northern edge of Salisbury Plain. A large settlement of 111 households was recorded at Chevrel in the Domesday Book of 1086. There were 73 taxpayers in 1377. Population of the parish peaked around the time of the 1841 census, which recorded 295. Subsequent increases reflect employment at HM Prison Erlestoke. Two manors, Cheverell Burnell and Cheverell Hales, came into the ownership of the Hungerford family in the 15th century and were given as endowments to Heytesbury almshouse until 1863, when much of the parish was acquired by Simon Watson Taylor as an addition to the Erlestoke estate begun by his father, George. After Simon's death in 1902 the holdings were sold.

Small streams meet in the northeast corner of the parish to form a tributary of the Semington Brook. A water-powered corn mill was recorded here in 1449. Edge-tools were made here in the early 19th century, a flour mill and an iron mill were in operation. A three-storey 19th century mill building is still standing; the Manor House, next to the church, dates from c. 1690 with enlargement and alteration in the 18th century. Southwest of the house is a Grade II * listed game gazebo of similar date. Glebe House, a former farmhouse north of the church, is from early 18th; the Stert and Westbury Railway was built through the parish by the Great Western Railway Company in 1900, providing routes from London to Weymouth or Taunton. There was a station called Lavington, just beyond the east boundary of the parish, about one mile by road from Great Cheverell village; the line remains open but the station was closed in 1967 and no local stations remain. To the south the parish extends onto higher ground at Cheverell Down, where the southernmost part has been part of the Imber Range military training area since 1933.

The Church of England parish church of St Peter is faced with limestone ashlar except for the oldest part, the chancel of malmstone and flint, from the 11th century. The nave and west tower are from the 14th century. Restoration in 1868 by W. H. Woodman of Reading included re-roofing of the chancel, rebuilding of the chancel arch and addition of a north vestry; the octagonal font is 13th century. The tower carries six bells: one of c. three from the 18th century. The church was designated as Grade I listed in 1962. Today the parish is part of the benefice of Cheverells & Easterton; the parish registers, now held at the Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre, cover the years 1653-1987, 1654-1994, 1654-1987. A Baptist chapel was built on the High Street in 1837. Known as Little Zoar, it was used until 1907 when it became the Parish Room, continuing in the same role today as the Village Hall. A new chapel was built in red stone in 1911, a short distance to the east. Under the Will of J. Townsend, a charity school was established at Great Cheverell in 1725 which provided for six poor children of the parish to be taught reading and the principles of the Church of England, free of charge.

By 1834, the school had about another forty "pay-scholars", for whom a charge was made. A new two-room school for 50-60 pupils was built in 1844 on a High Street plot provided by the rector, R. M. Atkinson, with assistance from the Townsend charity for running costs; this became a National School in 1845, a Board school in 1876 and a Church of England school in 1903. Attendance fell to 35 in 1955 but by 1973 had risen to 51. A larger school, now called Holy Trinity CE Primary Academy, was opened on the south side of the village in 1980 to serve Great Cheverell and nearby parishes including Little Cheverell and Coulston. Great Cheverell is a civil parish with an elected parish council, it is in the area of the Wiltshire Council unitary authority, responsible for most significant local government functions. There are playing fields with a modern pavilion, used for community functions; the village has a pub with the Bell Inn, a late 18th-century building. Jane Gregory, Olympic dressage rider Sir Charles Carter Chitham, policeman in British India Crittall, Elizabeth.

P.. A.. Victoria County History: A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 10: An account of the parishes of Swanborough hundred, of the borough of Devizes. Pp. 41–53. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Pevsner, Nikolaus; the Buildings of England: Wiltshire. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Pp. 259–260. ISBN 0140710264. Chandler, John. Devizes and Central Wiltshire. Hobnob Press. Pp. 94–100. ISBN 978-0-946418-16-9. "Great Cheverell". Wiltshire Community History. Wiltshire Council. Retrieved 17 December 2016. Media related to Great Cheverell at Wikimedia Commons

Neta, Israel

Neta is a community settlement in south-central Israel. Located next to the Green Line, it falls under the jurisdiction of Lakhish Regional Council. In 2018 it had a population of 536; the village was established in 2012 by former residents of the Kfar Darom and Tel Katifa Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip, evacuated as part of the Israeli disengagement from Gaza. Following the disengagement in 2005, they had temporarily lived in Ashkelon until the new village was ready. Environmental groups objected to the establishment of this new community and advocated for settling this population in already-existing townships in the area in order to minimize the environmental impact on the Lachish Region region. However, the Israeli Supreme Court ruled in favor of establishing the new settlement in 2009