Goan Catholics are an ethno-religious community of Christians following the Roman Rite from the state of Goa on the west coast of India. They speak the Konkani language. Seafarers from Portugal arrived in Goa in 1510 CE, Catholic missionary activities soon followed, as Pope Nicholas V had enacted the Papal bull Romanus Pontifex in 1455 CE which granted the patronage of the propagation of the Christian faith in Asia to the Portuguese, their culture is an amalgam of Indian-Hindu and Portuguese-Christian cultures, with the latter having a more dominant role as Goa had been an overseas colony of Portugal from 1510–1961. The notion of Goan identity as a distinct culture among other Luso-Asians or Luso-Indian cultures was forged into India after the annexation of Goa in 1961. However, contemporary Goan Catholic culture can be best described as an Anglicised Indo-Latin culture and is seen as distinct, both in India and the rest of the world; the Goan Catholic diaspora is concentrated in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, the Lusophone world Portugal, the Anglophone world the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States.
Christian adherents to the Roman Catholic Church who originate from the present state of Goa, a region on the west coast of India, their descendants are referred to as Goan Catholics. An overwhelming majority of Goan Catholics belong to the Konkani ethnicity while a minuscule proportion are Luso-Indians. Goan Catholics played a pivotal role in the formation of the state of Goa and in designating their native language Konkani as a scheduled language of India. Diaspora communities speak English as their first language while regarding Konkani as their ancestral language. A few from the elite social classes in Portuguese-ruled Goa had adopted Portuguese as their primary language. Portugal took control of Goa in 1510 CE, the Portuguese soon consolidated their power by imposing their own government and culture by converting the local population to Catholicism. Many pre-Portuguese Hindu traditions were retained by the Goan Catholics; this includes the Indian caste system although it is not practiced.
Throughout the Portuguese Empire a large part of civic administration was maintained by the religious orders. Under Portuguese nationality law, Goans born before 1961 in the Portuguese territory of Goa are entitled to Portuguese citizenship; as per the law of Portugal this is extended up to two generations, to their children and grandchildren. All naturalised citizens from Goa receive their citizenship through descent from their parents or grandparents who were once Portuguese subjects. All Goan Catholics born in Goa before 1961 were Portuguese citizens by birth. Distanced from Portugal after the seventeenth century, Goans like the people of Macão and Timor had been left much to their own affairs with a higher degree of independence, although still a part of Portugal. Goans moved to other parts of the Portuguese Empire, metropolitan Portugal and it is possible to find Goans with roots in America, Europe as well as Asia. During the late 1800s, there began a large-scale emigration of Goan Catholics to Bombay, in search of employment opportunities.
The British saw them as Portuguese citizens and favoured them in administration due to their ease in the use of English and predominantly Western culture. At that time Bombay was under the British rule and there existed another established Luso-Indian Catholic community. Since the Goan and East Indian Catholic communities were converted to Christianity by the Portuguese, the British referred to them as "Portuguese Christians", they congregated in the same churches, attended many of the same religious functions, shared Portuguese surnames and culture. On 3 February 1951, to avert international criticism, Portugal amended her Constitution to declare Goa as an overseas province. After Goa was merged into the Indian Union in 1961, Goan Catholics continued to distinguish themselves as "Goan" as they found it hard to adapt to the term "Indian". After 450 years of being a part of Portugal, during the first post-Liberation years, Goans found it difficult to embrace their new status as part of India and many emigrated to other nations, a trend that continues to date.
However, Goan-Catholics in India today are proud of their Portuguese-Indian Catholic culture, their Konkani language and their role in modern multi-religious India. Hence, many aspects of their social and religious life are enshrined in their exquisite western heritage. For instance, they celebrate Carnival before Lent and their religious scripture is only Konkani written and conducted in the Roman script, their Konkani dialect takes a lot from Portuguese in terms of syntax or loan words. Pre-colonial Goan history includes Hindu and Islamic religious phases, it was believed till that there was no concrete evidence that Christianity prevailed in Goa before the Portuguese arrived, but it was believed that St. Bartholomew, one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, brought the Gospel and spread it in Konkan, including Goa, just as St. Thomas had done in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, in Southern India. However, the work of the historian Jose Cosme Costa, Apostolic Christianity in Goa and in the West Coast, makes a case for the existence of Christianity in Goa before the arrival of the Portuguese.
The Caesarea Golf Club was established in January 1961 by the Rothschild family. When James Armand de Rothschild visited the Roman ruins in Caesarea, they reminded him of the golf courses back in Scotland, as a veteran golfer he decided to build a golf course in Caesarea. De Rothschild died before he could realize his vision, after his death the James de Rothschild Foundation was established to fulfill his dream; the Foundation appointed the British representative of the family, Max Rowe, to turn the dream into reality. He organized a special committee whose members included, among others, the mayor of Jerusalem Teddy Kollek, the Director General of the Ministry of Tourism, Meir de Shalit, the Foreign Minister at the time, Abba Eban, who headed the committee; the committee commissioned the architect Fred Smith. After design difficulties and efforts to find suitable grass that could withstand the Middle-Eastern climate, the course was built and an irrigation system that included an underground network of pipes was installed.
The committee set out to draft golfers and to promote the sport in Israel and the golf course abroad. The opening ceremony, in January 1961, was attended by prominent politicians; the "Israel Golf Federation" was established in four years after the opening of the golf club. The Club was renovated and upgraded several times over the years, as systems were replaced and modernized, requiring huge financial resources. In 1980, after a new irrigation system was installed at a cost of millions of Israeli shekels, the members convened a general meeting to petition Edmond de Rothschild to increase the annual subsidy for the club, he rejected the demand and transferred management of the club to the Caesarea Development Corporation. Among the visitors to the club have been Sean Connery, Kirk Douglas, Frank Sinatra, Danny Kaye. Notable Israeli figures included Chaim Herzog. Laetitia Beck took her first steps as a golfer at the Caesarea Golf Course, it was in Caesarea that her parents, avid golfers, made their home.
In 2008 Laetitia was chosen as one of Israel’s “sportswomen of the decade” as part of the State of Israel’s 60th anniversary celebrations. The golf course was reopened in 2009, after it was redesigned and renovated by architect Pete Dye; as a passionate supporter of environmentally-friendly golf courses, Dye planned the course based on environmental and landscape preservation values. In 2010 the Caesarea golf course joined the list of the Rolex World's Top 1000 Golf Courses; the club now spans 6750 sq/m and has two golf courses: a professional 18-hole course, the only one in Israel that meets international standards, another 9-hole course used for practice and for learning the game. Since 1961 the Club hosts the Maccabiah Games once every four years. Sports in Israel Tourism in Israel Official site
Creative Artists Agency LLC or CAA is an American talent and sports agency based in Los Angeles, California. It is regarded as a dominant and influential company in the talent agency business and manages numerous clients. In March 2016, CAA had 1,800 employees. Creative Artists Agency was formed by five agents at the William Morris Agency in 1975. At a dinner, Mike Rosenfeld, Michael Ovitz, Ron Meyer, William Haber, Rowland Perkins decided to create their own agency; the agents were fired by William Morris. CAA was incorporated in Delaware and had a $35,000 line of credit and a $21,000 bank loan and rented a small Century City office. Within a week, they sold a game show called Rhyme and Reason, the Rich Little Show, The Jackson 5ive. An early plan was to form a medium-sized full-service agency, share proceeds and do without nameplates on doors or formal titles or individual client lists, with guidelines like "be a team player" and "return phone calls promptly." CAA used its writer clients to attract actors to the agency.
Ovitz and CAA were the first to package films like TV shows. Representing numerous A-list actors and having about $90 million in annual bookings in the late 1970s, Ovitz led the agency to expand into the film business. By the mid-1990s, CAA had 550 employees, about 1,400 of Hollywood's top talent, $150 million in revenue. In the 1990s, CAA was owned by several key agents, including Michael Ovitz, Bill Haber, Ron Meyer. Ovitz was good at at "packaging talent for movies and TV projects" and negotiating large deals between Japanese conglomerates, such as Sony and Matsushita, with Hollywood studios, such as Columbia/TriStar and MCA. Ovitz expanded the agency into telecommunications. In 1992, the Coca-Cola company placed CAA in charge of much of its marketing campaign, to work alongside advertising agency McCann Erickson. In 1995, CAA was described as the industry's most powerful agency. In 1995, Ron Meyer was appointed as the head of MCA, Ovitz left for Disney. After Ovitz and Meyer left, talent agent Jay Moloney took over the company but struggled with a drug addiction and left the agency soon afterward.
After Ovitz, the agency was taken over by Richard Lovett, made the president, along with Kevin Huvane, Rob Light, Bryan Lourd, Rick Nicita, David O’Connor as managing partners. In 1996, several CAA agents defected to rival agency William Morris Endeavor, taking with them prominent directors and actors; the partners founded the CAA Foundation in 1996 to create positive social change by encouraging volunteerism and donations. In 2012, it worked with Insight Labs for education reform, contributed to its School Is Not School reform effort. CAA established CAA Marketing in 1998 to work with clients for promotion purposes. CAA Marketing developed Chipotle's Back to the Start video and created a marketing campaign for Coca-ColaIn 2003, it opened a New York City office to manage theater clients. CAA began expanding into sports in 2006. From 2005 to 2015, CAA developed greater fiscal discipline, with more emphasis on profits as the result of the influence of private equity firms. During these years, CAA doubled from 750 to 1,500 employees.
In 2010, new technological developments such as the digital distribution of movies put strains on the industry. There was pressure to diversify into television, publishing and find other ways to grow. In that year, private equity firm TPG Capital invested $165 million with an additional $200 million in debt financing. CAA began an expansion under the leadership of CEO Richard Lovett. A report in USA Today suggested that CAA's development of its sports-related clientele was significant in 2007. A report in Nexus magazine in 2015 suggested that CAA was well-positioned to develop the E-Sports market. CAA puts together deals for sports stars such as writing their clients into fitness apps. CAA's agents scrambled to deal with a strike by the Screen Actors Guild in 2008. In 2010, TPG Capital pledged $500 million for investments; the transaction enabled acquisitions in areas such as overseas operations. It sold a controlling stake to TPG Capital in October 2014. In 2015, TPG Capital was reported to own 53% of CAA.
CAA is co-owner with an investment bank. CAA has diversified into different businesses such as sports marketers and leagues and digital commerce. In 2014, CAA has been undergoing a transformation from relying on booking talent, into engineering multimedia deals worldwide. To this end, CAA established CAA Ventures, a venture capital fund that has supported products such as the Whisper app. CAA has employed top sports agents such as Tom Condon. CAA president Richard Lovett is regarded as keeping a low profile. Lovett took the job position at CAA in 1995, he was described as a "skillful agent" with a "trademark ever-ready smile" adept at schmoozing and hobnobbing with colleagues and studio heads. Lovett was described in The Wall Street Journal as being "elegantly aggressive."Top agencies raid each other's staff, when key people defect to rivals, it makes news headlines and leads to legal battles over breach-of-contract claims. When agents defect, the rivalry can degenerate into vicious battles played out in courtrooms and in the media.
When key CAA clients Will Ferrell and Chris Pratt defected to rival United Talent Agency in 2015, were followed by ten agents, it erupted into a full-frontal legal battle between the warring agencies. In the lawsuit, CAA accused UTA of conducting a "lawless, midnight raid" as part of an "illegal and unethical conspiracy" with agents deliberately delaying meetings with clients to divert business to UTA
The Franco-Spanish War of 1635 to 1659 was one of a series of wars between France, their Habsburg rivals in Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. In military terms, the war was a draw and Spain remained a great power, with a vast colonial empire. A connected conflict of the Dutch Revolt and Thirty Years War, it contained two distinct phases. After the wars in Germany and the Netherlands ended in 1648, Spain and France continued fighting until the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees. Prior to 1635, the French indirectly attacked the Habsburgs by supporting the Dutch war with Spain, Swedish intervention in the Empire; this changed in 1635 when they signed alliances with Dutch. Main areas of conflict included Northern Italy, the Spanish Netherlands and the Rhineland, while France backed revolts against Spanish rule in Portugal and Naples. Although France was divided by civil war from 1648 to 1653, neither side could achieve an advantage, French successes being matched by Spanish; the 1657 Anglo-French alliance led to an offensive in Flanders, victory at the June 1658 Battle of the Dunes.
This did little to change the overall position. Both sides accepted they would not benefit from prolonging the war, began negotiations in May 1659, which concluded in November. Although French territorial gains appear minor, they were of great strategic significance, as was the marriage of Louis XIV of France and Maria Theresa of Spain, eldest daughter of Philip IV. 17th century Europe was dominated by the struggle between the Bourbon kings of France, their Habsburg rivals in Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. The Thirty Years War was traditionally viewed as a German religious conflict; this is accepted by modern historians, making it an integral part of the Franco-Spanish War. As a result, both France and Spain viewed strategy in a broader, European context. In 1630, Habsburg possessions bordered France in the Spanish Netherlands, Franche-Comté, Alsace and Lorraine. To weaken Spain, France supported clients such as the Dutch Republic, the Duchy of Savoy, as well as revolts in Portugal and Naples.
French-backed Austrian opponents included the Ottomans, the Venetian Republic, Transylvanian rebels, Sweden. Co-operation between the two Habsburg powers was limited, since their objectives did not always align; the Empire had over 1,800 members, most small. After Augsburg in 1555, the Empire became a loose federation of independent states, a process encouraged by France throughout the 17th century, despite Habsburg efforts to re-establish central control. Much of the fighting took place around the Spanish Road, an overland supply route connecting Spanish possessions in Northern Italy to Flanders. After 1601, it was used for moving soldiers, but remained vital for trade, went through areas like Alsace essential to French security. In Northern Italy and the Spanish-held Duchy of Milan were strategically important, since they provided access to the vulnerable southern borders of France, Habsburg territories in Austria. By the time French chief minister Richelieu died in 1642, France had achieved many of his pre-war objectives confirmed at Westphalia in 1648, by the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659.
Until the advent of railways in the 19th century, water was the primary means of bulk transportation, campaigns focused on control of rivers and ports. Armies relied on foraging, while feeding the draught animals essential for transport and cavalry restricted campaigning in the winter. By the 1630s, much of the countryside had been devastated by years of constant warfare; the French invaded Flanders in May 1635 with 27,000 men. The Thirty Years War began in 1618 when the Protestant-dominated Bohemian Estates offered the Crown of Bohemia to Frederick of the Palatinate, rather than the conservative Catholic, Emperor Ferdinand II. Most of the Holy Roman Empire remained neutral, viewing it as an inheritance dispute, the revolt was suppressed; when Imperial forces invaded the Palatinate and forced Frederick into exile, removal of a hereditary prince changed the nature and extent of the war. Accompanied by a renewed Counter-Reformation, this threatened Protestant states within the Empire, it drew in external powers who held Imperial territories.
With France occupied suppressing Spanish-financed Huguenot rebellions from 1622 to 1630, this provided additional opportunities to weaken the Habsburgs, while avoiding direct conflict. As a result, the French financed the Dutch war with Spain, as well as Danish Swedish intervention in the Empire. In 1630, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden invaded Pomerania.
The Victorian National Parks Association is the prime supporter of nature conservation in the Australian state of Victoria. VNPA meets with heads of government agencies and State Government ministers in order to promote and achieve various conservation goals; the Victorian National Parks Association was formed in 1952 when Victoria had 13 national parks and lacked any legislation governing these parks. As of 2007, Victoria had 52 national parks, 30 state parks, three wilderness parks, 11 marine sanctuaries protected under the National Parks Act; the expansion of the state's parks has led to VNPA encouraging the state government and other private entities to provide additional funding for the conservation of these important areas. The allocation of more lands for logging in the Murray River region, during which VNPA encouraged the government to reconsider its forestry policy amid concerns that the wetlands could be lost forever; the desire to end cattle grazing in Alpine National Park in 2004, protested by a number of cattlemen who took their cause to the federal government in Canberra in 2005.
This case has garnered national attention due to the desire to have the Australian Alps listed as a World Heritage site. The banning of oil and gas exploration in all marine national parks in Victoria in 2004; the campaign for the preservation of a united Point Nepean, although the traditional owners went for another group's plan. Despite this, it's expected that a portion of the area will be declared a national park within the next several years. Conservation in Australia VPNA official website
Hendrik Jozef Elias was a Belgian politician and Flemish nationalist, notable as the leader of the Vlaams Nationaal Verbond between 1942 and 1944. Elias was a noted academic, holding doctorates in both Law and Philosophy from studies at the Catholic University of Leuven, the University of Paris and the University of Bonn before serving in a number of leading roles in both academia and the law, he began his political career in 1930 as the secretary of the Vlaams Nationale Verbond. He was a member of Belgian Chamber of People's Representatives from 1932 until 1944, he joined the Flemish National Union on its formation in 1933 and soon gained a reputation as a leading moderate in the party, despite expressing a strong personal admiration for Adolf Hitler. He was appointed Mayor of Ghent after the German invasion, although he continued to oppose plans to incorporate Flanders into Nazi Germany, arguing instead for a commonwealth, he became leader of VNV in 1942, following the death of Staf De Clercq, despite opposition of Gottlob Berger, suspicious of his views on keeping the Flemish distinct from the Germans.
Elias sought to disband the Hitler Youth. In an effort to accomplish this he encouraged recruitment into the Luftwaffe rather than the SS and achieved some success in diverting Flemings away from Heinrich Himmler's men. Elias came into competition for support from the Germans with Jef van de Wiele, whose DeVlag movement was allowed to co-exist in occupied Flanders alongside the VNV. Van der Wiele endorsed full integration of Flanders into Germany, a view not supported by the VNV. By April 1943 Elias had become disillusioned with the Nazis as they backed DeVlag and he came to argue that Nazism and Flemish Catholicism were incompatible. Despite these private attitudes Elias did not go public with his reservations. In public, he claimed a German victory was needed, supported recruiting for the Eastern Front, defended forced labor service in Germany and requisitions. Towards the end of World War II he came to co-operate more with the Nazis, fearing a communist takeover. Just before the liberation he authorized using the VNV militia in actions against the resistance.
He fled to Germany in September 1944 but took no part in the exiled Belgian collaboration movement under van der Wiele. He was extradited to Belgium, he was sentenced to death and this sentence was confirmed in appeal. The Belgian government commuted it to life imprisonment, he was released on 24 December 1959 for health reasons. In 1971 he published Vijfentwintig Jaar Vlaamse Beweging, part history of the Flemish nationalist movement, part autobiography