Hanford Reach National Monument
The Hanford Reach National Monument is a national monument in the U. S. state of Washington. It was created in 2000 from the former security buffer surrounding the Hanford Nuclear Reservation; the area has been untouched by development or agriculture since 1943. Because of that it is considered an involuntary park; the monument is named after the Hanford Reach, the last non-tidal, free-flowing section of the Columbia River in the United States, is one of eight National Monuments administered by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. President Bill Clinton established the monument by presidential decree in 2000. In May 2017, the Interior Department announced that Hanford Reach was one of 27 National Monuments under review for possible rescinding of their designation. Ancestors of the Wanapum People, Yakama Nation, Confederated Tribes of the Colville, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation and the Nez Perce used the land for hunting and resource collecting. Geographically, the area is part of the Columbia River Plateau, formed by basalt lava flows and water erosion.
The shrub-steppe landscape is dry, receiving between 5 and 10 inches of rain per year. The sagebrush-bitterbrush-bunchgrass lands are home to a wide variety of plants and animals, the Hanford Reach provides one of the Northwest's best salmon spawning grounds. Forty-eight rare, threatened, or endangered animal species have found refuge on the monument, as well as several insect species found nowhere else in the world. There are two main habitats in the Hanford Reach National Monument: river. Islands, gravel bars, oxbow ponds and backwater sloughs provide support to forty-three species of fish. Large numbers of fall Chinook salmon spawn in the Hanford reach. Federally threatened species such as the Upper Columbia River Spring Chinook, the Middle Columbia River Steelhead and the Upper Columbia River Steelhead use the reach for migration purposes; the refuge is famous for the elk located on the Arid Lands Ecology Area. Herd numbers vary by time of year with 150 seen during the spring/summer and 350 to 375 during the fall.
The elk population reaches its peak in the winter with an average of 670. Archaeologists believed. During the mid-19th century, first hand accounts mentioned the disappearance of the species. Rocky Mountain elk were reintroduced into the region during the 1930s; the dry, desert region is home to forty-two mammal species. Mice are the most abundant and include the deer mouse, western harvest mouse, northern grasshopper mouse. Mammals that inhabit this refuge include coyotes, beavers, mule deer, river otters, minks and badgers. Hanford Reach is home to nine nuclear reactors. Plutonium from the reactor was used in the first nuclear explosion at the Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range in New Mexico and in the Fat Man atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan; the reactor’s significance has led to many distinctions including a place on the National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark, National Register of Historic Places, Nuclear Historic Landmark, National Civil Engineering Landmark and National Historic Landmark.
The monument is open from two hours before sunrise to two hours after sunset. Columbia River Corridor – shore and open water is open to the public. McGee Ranch and Riverlands – public day use. Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge, located at 46°41′18″N 119°37′39″W – access permitted for ecological research, closed to the public. Vernita Bridge – open to the public. Wahluke Slope – open to the public; the Rattlesnake Mountain Public Access Act is a bill, introduced into the United States House of Representatives during the 113th United States Congress which would change some of the access to this site. The bill would require the United States Secretary of the Interior to provide public access to the summit of Rattlesnake Mountain in the Hanford Reach National Monument in the state of Washington; the bill is supposed to help with tourism and scientific undertakings. It was sent to the Senate. Several sites in the adjacent Hanford Site including the B Reactor are part of the Manhattan Project National Historical Park and are accessible on public tours.
Fws.gov: Official Hanford Reach National Monument website Landsat image overlaid with map White House Press Release Washington State precipitation map Pacific Northwest National Laboratory resource cards
National Historic Site (United States)
National Historic Site is a designation for an recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separate designation, the National Historical Park, is an area that extends beyond single properties or buildings, its resources include a mix of historic and sometimes significant natural features; as of 2018, there are 89 NHSs. Most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service; some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or owned, but are authorized to request assistance from the NPS as affiliated areas. One property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; as of October 15, 1966, all historic areas, including NHPs and NHSs, in the NPS are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are about 90,000 NRHP sites, the large majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites.
National Historic Sites are federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are 89 NHSs, of which 77 are official NPS units, 11 are NPS affiliated areas, 1 is managed by the US Forest Service. Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, but most have been authorized by acts of Congress. In 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, a unique designation given to Saint Croix Island, Maine, on the New Brunswick border; the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In the United States, sites are "historic", while parks are "historical".
The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a modern legal invention. As such, a park is not itself "historic", but can be called "historical" when it contains historic resources, it is the resources. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the year of the centennial of the gold rush the park commemorates; the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia. It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon. National Historic Sites List of World Heritage Sites in North America Designation of National Park System Units
Lewis County, Washington
Lewis County is a county in the U. S. state of Washington. As of the 2010 census, the county's population was 75,455; the county seat is Chehalis, its largest city is Centralia. The county was created as Vancouver County on December 19, 1845, by the Provisional Government of Oregon, named for George Vancouver. In 1849, the county name was changed. At the time, the county included all U. S. lands north of the Cowlitz River, including much of British Columbia. Lewis County comprises the Centralia, WA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Seattle-Tacoma, WA Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,436 square miles, of which 2,403 square miles is land and 33 square miles is water. One of the world's tallest Douglas fir trees was in the town of Mineral within Lewis County, attaining a height of 120 metres. Cascade Mountains Chehalis River Cowlitz River Nisqually River Lake Mayfield Riffe Lake Big Horn, the highest point in Lewis county Boistfort Peak, the highest point in the Willapa Hills Walupt Creek Falls Interstate 5 U.
S. Route 12 State Route 6 State Route 7 Gifford Pinchot National Forest Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest Mount Rainier National Park Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument As of the 2010 Census, there were 75,455 people, 29,743 households, 20,104 families residing in the county; the population density was 31.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 34,050 housing units at an average density of 14.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county's population: 89.7% white, 1.4% American Indian, 0.9% Asian, 0.5% black or African American, 0.2% Pacific islander, 4.0% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 8.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 24.1% were German, 14.9% were Irish, 12.5% were English, 7.7% were American, 5.1% were Norwegian. Of the 29,743 households, 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.2% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.4% were non-families, 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age was 41.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $43,874 and the median income for a family was $53,358. Males had a median income of $43,695 versus $31,720 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,695. About 10.3% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.2% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 Census, there were 68,600 people, 26,306 households, 18,572 families in the county; the population density was 28 people per square mile. There were 29,585 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 92.96% White, 0.38% Black or African American, 1.22% Native American, 0.69% Asian, 0.18% Pacific Islander, 2.55% from other races, 2.01% from two or more races. 5.37% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.7% were of German, 11.8% United States or American, 11.1% English, 8.7% Irish and 5.7% Norwegian ancestry.
There were 26,306 households, 31.60% of which had resident children under age 18, 55.90% were married couples living together, 9.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.40% were non-families. 24.00% of households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.02. The age distribution of the county's population: 26.50% under age 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 24.50% from 45 to 64, 15.50% at or over age 65. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 98.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,511, the median income for a family was $41,105. Males had a median income of $35,714 versus $23,453 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,082. About 10.40% of families and 14.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.60% of those under age 18 and 9.40% of those age 65 or over.
Lewis County is arguably the most conservative county in western Washington. It is more Republican than adjacent counties, with the possible exception of Yakima County. Unlike much of western Washington, it has a strong tinge of social conservatism. In 2000 George W. Bush received over 60% of the county’s vote. In 2008 John McCain defeated Barack Obama by over eighteen percent — his only victory in a county west of the Cascades. McCain lost all the neighboring counties except Yakima; the Republican candidate has won by over ten percent in every Presidential election since 1992. Since Washington’s statehood in 1889 only two Democratic Presidential candidates have carried the county – Franklin Delano Roosevelt three times in 1932, 1936 and 1940, plus Lyndon Johnson in 1964; as part of Washington’s Third Congressional District it is represented by Republican Congresswoman Jaime Herrera Beutler since 2011. In the 1970s, Democratic candidates for governor won the county, but this was something of an anomaly.
The last Democratic candidate for Governor to win the county was Booth Gardner in 1984. The county’s government is the 20th district of the state, it is represented by Republicans. Senator John Braun—Republican Representative Richard DeBolt—Position 1, Republican Representative Ed Orcutt—Position 2, Republican The county’s government is Republican. Lewis County Assessor: Dianne Dorey—R Lewis
The Cowlitz River is a river in the state of Washington in the United States, a tributary of the Columbia River. Its tributaries drain a large region including the slopes of Mount Rainier, Mount Adams, Mount St. Helens; the Cowlitz has a 2,586-square-mile drainage basin, located between the Cascade Range in eastern Lewis County and the cities of Kelso and Longview. The river is 105 miles long, not counting tributaries. Major tributaries of the Cowlitz River include the Cispus River and the Toutle River, overtaken by volcanic mudflows during the May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens; when the smelt spawn in the Cowlitz River, the gulls go into a feeding frenzy. Kelso, Washington is known as the "Smelt Capital of the World"; the Cowlitz River has three major hydroelectric dams, with several small-scale hydropower and sediment retention structures within the Cowlitz Basin. The Cowlitz Falls Project is a 70 megawatt hydroelectric dam built in the early 1990s and completed in 1994; the dam is 700 feet wide.
The Cowlitz Falls Project produces on average 260 GWh annually for Lewis County PUD. Its reservoir, Lake Scanewa, is located at the confluence of the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers downstream of Randle. Mossyrock Dam began generating power for Tacoma City Light in 1968, it created the 23-mile long Riffe Lake. It is the highest dam in the Pacific Northwest; the dam is named for the nearby city of Mossyrock, the lake for the town of Riffe, along with Kosmos, was destroyed by the flooding of the Cowlitz River valley above the dam. The Mayfield Dam is 185 feet high. An 860-foot tunnel connects the reservoir to the powerhouse; the dam began producing electricity in 1963. Mayfield Lake offers many recreational opportunities: there are several county and state parks and the lake is below the Mossyrock Dam; the modulated inflow from the Mossyrock Dam allows Mayfield Lake to maintain a water level that fluctuates more than a few feet. It is located several miles downstream of Mossyrock. Packwood Lake was dammed in 1964 by the Washington Public Power Supply System.
The dam holds back the lake, redirecting streamflow to a 27 megawatt hydroelectric generator in the Cowlitz River valley floor 2,000 feet below just outside the town of Packwood. When designing and building the dam, care was taken so as not to affect the abundant wildlife of the lake and surrounding area: the dam raised the water level by only a few feet. A serious side effect of the Mount St. Helens 1980 eruption has been the downstream movement of enormous amounts of sediment through the North Fork Toutle River. After the eruption, river-borne sediment increased over five thousand-fold, making the Toutle River one of the most sediment-laden rivers in the world; the Toutle River Sediment Retention Structure was constructed to trap this sediment before it was carried farther downstream, where it could clog the river channel, exacerbate floods along the lower Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers, fill the Columbia River shipping channel, which still requires periodic dredging. An overflow channel has been added to divert lahars around the dam.
Numerous road and rail bridges span the Cowlitz. Just upstream from its mouth at the Columbia river, a railroad bridge connecting the Port of Longview to the BNSF rail line crosses the Cowlitz, with a road bridge for SR 432 beside. Further upstream are the Allen St. and Cowlitz Way bridges, connecting West Kelso with the rest of Kelso. Just north of Kelso, a railroad bridge provides crossing for the Cowlitz Railroad. Connecting SR 411 to Interstate-5 is the Lexington bridge, a two lane bridge between the large unincorporated community of Lexington to Exit 42 on the east side of the bank. At Castle Rock, the A St. bridge provides access from downtown to the school and residential areas across the river. A few miles north, after the Toutle River split, the BNSF line crosses the river. Across the Lewis/Cowlitz County line, between the towns of Vader and Toledo, Washington, I-5 crosses the river. At Toledo, SR-505 crosses. Where Highway 12 crosses Mayfield Lake, just west of Mossyrock, causeways were built out to the middle of the lake, where a short bridge section connects the two sides.
A small bridge provides a crossing for SR 122 at the head of Mayfield Lake. Just east of Mossyrock, the Cowlitz River Bridge on Highway 12 was the largest concrete arch bridge in North America until 1971 at 550 feet. At the head of Riffe Lake, the 27 Road provides access to the forestland south of the Cowlitz from Morton and Glenoma to the north. At Randle, SR 131 crosses the Cowlitz to provide access to the Cispus basin and the northern areas of the Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. Between Randle and Packwood, Highway 12 crosses the Cowlitz at the Cora bridge. At Packwood, Skate Creek Road spans the river, providing access to the Gifford Pinchot National Forest and Tatoosh Wilderness, as well as connecting the downtown and residential areas of Packwood. Upstream from Packwood, the Cowlitz splits into the Muddy and Clear Forks, with several Forest Service and Park Service roads crossing each; when the Cowlitz Salmon Hatchery began operation in 1968, it was the largest of its kind in the world.
It produces nearly 13 million fish each year. Adjacent is the barrier dam, which diverts spawning and upriver migrating fish to a separating station where fish are sorted by species; some of the fish are used by the hatchery while others are transported upstream to continue migration. The Bonneville Power Administration, in
Gilbert Peak (Washington)
Gilbert Peak (8,184 feet is located in the Goat Rocks on the border of the Yakama Indian Reservation and Yakima County, in the U. S. state of Washington. Situated in the Goat Rocks Wilderness, Gilbert Peak is the highest summit in the Goat Rocks, which are the eroded remnants of an extinct stratovolcano. Meade Glacier is located on the southeastern slopes of the peak, while Conrad Glacier is on the north slope
Packwood Lake is a freshwater lake in the Gifford Pinchot National Forest in the Cascade Mountains of Washington. It is a popular day hiking and overnight camping area; the southern half of the lake lies within the Goat Rocks Wilderness area. The lake was named after an early settler. Packwood Lake lies at 2,857 feet above sea level and about 25 miles southeast of Mount Rainier, its main source of water is glacier-fed Upper and Lower Lake Creeks, which descend from Old Snowy Mountain. The lake is 2 miles long and 0.6 miles wide. The lake is held in place by a natural dam. 1,200 years ago, Snyder Mountain, which borders the lake to the northwest and slid down into the Lake Creek valley plugging it and forming the lake. Maximum depth is 160 feet; the island in the lake is named Agnes Island, referred to by locals as both Wizard Island or Enchantment Island. The island is protected by the U. S. Forest Service and no landings are permitted there. Packwood Lake is home to a genetically distinct species of rainbow trout.
This trout has evolved for over a thousand years, separated from other populations of fish. It is known for its excellent taste, large size, drab creamy coloring. Due to many years of stocking, the fish is becoming less and less prominent as its gene pool becomes diluted by stocked fish. Calling this lake home are several species of birds, including heron, bald eagle, wood duck. Black bear are fairly common, as are deer, raccoon and mountain goats. Packwood Lake has been used for several thousand years by Native Americans as summer quarters and hunting territory. Due to cold winters and subsequent heavy snows, the area is considered uninhabitable during the winter. Prospectors searched the area of the lake in the early 1920s. Although some gold and silver was found, the small quantities and remoteness of the area proved mining to be not economical. Packwood Lake was dammed in 1964 to produce electricity. There is a small 27-megawatt dam at the foot of the lake which has taken over the job of holding back the lake from the Snyder Mountain landslide.
Great care was used when designing and building the dam so as not to affect the abundant wildlife that calls the lake and surrounding area home. The actual dam structure is only a couple of feet tall, creating only a small holding pond which feeds the penstock. Water from Packwood Lake is piped to the town of Packwood and supplies the greater Packwood area. Packwood lake is a popular hiking destination for both day campers; the trail leading to the lake, Packwood Lake Trail #78, is a popular entrance to the Goat Rocks Wilderness and surrounding area. The lake is used as a stopping ground for travellers headed to Mosquito and Lost Lakes to the north, Gilbert Peak to the southeast. An all-terrain vehicle trail was completed some years ago and offers ATV and horse access to the lake. The'upper trail' is reserved for horses. Both trails and lower, are 5 miles to the lake from a well-maintained and paved parking lot. Continuing past the lake, hikers are offered hundreds of miles of trails covering breathtaking scenery, the Pacific Crest Trail may be reached about 7 miles beyond the lake.
The lake itself is a popular fishing hole and may be fished from shore or paddle boat. Additionally, fishing with bait is prohibited and all lures may contain only a single barbless hook