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Gobrecht dollar

The Gobrecht dollar, minted from 1836 to 1839, was the first silver dollar struck for circulation by the United States Mint since production of that denomination was halted in 1806. The coin was struck in small numbers to determine whether the reintroduced silver dollar would be well received by the public. In 1835, Director of the United States Mint Samuel Moore resigned his post, Robert M. Patterson assumed the position. Shortly after, Patterson began an attempt to redesign the nation's coinage. After Mint Chief Engraver William Kneass suffered a stroke that year, Christian Gobrecht was hired as an engraver. On August 1, Patterson wrote a letter to Philadelphia artist Thomas Sully laying out his plans for the dollar coin, he asked Titian Peale to create a design for the coin. Sully created an obverse design depicting a seated representation of Liberty and Peale a reverse depicting a soaring bald eagle, which were converted into coin designs by Gobrecht. After the designs were created and trials struck, production of the working dies began in September 1836.

After a small quantity was struck for circulation, the Mint received complaints regarding the prominent placement of Gobrecht's name on the dollar, the design was modified to incorporate his name in a less conspicuous position. In January 1837, the legal standard for the percentage of precious metal in silver coins was changed from 89.2% to 90%, the Gobrecht dollars struck after that point reflect this change. In total, 1,900 Gobrecht dollars were struck during the official production run. Production of the Seated Liberty dollar, which utilized the same obverse design as the Gobrecht dollar, began mintage in 1840. In the 1850s, Mint officials controversially re-struck the coins without authorization; the first silver dollars struck by the United States Mint were minted in 1794. In 1804, the Mint unofficially ended production of silver dollars because many of the coins produced since that denomination had first been struck in 1794 were exported for their silver content to Eastern Asia Canton.

In 1806 Secretary of State James Madison issued an order halting mintage of the coins. In 1831, Mint Director Samuel Moore noticed a reversal; that year, President Andrew Jackson, at Moore's request, lifted the prohibition. No further action was taken until the summer of 1834, when officials suggested that proof coin sets be prepared as gifts for Asian dignitaries. After examining Mint records, personnel incorrectly concluded that the last Draped Bust dollars minted were dated 1804, so they chose that date for the coins, it is unknown why the current date was not used, but numismatic historian R. W. Julian suggests the coins were predated to prevent coin collectors from becoming angered when they would be unable to obtain the newly dated coins, which were struck in small numbers, it is unknown how many 1804 dollars were struck, though eight are known to be extant. In 1835, Mint officials began preparations for a series of silver dollars which, unlike the 1804 dollar, were intended to enter circulation in order to determine whether the denomination would be well received by the public.

In June 1835, Moore resigned his post as director, was replaced by Robert M. Patterson. Shortly thereafter, Director Patterson approached two well-known Philadelphia artists, Titian Peale and Thomas Sully, to create a design that would be used to overhaul most of the American coins in production. Mint Chief Engraver Kneass prepared a sketch based on Patterson's conception, but soon suffered a stroke, leaving him incapacitated. Following Kneass' stroke, government officials approved Patterson's urgent request that Philadelphia medallist Christian Gobrecht be hired to fulfill the duties of engraver. In a letter dated August 1, 1835, Patterson proposed that Sully create a Seated Liberty figure for the obverse, suggesting that the "figure be in a sitting posture—sitting, for example, on a rock." Patterson suggested that the seated figure should hold in her right hand a pileus atop a liberty pole to be "emblematic of Liberty". Numismatic historian Don Taxay notes the similarity between Patterson's Seated Liberty concept and designs in use on British copper coinage: "Liberty thus emerged as a refurbished Britannia, her trident replaced by a staff and pileus."

In the same letter, Patterson informed Sully of his vision for the reverse, which Peale would execute: "I propose an Eagle flying, rising in flight, amidst a constellation, irregularly dispersed, of 24 stars, carrying in its claws a scroll with the words E PLURIBUS UNUM". Patterson preferred a soaring eagle because he believed that the heraldic eagle used on American coins, which he dismissed as a "mere creature of imagination", was unappealing as a design. According to a common story, the flying eagle seen on the Gobrecht dollar was modeled after Peter, the Mint's pet eagle, taxidermied after his death by becoming caught in a coining press and remains on display at the Mint to this day. In September 1835, Thomas Sully received from Patterson a set of British coins and medals to help guide him while creating the Seated Liberty design. Sully sent Patterson three rough sketches near the beginning of October, those were given to Gobrecht, who in turn set about making a copper engraving of the design.

Gobrecht completed the engraving on October 14, Patterson presented prints created from it to several government officials in an effort to gain their approval. President Jackson, Trea

Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical & Biological Defense Programs

The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical & Biological Defense Programs, or ASD, is the principal adviser to the Secretary of Defense, Deputy Secretary of Defense and the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Logistics on policy and plans for nuclear and biological defense programs. The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical & Biological Defense Programs develops policies and recommendations on: nuclear weapons; the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical & Biological Defense Programs oversees the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Cooperative Threat Reduction Program. The Director of DTRA reports directly to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical & Biological Defense Programs. Before the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011 on January 7, 2011, the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical & Biological Defense Programs was known as the "Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Nuclear & Chemical & Biological Defense Programs".

Three Deputy Assistant Secretaries of Defense report to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear Chemical & Biological Defense Programs: the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Chemical and Biological Defense the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Matters the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Threat Reduction and Arms Control In addition, the Director of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency reports directly to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical & Biological Defense Programs. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Chemical and Biological Defense oversees development of Chemical, Biological and Nuclear defenses to protect national interests at home and abroad, handling Department of Defense efforts related to: science & technology, advanced development and test and evaluation of chemical, biological and nuclear defensesand the Chemical and Biological Defense Program Objective Memorandum; the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Matters is the focal point for activities and initiatives related to sustaining a safe and effective nuclear deterrent and countering threats from nuclear terrorism and nuclear proliferation.

This office serves as a primary point of contact for Congress, other agencies, the public for those programs. The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Matters's office is staffed by representatives from all areas of the nuclear community, including the U. S. Navy, the U. S. Air Force, the National Guard Bureau, the United States Nuclear Command and Control Systems Support Staff, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Department of Energy, the National Nuclear Security Agency, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, the Kansas City Plant, the National Security Agency; the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Threat Reduction and Arms Control is the principal adviser to the Assistant Secretary for Defense for Nuclear, Chemical & Biological Defense Programs for acquisition oversight and compliance with nuclear and chemical treaties. The Deputy Assistant Secretary for Defense for Threat Reduction and Arms Control oversees the Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Cooperative Threat Reduction Program and the Chemical Demilitarization Program.

This office also: oversees implementation of and compliance with existing and prospective nuclear and chemical arms control agreements. The Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Nuclear, Chemical & Biological Defense Programs' functions can be traced back to the US Department of Defense's Military Liaison Committee, formed in the early Cold War to coordinate military requirements with the United States Atomic Energy Commission; the MLC was the channel of communication between the DoD and AEC on all matters relating to military applications of atomic weapons or atomic energy. It addressed matters of policy and funding of the military application of atomic energy. In 1951, the Secretary of Defense moved the Military Liaison Committee to the Pentagon, its chairman became the Deputy to the Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy Matters. In 1953, this position was renamed the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy; the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1987 abolished the Military Liaison Committee, replacing it with the Nuclear Weapons Council.

Just over a year the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1988-1989 created the position of Assistant to the Secretary of Defense. In 1994, the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense was given control over the Defense Nuclear Agency, which became the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. In February 1996, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996 created the office

Mount Rose, New Jersey

Mount Rose is an unincorporated community located within Hopewell Township, in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, situated at the corner of Carter Road, Pennington-Rocky Hill Road, Cherry Valley Road. It is named for a local gardener; the Mount Rose section of Rocky Hill Ridge through the community takes its name from the gardener. Richard Stout opened the first general store in the village around 1822 and in 1830, Josiah Cook and Reuben Savidge opened a second store; the settlement was later home to two shoe shops, a dressmaker, wheelwrights, a blacksmith, a harness shop, an agricultural implements warehouse, a post office and a steam sawmill. In its heyday the community had about 20 houses. Nathaniel Drake opened an applejack distillery in the village in the mid-19th century, he sold peach brandy, apple cider and apple whiskey. The Whiskey House, the office building for the distillery and the only remaining Drake building in the village, is listed on the township and national registers of historic places.

The community's schoolhouse, a stone building east of the crossroads, was replaced by a frame building on the southern end of the village, a private residence today. After 1880, Mount Rose began shrinking, it is planned that the Lawrence Hopewell Trail will go through the community