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God Bless America

"God Bless America" is an American patriotic song written by Irving Berlin during World War I in 1918 and revised by him in the run up to World War II in 1938. The version has notably been recorded by Kate Smith, becoming her signature song."God Bless America" takes the form of a prayer for God's blessing and peace for the nation. Irving Berlin wrote the song in 1918 while serving in the U. S. Army at Camp Upton in Yaphank, New York, but decided that it did not fit in a revue called Yip Yip Yaphank, so he set it aside; the lyrics at that time included the line "Make her victorious on land and foam, God bless America..." as well as "Stand beside her and guide her to the right with the light from above". Music critic Jody Rosen says that a 1906 Jewish dialect novelty song, "When Mose with His Nose Leads the Band," contains a six-note fragment, "instantly recognizable as the opening strains of'God Bless America'", he interprets this as an example of Berlin's "habit of interpolating bits of half-remembered songs into his own numbers."

Berlin, born Israel Baline, had himself written several Jewish-themed novelty tunes. In 1938, with the rise of Adolf Hitler, Irving Berlin, Jewish and had arrived in America from Russia at the age of five, felt it was time to revive it as a "peace song," and it was introduced on an Armistice Day broadcast in 1938, sung by Kate Smith on her radio show. Berlin had made some minor changes, he provided an introduction, now heard but which Smith always used: "While the storm clouds gather far across the sea / Let us swear allegiance to a land that's free / Let us all be grateful for a land so fair, / As we raise our voices in a solemn prayer." This was changed when Berlin published the sheet music in March 1939. Woody Guthrie criticized the song, in 1940 he wrote "This Land Is Your Land," titled "God Blessed America For Me," as a response. Anti-Semitic groups such as the Ku Klux Klan protested against the song due to its authorship by a Jewish immigrant. In 1943, Smith's rendition was featured in the patriotic musical This is the Army along with other Berlin songs.

The manuscripts in the Library of Congress reveal the evolution of the song from victory to peace. Berlin gave the royalties of the song to The God Bless America Fund for redistribution to Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts in New York City. Smith performed the song on her two NBC television series in the 1950s. "God Bless America" spawned another of Irving Berlin's tunes, "Heaven Watch The Philippines," during the end of World War II after he heard the Filipinos sing a revised version of the song replacing "America" with "The Philippines." The song was used early in the Civil Rights Movement as well as at labor rallies. During the 1960s, the song was used by Christian conservatives in the US to signal their opposition to secular liberalism and to silence dissenters who were speaking in favor of communism or in opposition to the U. S. involvement in the Vietnam War. From December 11, 1969, through the early 1970s, the playing of Smith singing the song before many home games of the National Hockey League's Philadelphia Flyers brought it renewed popularity as well as a reputation for being a "good luck charm" to the Flyers long before it became a staple of nationwide sporting events.

The Flyers brought Smith in to perform live before Game 6 of the 1974 Stanley Cup Finals on May 19, 1974, the Flyers won the Cup that day. In 1940 "God Bless America" was the official campaign song for both President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his Republican opponent, Wendell Willkie. At that time, the song represented religious tolerance. During a live television broadcast on the evening of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, following addresses by House and Senate leaders, Speaker Dennis Hastert and Tom Daschle, members of the United States Congress broke out into an spontaneous verse of "God Bless America" on the steps of the Capitol building in Washington, D. C. On July 21, 2011, Smith's version of the song was played as NASA's final wakeup call for Space Shuttle Atlantis, capping the 30-year Space Shuttle program. "God Bless America" has been performed at home games of the National Hockey League's Philadelphia Flyers and those of the Ottawa Senators in which the visiting team is from the United States.

At some Flyers' home games during big games and the playoffs, their main anthem singer, Lauren Hart, has sung "God Bless America" alternating lyrics with Kate Smith on a video screen, until 2019. Smith appeared in person to sing at select Flyers games, including their 1974 Stanley Cup clinching game against the Boston Bruins, to which she received a thunderous ovation from the passionate Philadelphia fans. Before games whenever "God Bless America" is performed until 2019, Lou Nolan, the PA announcer for the Flyers at the Wells Fargo Center, would say: "Ladies and gentlemen, at this time, we ask that you please rise and remove your hats and salute to our flags and welcome the No. 1 ranked anthemist in the NHL, Our own Lauren Hart, as she sings God Bless America, accompanied by the great Kate Smith."At some Senators home games since

Katrina cough

Katrina cough is a putative respiratory illness thought to be linked to exposure to mold and dust after the 2005 Hurricane Katrina in the United States. First described by doctors treating patients in the metro New Orleans area symptoms include cough, sinus headache, runny nose, sore throat, pink eye; this condition may make immunocompromised individuals more susceptible to bacterial bronchitis and sinusitis. Most patients antibiotics; the Louisiana Office of Public Health conducted a case-control study of emergency department visits in New Orleans in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. The OPH distributed a questionnaire to patients seeking treatment for cough, sinus drip, wheezing, chest congestion, swollen red and puffy eye and sore throat. According to the study, state epidemiologists found no increase in the rate of New Orleans-area respiratory illnesses. Although rates were found to be no different in comparison to state and country rates, the study showed that people with chronic sinus or respiratory symptoms were more affected by the hurricane.

State epidemiologist Dr. Raoult Ratard disputed the existence of any disease cluster associated with the hurricane in 2006: "There is no such thing as a single condition such as ‘Katrina Cough’ that would be different from the bacterial and viral respiratory conditions we would expect to see at that time of year...no such outbreak occurred because of Hurricane Katrina."Starting in 2008, Henry Glindmeyer and professor of pulmonary, critical care and environmental medicine at the Tulane University School of Medicine is conducting a five-year study to determine if workers in New Orleans face risks from inhalant exposure to minute particles such as mold, fungi or bacteria. The study is funded by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, an agency of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, providing $1.86 million. Allergy Coccidioidomycosis Some Hurricane Survivors Develop'Katrina Cough'

Gedgrave Hall Pit

Gedgrave Hall Pit is a 0.65 hectare geological Site of Special Scientific Interest in Gedgrave, south of Saxmundham in Suffolk. It is a Geological Conservation Review site, it is in the Suffolk Coast and Heaths Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the site consists to two pits dating to the early Pliocene Coralline Crag Formation. The smaller pit has many well-preserved mollusc fossils, whereas those in the larger pit are abraded and poorly preserved, it is situated some 500 metres from the similar site: Richmond Farm Pit. The site is on private land with no public access