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Goddard Institute for Space Studies

The Goddard Institute for Space Studies is a laboratory in the Earth Sciences Division of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center affiliated with the Columbia University Earth Institute. The institute is located at Columbia University in New York City. Research at the GISS emphasizes a broad study of global change, the natural and anthropogenic changes in our environment that affect the habitability of our planet; these effects may occur on differing time scales, from one-time forcings such as volcanic explosions, to seasonal/annual effects such as El Niño, on up to the millennia of ice ages. The institute's research combines analysis of comprehensive global datasets with global models of atmospheric, land surface, oceanic processes. Study of past climate change on Earth and of other planetary atmospheres provides an additional tool in assessing general understanding of the atmosphere and its evolution. GISS was established in May 1961 by Robert Jastrow to do basic research in space sciences in support of Goddard programs.

Formally the institute was the New York City office of the GSFC Theoretical Division but was known as the Goddard Space Flight Center Institute for Space Studies or in some publications as the Institute for Space Studies. But before it opened, the institute had been referred to in the press as the Goddard Institute for Space Studies, it was separated from the Theoretical Division in July 1962. Its offices were located in The Interchurch Center, the institute moved into Columbia's Armstrong Hall in April 1966. From 1981 to 2013, GISS was directed by James E. Hansen. In June 2014, Gavin A. Schmidt was named the institute's third director. In the 1960s, GISS was a frequent center for high-level scientific workshops, including the "History of the Earth’s Crust Symposium" in November 1966, described as the meeting that gave birth to the idea of plate tectonics. At a GISS workshop in 1967, John Wheeler popularized the term "black hole" as a short-hand for'gravitionally collapsed star', though the term was not coined there.

In September 1974, at a seminal meeting led by Patrick Thaddeus at GISS with John Mather and others discussions began on the possibility of building a satellite to measure both the spectrum and possible spatial fluctuations of the Cosmic Microwave Background. This led directly to a Nobel Prize for Mather. A key objective of Goddard Institute for Space Studies research is prediction of climate change in the 21st century; the research combines paleogeological record, analysis of comprehensive global datasets, with global models of atmospheric, land surface, oceanic processes. Climate science predictions are based on historical analysis of Earth's paleoclimate, the sea-level/ temperature/ carbon dioxide record. Changes in carbon dioxide associated with continental drift, the decrease in volcanism as India arrived at the Asian continent, allowed temperatures to drop & Antarctic ice-sheets to form; this resulted in a 75m drop in sea level, allowing our present-day coastlines & habitats to form and stabilize.

Global change studies at GISS are coordinated with research at other groups within the Earth Sciences Division, including the Laboratory for Atmospheres, Laboratory for Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences, Earth Observing System science office. GISS Director James Hansen received the Heinz Award in 2001. In November 2004, Climatologists Drew Shindell and Gavin Schmidt were named amongst Scientific American magazine's Top 50 Scientist award. One-time GISS post-doctoral scientist John C. Mather was years awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2006. Notable people who have been worked at GISS and when they were there: W. David Arnett, postdoc Alastair G. W. Cameron Mark Cane, postdoc Hong-Yee Chiu Benjamin Cook Thomas M. Dame, postdoc Anthony Del Genio Rhodes Fairbridge Inez Fung James Hansen Robert Jastrow John Knox, postdoc Kuo-Nan Liou, postdoc John McAfee, programmer John C. Mather, postdoc Michael J. Prather William J. Quirk, postdoc Cynthia E. Rosenzweig William B. Rossow Gavin Schmidt Stephen Schneider, postdoc Drew Shindell Richard Somerville Richard Stothers Patrick Thaddeus The institute is housed at the corner of West 112th St. and Broadway in New York City in Columbia University's Armstrong Hall.

The building houses Tom's Restaurant, the exterior for the restaurant in Seinfeld and the subject of the Suzanne Vega song Tom's Diner. WQED made a documentary in the 1960s "The Universe on a Scratch Pad" about the theoretical work being done at GISS. Earth Simulator EdGCM National Center for Atmospheric Research Robert Jastrow James Hansen Goddard Institute for Space Studies - Official Site GISS Global Surface Temperature Analysis - Global Surface Temperature Data

Lynne Pancrazi

Lynne Pancrazi is an American politician and a former Democratic member of the Arizona Senate representing District 4. Pancrazi served consecutively in the Arizona State Legislature from January 2007 until January 14, 2013 in the Arizona House of Representatives District 24 seat. Pancrazi attended Arizona Western College, earned her BA in physical education from Point Loma Nazarene College, her MEd in elementary education from Northern Arizona University. 2012 When Republican Senator Scott Bundgaard retired and left the Senate District 4 seat open, Pancrazi was unopposed for both the August 28, 2012 Democratic Primary, winning with 7,043 votes, the November 6, 2012 General election, winning with 29,823 votes when a write-in candidate in the Republican Primary did not qualify for the general election. 2006 When incumbent Democratic Representative Amanda Aguirre and incumbent Republican Representative Russ Jones both ran for Arizona Senate and left both House District 24 seats open, Pancrazi ran in the September 12, 2006 Democratic Primary, taking first place with 4,454 votes.

2008 Pancrazi and Representative Ulmer were unopposed for the September 2008 Democratic Primary. In the three-way November 2, 2010 General election, Pancrazi took the first seat with 22,680 votes and Republican former Representative Russ Jones took the second seat ahead of incumbent Democratic Representative Ulmer. 2010 Pancrazi placed first with 5,624 votes. Official page at the Arizona State Legislature Profile at Vote Smart

Samuel Ward (field hockey)

Samuel "Sam" Ian Ward is an English international field hockey player who plays as a forward for the England and Great Britain national team. Ward plays club hockey in the Men's England Hockey League Premier Division for Old Georgians, he has played club hockey for Beeston, Holcombe and Leicester. He competed for Great Britain at the 2016 Olympics, for England in the 2014 Men's Hockey Champions Trophy. During the Olympic Qualifier against Malaysia, he was struck by the ball in the face and he lost some sight in his left eye. Samuel Ward at the International Hockey Federation


The Hochburg is a castle ruin situated between the city of Emmendingen and the village of Sexau in the region of Baden, located in the southwest of Germany. It was built in the 11th century and was known as castle Hachberg; the line of nobles known as the Margraves of Baden-Hachberg most derive their name from this castle and before it was razed by the French it was the second largest fortification in Baden. Historians are uncertain about. One theory is that an estate in the region was given to a man referred to as Hacho, a part of Charlemagnes retinue; this hypothesis is supported by an engraved plaque added to the castle by Karl II and a document dating back to 1161 mentions it as Castro Hahberc. In any case, whoever the true builder of the castle is most chose its name for their lineage, resulting in the family sidebranch of the house of Baden known as Baden-Hachberg; the first mention of a transition from Hachberg to Hochberg can be found in French sources concerned with members of the lineage of Hachberg-Sausenberg, who were the counts of Neuenburg as well.

The name Hochberg sees its German revival as late as 1787, when Margrave Karl Friedrich, as second husband, married Luise Karoline Freiin Geyer von Geyersberg and made her the Imperial Countess of Hochberg. Dietrich von Emmendingen most founded the castle to harvest the forests surrounding it for lumber, its first mention dates back to a document from 1127. The further development of property documents suggests that Erkenbold von Hachberg, the last of his name, gave his holdings to the Zähringer to finance his participation in the crusades. A document on the talks about the founding of the monastery Tennenbach from 1161 implies that Hermann IV von Baden was the reigning lord of castle Hachberg at the time; when his sons Hermann V and Henrich I divided the margraviate among each other in 1212 the castle became the centre of power for the margraves of Baden-Hachberg. Margrave Bernhard I of the main family of Baden acquired the castle from the indebted Margrave Otto II von Baden-Hachberg; the castle survived the war of the Oberrheinischer Städtebund versus Bernhard I in 1424 and withstood siege during the German Peasant's War in 1525.

Karl II enhanced the castle's defences in 1553 and turned it into a more modern, renaissance style fortification. Margrave Georg Friedrich added 7 bastions around the castle's perimeter and gave some the names of Hachbergs sister castles in Baden all of which laid in the realm of Margraves of Baden-Durlach; the castle was besieged for two years during the Thirty Years' War in 1634 and was slighted for the first time after surrendering to the attackers. However, in 1660 Margrave Friedrich VI induced the reconstruction of the castle. In 1681 the defences were destroyed voluntarily by the French after they had taken many of the holdings in Baden through the Treaty of peace of Nijmegen and a manned castle Hachberg could have posed a sizable threat to their new territory. Only three years peasants caused a fire which destroyed the remaining living quarters, and in 1688 French troops destroyed what little remained of the fortification, turning it into a ruin. The first steps at preserving the ruin were taken towards the end of the 19th century and still persist to this day.

Work was only temporarily halted during the two world wars. The Society for the conservation of the Hochburg has been taking care of the ruin on voluntary work since 1971 and in 2007 they bought the tenancy of the castle; the Hochburg can be visited by anyone free of charge. It is part of the program for the state preservation of castles and gardens in Baden-Württemberg and in 1991 a small museum was added in the cellar; the castle has been depicted in several paintings and has many mythical tales surrounding it, speaking of hidden treasure and restless knights, waiting to return. Alfons Zettler, Thomas Zotz: Die Burgen im mittelalterlichen Breisgau. Halbband 1. A - K. Nördlicher Teil. In: Archäologie und Geschichte. Freiburger Forschungen zum ersten Jahrtausend in Südwestdeutschland, Band 14. Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Ostfildern 2003, ISBN 3-7995-7364-X, S. 122-133. Rolf Brinkmann: Burgruine Hochburg - von der Rodungsburg zur Festung, Selbstverlag 2001, ISBN 3-00-013515-4 Rolf Brinkmann: Die Hochburg bei Emmendingen, Deutscher Kunstverlag München Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-422-02098-6 Hochburg at Google Books Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz: Das Hochburger Schloss, in: Gesammelte Schriften herausgegeben von Ludwig Tieck, Dritter Band, S. 192-199, Berlin 1828 online im Internet Archive Heinrich Maurer: Der Brand des Schlosses Hochberg 1684.

In: Schau-ins-Land, Band 15, 1889, S. 81-86 online bei UB Freiburg English information about Hochburg Castle on the Homepage of the state heritage agency Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten Society for the conservation of the Hochburg Burgen im Breisgau Die Hochburg auf einer Architektur-Website Bild der Hochburg im: Bildarchiv Foto Marburg – Bildindex der Kunst und Architektur Musikvideo zur Hochburg von Rudolf Holgerson Entry on Hachberg in EBIDAT, the databank of the European Castles Institute Die Hochburg auf Schlösser und Burgen in Baden-Württemberg Hochburg Pictures

Speak Like a Child (album)

Speak Like a Child is the sixth album by American jazz pianist Herbie Hancock and released by Blue Note Records in 1968. Featuring Hancock's arrangements for an unusual front line of alto flute, bass trombone and flugelhorn, the album was described by critic Nat Hentoff as an "impressive further stage in the evolution of Herbie Hancock as writer and player", characterised by a "singular quality of incisive, searching lyricism." None of the wind players perform solos on any song. The cover photograph was taken by an acquaintance of Hancock; the photo depicts Hancock in silhouette kissing his Gigi Meixner. The pianist wanted to represent here a not childish, philosophy, he felt this music didn't reflect the social turmoil of the late 1960s in America, riots and problematic economy. Hancock rather wanted to picture a more upbeat, brighter future, or, as he says, "a forward look into what could be a bright future." More so, Hancock wanted to go back and rediscover certain childhood qualities "we lose and wish we could have back — purity, spontaneity.

When they do return to us, we're at our best." Therefore, "Speak Like a Child" translates as "think and feel in terms of hope, the possibilities of making our future less impure". In the liner notes, Hancock further points out his approach to the album, recalling his previous efforts: "What I was into and have been thinking about more and more, was the concept that there is a type of music in between jazz and rock." In fact, in 1966 Hancock tried to record a funk album with a nine-piece ensemble — an attempt that failed and never made it to release: "I was trying to make a funk record without knowing a thing about funk." Hancock referred to himself as a "jazz snob" and stated the date didn't turn out as he expected."This album is an extension of Maiden Voyage in terms of use of simple, singable melodies. I've been trying for a long time to work on swinging, of all the albums I've done, this to me swings the most. What's different in Speak Like a Child as a whole has to do, with harmony. For the most part, the harmonies in these numbers are freer in the sense that they're not so identifiable chordally in the conventional way.

I'm more concerned with sounds than chords, so I voice the harmonies to provide a wider spectrum of colors that can be contained within the traditional chord progression. In those tracks with the horns, I was more interested in sounds than in definite chord patterns. I tried to give the horns notes that would give color and body to the sounds I heard as I wrote." Hancock says this way of thinking came from listening to Gil Evans, Oliver Nelson and Thad Jones. The pianist was becoming captivated by ensembles. Indeed, he concludes saying "certainly, one of the ways I'm going to go from here on is writing for large groups I feel I have to go on and write more for horns, explore more possibilities of textures." More Hancock commented "Once I made that album, there was no doubt in my mind that, when I organized my own band, it would be a sextet." A different take of "Riot" was recorded by Miles Davis on his Nefertiti. Hancock, points out that the arranged version on Speak Like a Child is less riotous than Davis'.

Moreover though it contains "an element of turmoil", it is there "more as an undercurrent than on the surface." Hancock first wrote the melody added the harmonies he wanted underneath. The title for "Speak Like a Child", the haunting title track that represents the summa of this concept album, came from Francis Wolff who designed much art for Blue Note, it was suggested by the cover photograph taken by Bythewood. Hancock was so enthralled by it. Wolff in turn was impressed by the naivety and innocence in it, so he promptly chose it as the cover. Miles Davis Quintet attempted to record the piece in January 1968, without producing a proper, finished take. "First Trip" was composed by bassist Ron Carter for his son, Ron Jr. who at the time was going to a nursery school where the good kids, the ones who behaved well, would come home on the first trip, the bad ones on the second. Carter wrote the tune one of the days that Ron Jr. behaved well. When Hancock first played the melody, he "didn't play it straight", but rather made changes to some phrases and tempos, so that it would result freer, getting away "from finite structural and chordal limitations."

In Hancock's words, the piece has "the kind of progression that goes in and out of the traditional dividing lines." A different version of this number appeared on Joe Henderson' album Tetragon on which Carter performed. The tune "Toys", which displays contrasting dynamics, came out since Hancock was trying to write a piece "with the colors of a blues, but not the form," whilst "Goodbye to Childhood" should reflect a melancholic feeling, "that particular quality of sadness you feel at childhood being gone." The last track on the album is "The Sorcerer", written for Davis. It is featured on the eponymous Sorcerer. Hancock titled it that way, his whole attitude, the way he is, is kind of mysterious. His music sounds like witchcraft. There are times, it doesn't sound. All compositions by Herbie Hancock, except as indicated. Side A: "Riot" – 4:40 "Speak Like a Child" – 7:50 "First Trip" – 6:01Side B: "Toys" – 5:52 "Goodbye to Childhood" – 7:06 "The Sorcerer" – 5:36Bonus tracks on CD reissue: "Riot" – 4:55 "Riot" – 4:40 "Goodbye to Childhood" – 5:49Tracks 1, 2

Ian Humphreys

Ian Humphreys is a retired Irish rugby union footballer, who played at fly-half for the Pro12 team Ulster Rugby. He joined Ulster in 2008 from Leicester Tigers having played for Ulster at under 21 level where he captained them during the 2002/03 season and has represented Ireland at U19, U21 and'A' level, captained the Irish side at the Rugby World Cup Sevens tournament in Hong Kong in March 2005, he had been named player of the tournament for the European Sevens qualifier in Poland. He is the younger brother of retired Ulster fly-half David Humphreys. Humphreys joined Leicester Tigers in 2005 from Belfast Harlequins, his first outing in Tigers stripes was at the Middlesex Sevens Tournament at Twickenham in August. During October 2006 Humphreys was loaned out to first division Leeds where he made 4 appearances, scoring 2 tries and a drop goal. On his return to the Leicester first team he guided the Tigers to a victory away at Wasps with a mature display. After more assured performances, a hamstring injury to Andy Goode, Humphreys was selected to play Munster at Thomond Park in a decisive Heineken Cup pool game.

After his brilliant performance in a high tempo match he was the selected for his Ireland A début against England Saxons at Ravenhill, in his native Ulster. In April 2008, after falling out of favour at Leicester, Humphreys signed for Ulster to replace his retiring brother, he joined London Irish in 2012 scoring 198 points in 33 games. He retired at the end of the 2015/16 season. Leicester profile Guinness Premiership profile Ulster profile