SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Feminism in India

Feminism in India is a set of movements aimed at defining and defending equal political and social rights and equal opportunities for women in India. It is the pursuit of women's rights within the society of India. Like their feminist counterparts all over the world, feminists in India seek gender equality: the right to work for equal wages, the right to equal access to health and education, equal political rights. Indian feminists have fought against culture-specific issues within India's patriarchal society, such as inheritance laws; the history of feminism in India can be divided into three phases: the first phase, beginning in the mid-19th century, initiated when male European colonists began to speak out against the social evils of Sati. Despite the progress made by Indian feminist movements, women living in modern India still face many issues of discrimination. India's patriarchal culture has made the process of gaining land-ownership rights and access to education challenging. In the past two decades, there has emerged a trend of sex-selective abortion.

To Indian feminists, these are seen as injustices worth struggling against. As in the West, there has been some criticism of feminist movements in India, they have been criticised for focusing too much on women privileged, neglecting the needs and representation of poorer or lower caste women. This has led to the creation of movements. Women's role in pre-colonial social structures reveals that feminism was theorized differently in India than in the West. In India, women's issues first began to be addressed when the state commissioned a report on the status of women to a group of feminist researchers and activists; the report recognised the fact that in India, women were oppressed under a system of structural hierarchies and injustices. During this period, Indian feminists were influenced by the Western debates being conducted about violence against women. However, due to the difference in the historical and social culture of India, the debate in favour of Indian women had to be conducted creatively and certain Western ideas had to be rejected.

Women's issues began to gain an international prominence when the decade of 1975–1985 was declared the United Nations Decade for Women. Indian feminists face certain obstacles in Indian society that are not present or as prevalent in Western society. While Indian feminists have the same ultimate goal as their Western counterparts, their version of feminism can differ in many ways in order to tackle the kind of issues and circumstances they face in the modern-day patriarchal society of India. Indian feminists attempt to challenge the patriarchal structure of their society in a variety of ways. Sampat Pal Devi is a former government worker and mother of five, who noticed domestic abuse and violence within her own community as she grew up in India; as a result, she decided to start a vigilant group known as the'Gulabi Gang' who track down abusers and beat them with bamboo sticks until it is believed that they have repented and victims have been sufficiently avenged. In the area of religion, Indian feminists draw attention to the powerful image of female Goddesses in Hinduism.

They point out the matriarchal pre-history of Indian society and emphasize on the fact that there have been periods of Indian history that were not patriarchal and communities that were female-orientated and matriarchal, existed. Indian women negotiate survival through an array of oppressive patriarchal family structures: age, ordinal status, relationship to men through family of origin and procreation as well as patriarchal attributes. Examples of patriarchal attributes include: dowry, siring sons etc. kinship, community, village and the state. It should however be noted that several communities in India, such as the Nairs of Kerala, Shettys of Mangalore, certain Marathi clans, Bengali families exhibit matriarchal tendencies. In these communities, the head of the family is the oldest woman rather than the oldest man. Sikh culture is regarded as gender-neutral. In India, of communities recognised in the national Constitution as Scheduled Tribes, "some... matriarchal and matrilineal" "and thus have been known to be more egalitarian."

According to interviewer Anuj Kumar, Manipur, "has a matriarchal society", but this may not be a scholarly assessment. Manipur was ruled by strong dynasties and the need for expansions of borders, crushing any outsider threats, etc. engaged the men. So, women had to take charge of home-front. In Muslim families and men are considered equal, but not in the westernised sense; the Quran teaches that the mind of female is half of male and are different biologically. Therefore, Islam grants different rights to the wife. In this sense, the husband may take more of a leading role in the household; the heterogeneity of the Indian experience reveals that there are multiple patriarchies, contributing to the existence of multiple feminism. Hence, feminism in India is not a singular theoretical orientation; the used definition is "An awareness of women's oppression and exploitation in society, at work and within the family, conscious action by women and men to change this situation." Acknowledging

Rancho Corral de Cuati

Rancho Corral de Cuati was a 13,322-acre Mexican land grant in present-day Santa Barbara County, California given in 1845 by Governor Pío Pico to Agustín Dávila. The grant was located along Alamo Pintado Creek, north of present-day Los Olivos; the grant is surrounded by Rancho La Laguna. Agustín Dávila was a painter. Dávila painted the facade, nave walls, the ceiling above the sanctuary of the Mission Santa Clara de Asís, he married María de Jesús Félix in 1836. He was granted the three square league Rancho Corral de Cuati in 1845. In a confrontation at Rancho Tinaquaic in 1848, Dávila was killed by Benjamin Foxen. Cesario Lataillade acquired Rancho Corral de Cuati. Cesario Armand Lataillade was a French trader involved in the hide and tallow trade who came to Santa Barbara in 1841, he married Antonia María de la Guerra, the fourth and youngest daughter of José de la Guerra y Noriega, in 1845. Lataillade was granted Rancho Cuyama, acquired Rancho Cuyama and Rancho La Zaca. Lataillade was killed in an accident in 1849, the properties inherited by his widow and their two children, Maria Antonia Lataillade and Cesario Eugene Lataillade.

With the cession of California to the United States following the Mexican-American War, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided that the land grants would be honored. As required by the Land Act of 1851, a claim for Rancho Corral de Cuati was filed with the Public Land Commission in 1852, the grant was patented to María Antonia de la Guerra y Lataillade in 1876. Ranchos of California List of Ranchos of California Ranchos of Santa Barbara County Map