Goethite is an iron-bearing hydroxide mineral of the diaspore group. It is found in other low-temperature environments such as sediment. Goethite has been well known since ancient times for its use as a pigment. Evidence has been found of its use in paint pigment samples taken from the caves of Lascaux in France, it was first described in 1806 based on samples found in the Hollertszug Mine in Germany. The mineral was named after poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Goethite is an iron oxyhydroxide containing ferric iron, it is the main component of bog iron ore. Goethite's hardness ranges from 5.0 to 5.5 on the Mohs Scale, its specific gravity varies from 3.3 to 4.3. The mineral forms prismatic needle-like crystals but is more massive. Feroxyhyte and lepidocrocite are both polymorphs of the iron oxyhydroxide FeO which are stable at the pressure and temperature conditions of the Earth's surface. Although they have the same chemical formula as goethite, their different crystalline structures make them distinct minerals.
Additionally, goethite has several high-pressure and high-temperature polymorphs, which may be relevant to the conditions of the Earth's interior. These include ε-FeOOH, which has an orthorhombic crystal structure, a cubic pyrite-type polymorph, an ultradense hexagonal structure. Goethite forms through the weathering of other iron-rich minerals, thus is a common component of soils, concentrated in laterite soils. Nanoparticulate authigenic goethite is a common diagenetic iron oxyhydroxide in both marine and lake sediments; the formation of goethite is marked by the oxidation state change of Fe2+ to Fe3+, which allows for goethite to exist at surface conditions. Because of this oxidation state change, goethite is seen as a pseudomorph; as iron-bearing minerals are brought to the zone of oxidation within the soil, the iron turns from iron to iron, while the original shape of the parent mineral is retained. Examples of common goethite pseudomorphs are: goethites after pyrite, goethite and marcasite, though any iron-bearing mineral could become a goethite pseudomorph if proper conditions are met.
It may be precipitated by groundwater or in other sedimentary conditions, or form as a primary mineral in hydrothermal deposits. Goethite has been found to be produced by the excretion processes of certain bacteria types. Goethite is found all over the planet in the form of concretions, stalactitic formations, reniform or botryoidal accumulations, it is a common pseudomorph. It is encountered in the swampy areas at the head of spring waters, on cave floors, on the bottom of lakes and small creeks; the boxworks or gossan resulting from the oxidation of sulfide ore deposits is formed of goethite along with other iron oxides and quartz. Significant deposits of goethite are found in England, Australia and Michigan, Missouri, Alabama, Georgia and Tennessee, Florida caves in the United States. Deposits significant in location, if not in abundance, have been found in the Martian crater Gusev by NASA's Spirit rover, providing strong evidence for the presence of liquid water on the planet in an earlier stage of its evolution.
In 2015 it was reported that limpet's teeth have goethite fibres in them, which accounts for their extreme tensile strength. Its main modern use is as an iron ore, being referred to as brown iron ore, it does have some use as a clay earth pigment. Iron-rich lateritic soils that have developed over serpentinite rocks in tropical climates are mined for their iron content, as well as other metals. Fine goethite specimens are rare and therefore are valued collectibles. Banded or iridescent varieties are polished into cabochons for jewelry making; the oldest known use of goethite comes from the ancient kingdom of Phrygia. In a royal tomb a body was found believed to be King Gordias, father of the legendary King Midas; the burial shroud had been colored with a dye containing goethite, which in its original unfaded state would have made the shroud look like it was woven from gold. Historians speculate that the legend of King Midas' golden touch might have originated from Phrygian royalty wearing clothes made from such golden-colored textiles.
The Åsta accident was a railway accident that occurred at 13:12:25 on 4 January 2000 at Åsta in Åmot, south of Rena in Østerdalen, Norway. A train from Trondheim collided with a local train from Hamar on the Røros Line, resulting in an explosive fire. 19 people were killed. Southbound train 2302, a train hauled by a Di 3-class diesel locomotive, departed on schedule from Trondheim Central Station at 07:45 in the morning on Tuesday 4 January 2000 with 75 people on board, its final destination was Hamar Station. Because connecting trains were running late, the train departure from Røros Station was 21 minutes late; the schedule delay was recovered, by arrival and departure at Rena Station the train was running only 7 minutes late. At departure the signal showed green, the log at the traffic control centre at Hamar after the accident showed that the south-bound signal on the main line was green. Northbound train 2369, a Class 92 diesel multiple unit, left Hamar Station on schedule at 12:30 with 10 passengers on board.
The train was headed for Rena Station. At Rustad Station the train stopped to pick up one passenger at 13:06 and, according to the schedule, the train was supposed to have remain at Rustad until 13:10 to wait for the train from north; when the train left Rustad at 13:07 with 11 persons on board, including the engineer and conductor, the log shows that the signal did not show green. The log revealed that the set of points at the exit had been forced open by the northbound train. Traffic control on the Rørosbanen line between Hamar and Røros is controlled by the Train Control Centre at Hamar; the dispatcher there was responsible for watching the more trafficked stretch south from Hamar to Eidsvoll. There was no audible alarm installed to warn when two trains are on collision course on this stretch, although a message in red print may have been visible on the screen warning that an accident was imminent, the traffic controller did not observe this visual warning until 13:11:30. At the time of the accident, neither an Automatic Train Control nor a train radio was installed on trains on the Røros Line.
The only way to contact the trains was via mobile telephones. The mobile telephone numbers for the engineers and conductors on the trains had either been recorded on the wrong list, or had not been listed. Hence, by the time the traffic controller in Hamar recognised the problem, he was unable to determine which phone number to dial. At 13:12:35 the trains collided at Kilometer 182,75. On 1 September 1997, the Norwegian National Rail Administration and the Norwegian State Railways had introduced new departure routines for passenger trains where only the engineer, not both the engineer and conductor as before, was required to check that the main departure signal from a station showed "go" before the train started from a station; this was despite that the Norwegian Railway Inspectorate did not accept that the new departure procedures were to be introduced on the Røros Line, among other things because of the special conditions there. The Rail Inspectorate protested to the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications, got support there, without this changing the actual departure procedures.
On 22 February 1975, the Tretten train disaster occurred on the Dovre Line. The accident was similar to the one at Åsta, as it was a head-on collision on a section with CTC, after the train driver had mis-read a stop signal. In that accident's aftermath, it was concluded that a stop signal was not sufficient and in 1976 NSB decided to install automatic train stop on all electrified mainlines. A prototype of an ATS system was developed by SINTEF and tested om Espa station in 1971. However, the selected system was the ATC system that LM Ericsson developed for the Swedish state railways. From 1979 the system was rolled out on the main railway lines, including the Bergen, Dovre, Sørlandet, Ofoten, Østfold and Kongsvinger Lines. From 1995 automatic train control was rolled out, allowing not just stop signals, but speed signals to be issued automatically. In a 1989 report written by Det Norske Veritas for NSB, the continued roll-out of ATC was instrumental for retaining safety on the railway network.
The report recommended that all lines in Norway with centralised traffic control receive ATC by 1 January 1995. In particular, the Drammen Line between Oslo and Asker and the Vestfold Line lacked such implementation. In addition, the report stressed that all new lines receiving CTC should receive ATC at the same time. Funding for hasten roll-out was given in 1992 and 1993, both on the Røros and the Eastern Østfold Line; the need for ATC was specified in National Railway Plan 1994–97. The CTC on the Røros Line south of Røros was completed in December 1994, but without ATC; this allowed the costly manning of stations to end. The plans for ATC were completed in November 1995, sent on public consultation. By April 1997, the planning process was completed. In the Norwegian Railway Plan 1998–2007, the Ministry of Transport and Communications explicitly stated that ATC, along with CTC and the train radio system Scanet was only to be built on lines where it was profitable; the Røros Line had ATC mentioned "in the medium term", but was not part of the ten-year plan.
The plan was subsequently sanctioned by the Parliament of Norway. The reasons for not allocating money was in part because of cost overruns from building the Gardermoen Line, in part because centrally placed people in NSB were uncertain if the Røros Line would be kept and if it was economical to make large investme
Annabeth Robinson, whose online Second Life alias is AngryBeth Shortbread, is a multi-media artist and lecturer based in Leeds, UK where she focusses on the teaching of audio and online technologies. Using Second Life and other Multi User Virtual Environments, Robinson explores their potential as a medium for art and design practice whilst examining its educational potential. Robinson has been undertaking such projects since 2005. Robinson is a lecturer at Leeds College of Art where she develops tools and techniques for using Second Life for educational applications including the used Metalab Whiteboard. Robinson works within Second Life to create interactive installations, educative tools. On the Second Life virtual environment platform Robinson is known as AngryBeth Shortbread, she owns at least one island in the virtual platform, Second Life, which'supports art and design practice either specific to a single course or to a range of courses'. Her avatar, AngryBeth Shortbread, has been listed as someone who has'inspired with creativity' by Wagner James Au, a reporter on Second Life.
Robinson is listed as an Educator, Instructional Designer in Second Life by J Hiles in the TCC 2007 Proceedings. Robinson has used her avatar on Second Life to create Educational tools. MetaLab Whiteboard The ubiquitous'MetaLab Whiteboard' is an educative tool, developed to improve the quality of education within Second Life, it is an interactive board'that can pre-load with images'. These images can consist of pictures which have a click through function to display. HandShow Chair In other projects for the MetaLab on Second Life, Robinson has created the Hand Show, or HandUp Chair; the Hand Show Chair, when sat on, raises an avatar's hand to be noticed by an avatar teacher. Robinson uses Second Life as a platform to imitate real life mediums and transfer them into a virtual world, she manipulates everyday objects, such as coloured boxes within the virtual world of Second Life. This is to create interactive installation. One of Robinson's focusses has been on the manipulation of sound and instruments.
In some installations a user's avatar can click or touch multiple boxes to create a unique compilation of sounds. As well as this Robinson has been focussing on'the role of the avatar' and how it influences the space around it. Ping Space Whilst working at Leeds College of Art and Design as a lecturer, Annabeth Robinson contributed to the'Kritical Works in SL' project with a project called Ping Space; the interactive performance consisted of two cubes being used in'Kriti Island'. The aim of the performance was to create sound; this sound could only be created when one cube was placed on the ground and the other was placed 300 metres above, in the air. The sound that can be created within the Ping Space project has been described as: "a mixture of organic pink noise water/wind and binaural beats – sine wave tones of sound that range from 7 – 30 hz difference; the type of beats and other sound design within the void is controlled by an external source outside of Second Life Avatars flying around inside the void will be sending data back out to the interface – effecting its presentation.
Between these two spaces ping playful interaction – where each space's activity affect the other"