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Goffredo Mameli

Goffredo Mameli was an Italian patriot, writer and a notable figure in the Risorgimento. He is the author of the lyrics of "Il Canto degli Italiani", the national anthem of Italy; the son of an aristocratic Sardinian admiral, Mameli was from Genoa where he was born, where his father was in command of the fleet of the Kingdom of Sardinia. At the age of seven he was sent to Sardinia, to his grandfather's place, to escape the risk of cholera, but soon came back to Genoa to complete his studies; the achievements of Mameli's short life are concentrated in only two years, during which time he played major parts in insurrectional movements and the Risorgimento. In 1847 Mameli joined the Società Entelema, a cultural movement that soon would have turned to a political movement, here he became interested in the theories of Giuseppe Mazzini. Mameli is known as the author of the lyrics of the Italian national anthem, Il Canto degli Italiani, better known in Italy as Inno di Mameli; these lyrics were used for the first time in November 1847, celebrating King Charles Albert of Sardinia in his visit to Genoa after his first reforms.

Mameli's lyrics to a "hymn of the people" —"Suona la tromba"— were set by Giuseppe Verdi the following year. Mameli was involved in nationalist movements and some more "spectacular" actions are remembered, such as his exposition of the Tricolore to celebrate the expulsion of Austrians in 1846. Yet, he was with Nino Bixio in a committee for public health on a clear Mazzinian position. In March 1848, hearing of the insurrection in Milan, Mameli organised an expedition with 300 other patriots, joined Bixio's troops that were on site, entered the town, he was admitted to Garibaldi's irregular army, as a captain, met Mazzini. Back in Genoa, he worked more on a literary side, wrote several hymns and other compositions, he became the director of the newspaper Diario del Popolo, promoted a press campaign for a war against Austria. In December 1848 Mameli reached Rome, where Pellegrino Rossi had been murdered, helping in the clandestine works for declaration of the Roman Republic. Mameli went to Florence where he proposed the creation of a common state between Tuscany and Latium.

In April 1849 he was again in Genoa, with Bixio, where a popular insurrection was opposed by General Alberto La Marmora. Mameli soon left again for Rome, where the French had come to support the Papacy and took active part in the combat. During the siege of Rome, he was an aide of Giuseppe Garibaldi, who fought in Palestrina and in Velletri. In particular he fought in the defense of the Villa del Vascello on the Janiculum hill, he was wounded in the left leg by the French during the last assault of 3 June at Villa Corsini, occupied by the French. However, there is a theory. Mameli suffered from gangrene. After a consultation with Maestri and other doctors, it was decided to amputate the leg, performed by surgeon Paolo Maria Raffaello Baroni. Despite this, the infection increased to the point of causing death by sepsis, on 6 July 1849, at the age of 21, in the hospice of Trinità dei Pellegrini, he was buried at Campo Verano in Rome, his remains were moved to the Mausoleo Ossario del Gianicolo in 1941.

Barrili, Anton Giulio. Scritti editi ed inediti di G. Mameli. Genoa: Soc. Ligure di Storia Patria. Anton Giulio Barrili. "G. Mameli nella vita e nell'arte". Nuova Antologia

Chris Swanwick

Chris Swanwick is a British racing car driver. He is best known for having competed in the British Touring Car Championship, he made his début on 2 October 2011 at Brands Hatch. Swanwick was a relative late starter to karting, starting in 2003 at the age of 9 in Formula cadets where he did his novice plates, he progressed and by the end of the next year won the Comer cadets, North Regional Final. Not being happy to stay in cadets for another year, Swanwick decided to move up to Mini Max for the 2005 season, by the end of the year was a regular on the podium at Wombwell, he could have stopped in mini Max for another couple of years, but having the need for speed, Swanwick decided he wanted to drive JICAs. In the middle of 2006, he had a time at Strawberry Racing, but damaged his rib badly and did not race again until the second half of the year. Swanwick tested and signed for Tollbar Racing in January 2009, he passed. Swanwick competed in the Ginetta Junior Championship for Tollbar Racing where he finished with 8 podiums and completed the season in 7th.

Swanwick competed for half a year in the Ginetta Junior Championship for Team Parker Racing where he finished with 2 podiums. He finished the season in 14th. Swanwicks aggressive driving style saw him disqualified in Round 14 of the championship at Silverstone after an incident that resulted in 3 cars retiring from the race. Team Pryo saw potential in Swanwick and signed him up for the Renault Clio Cup 2011. Swanwick competed in Renault Clio Cup 2011 for Team Pryo. Swanwick found the front wheel drive Clio more of a challenge than the rear wheel Ginetta G20. Despite this, Swanwick's aggressive driving style saw him take 7th and 8th place twice over the season. Rob Austin again saw Swanwick's potential and signed him up as the team's junior driver after testing at Pembrey in July 2011. Swanwick tested the second NGTC Spec Audi A4 for Rob Austin Racing and made his BTCC début on 2 October 2011 at Brands Hatch, raced at Silverstone, the championship's finale, he finished five of the six races he competed in and at the end of the season was classified 32nd in the drivers' championship.

Swanwick, was born in Nottingham and attended Dagfa House School. Swanwick lives in Moorgreen near Nottinghamshire, he attended Dagfa House School between ages of 11 and 16, Dagfa school allows flexible school hours which suited Swanwicks race schedule. Swanwick works as a diamond driller for his father's company East Midlands Diamond Drilling. EMDD is one of his main sponsors. Swanwick has gained the nickname Sonic Swanwick due to his spiky hair. BTCC Debut Renault Clio Cup Rob Austin Racing


NADH dehydrogenase 1 beta subcomplex subunit 7 known as complex I-B18, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NDUFB7 gene. NADH dehydrogenase 1 beta subcomplex subunit 7 is an accessory subunit of the NADH dehydrogenase complex, located in the mitochondrial inner membrane, it is known as Complex I and is the largest of the five complexes of the electron transport chain. The NDUFB7 gene is located on the p arm of chromosome 19 in position 13.12 and is 6,000 base pairs long. The NDUFB7 protein is composed of 137 amino acids. NDUFB7 is a subunit of the largest of the respiratory complexes; the structure is L-shaped with a long, hydrophobic transmembrane domain and a hydrophilic domain for the peripheral arm that includes all the known redox centers and the NADH binding site. NDUFB7 and NDUFB8 have been shown to localize at the intermembrane surface of complex I, it has been noted that the N-terminal hydrophobic domain has the potential to be folded into an alpha helix spanning the inner mitochondrial membrane with a C-terminal hydrophilic domain interacting with globular subunits of Complex I.

The conserved two-domain structure suggests that this feature is critical for the protein function and that the hydrophobic domain acts as an anchor for the NADH dehydrogenase complex at the inner mitochondrial membrane. The protein encoded by this gene is an accessory subunit of the multisubunit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, not directly involved in catalysis. Mammalian complex I is composed of 45 different subunits, it locates at the mitochondrial inner membrane. This protein complex has NADH dehydrogenase oxidoreductase activity, it transfers electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. NADH binds to Complex I and transfers two electrons to the isoalloxazine ring of the flavin mononucleotide prosthetic arm to form FMNH2; the electrons are transferred through a series of iron-sulfur clusters in the prosthetic arm and to coenzyme Q10, reduced to ubiquinol.

The flow of electrons changes the redox state of the protein, resulting in a conformational change and pK shift of the ionizable side chain, which pumps four hydrogen ions out of the mitochondrial matrix. This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, in the public domain


Çumra is a town and district of Konya Province in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. According to 2000 census, population of the district is 104,576 of which 42,308 live in the town of Çumra; the town of Çumra is at 37°34′30″N 32°46′29″E at an altitude of 1,020 m. It is an important stop on the Istanbul to Baghdad railway, it is central to the 500 km²/120,000 acre Çumra irrigation zone, in the Konya Plain, established in 1912. Neolithic archaeological discoveries have been found at Çatalhöyük. In the 12th century the Konya plain experienced its second great cultural period, when the city became the capital of the Seljuk Turks. Falling Rain Genomics, Inc. "Geographical information on Çumra, Turkey". Retrieved 2008-03-23. District governor's official website District municipality's official website

Praetorian DASS

The Leonardo's Praetorian DASS is an integral part of Eurofighter Typhoon defensive Aid Sub-System providing threat assessment, aircraft protection and support measures in hostile and severe environments. As the DASS is integrated, it doesn’t require additional pods that take up weapon stations or would influence the aircraft’s aerodynamic performance. In addition the modular nature of the DASS simplifies future upgrades and allows each partner nation or export customer the option to tailor the DASS to their individual needs; the DASS for the Eurofighter Typhoon was intended to be a collaborative effort between the UK, Germany and Italy. However, integration of the system turned out to be expensive, so much so that in November 1991, Germany left the programme and initiate its own defense system to equip its Typhoons. In February 1992, before signing the £1.5 billion contract for the DASS, Spain had doubts about the financial viability and withdrew. This left only the UK and Italy in the consortium, now named EuroDASS, to be awarded an initial contract of £200 million with the work shares split 60% to GEC-Marconi and 40% Elettronica.

By 1995, Spain had decided to rejoin the EuroDASS consortium and a contract was signed with Elettronica to allow INDRA to participate. In May 1996, Germany had found. In 1997, DASA looked to join the EuroDASS consortium proposing to use the towed radar decoy it had developed; these discussions failed as GEC-Marconi had developed their TRD, known as the Ariel, tested up to mach 2 and was operational with the RAF while the DASA's TRD had only been tested up to mach 1.4 and was not integrated into the Defensive Aids Computer. The Praetorian system is a modular system consisting of antennas for electronic countermeasures, electronic support measures, missile approach warning systems, laser warning receivers and Towed radar decoy; the system is divided into 20 major line replaceable units with all the components controlled by a Teldix GmbH Defensive Aids Computer on MIL-STD-1553 databus. The DAC is connected via fiber optic cables to STANAG 3910 in the avionics, with the entire DAC system controlled by five Radstone PowerPC-4 processors, that have a tenfold increase in computing power compared to the original five Motorola 68020 CPUs.

It is automatic, which relieves the workload for the pilot in combat but the pilot can manually override. The DASS equipped with radar-warning-receivers; the RWR is designed to detect threat radars using super heterodyne, digital receiver antennas which are located into the wing tip pods giving full 360° coverage with an accuracy better than 1° in azimuth. These passive antennas can identify radio frequencies of 100 MHz up to 10 GHz, sufficient to detect nearly all types of radar systems and to detect other RF sources such as radios or datalink systems; the data is compared with the database of radar signatures stored in the Electronic Support Measures suite. Using this information the ESM allows the identification of the radar and thus the platform it is deployed from and presents it on a moving map or multifunction display producing a 360° threat picture around the aircraft including identifying targets and their zones of lethality; this allows the pilot to fly around these zones to avoid detection or being engaged.

Thus the system not only warns a pilot but it helps him to look out for potential targets. To counter the threat of laser guided weapons a Laser Warning Receiver, LWR, are installed on UK and Saudi typhoons; these LWRs are optimized for low false alarm rates and can detect lasers pointing at the aircraft and find the direction of the laser source. There are four LWRs on the eurofighter fuselage capable of detecting any incoming laser radiation and determine its bearing, two are located in front of the canards on the front fuselage and the remaining two at the rear behind the wing; the Eurofighter Typhoon features an internal electronic countermeasures system that uses a digital radio frequency memory and a digital frequency techniques generator to jam multiple airborne and ground-based radar systems at the same time and at long ranges. Each transmitter and receiver modules consists of Vivaldi antennas that can passively locate emitters; the antennas are located in front of the wing tip pods, another at the rear end of the left pod thus ensuring a 360 ° coverage.

The T/R modules of AESAS are GaAs-MMIC based and operating in the 6–18 GHz frequency range. The output per module is 27 dBm, before being amplified by 20 dB, resulting in 50 Watt radiation performance, it is possible that the Cross Eye system developed by Elettronica will be retrofitted by inserting a second antenna in the right-wing pod. As part of the Phase 1 Enhancement, Typhoons received new antennas, extending the frequency range and increasing the power and improved DRFM- and ECM techniques. To track missiles launched at the typhoon, the DASS incorporates three Missile Approach Warners, one each in the both wing roots and one in the tail to provide a full 360° azimuth coverage around the aircraft. In 1991, GEC-Plessey Avionics received the order to develop the missile approach warner derived from their PVS2000 MAW and utilises an active, millimeter-wave Ka-band pulse-doppler radar for detection. Since the units are active they are able to detect not only radar guided ordnance but passive weapons such as infra red guided short range missiles.

They can detect multiple missiles launched towards the aircraft in all weather conditions and afte

Aubrey Hammond

Aubrey Hammond, was an English theatre practitioner. He worked as a set and costume designer in theatre and film and was a humourist, a book illustrator and commercial poster and advertising designer. Hammond was born in Folkestone, England on September 18, 1893, his father was Lindsay Hammond, son of a corn merchant, his mother was Edith Elmore, an artist. He boarded as a student in Westbourne House in Folkestone in 1911. Hammond studied at the Byam Shaw School of Art and the Académie Julian, Paris, he taught theatrical art at the Westminster School of Art. Hammond was involved in World War I from 1914 until his demobilisation in 1919, he served as a probationary Second Lieutenant in the 5th Battalion of the Dublin Fusiliers in 1915 but achieved the rank of Brigade Major by the end of the war. He was in Dublin with the 5th Royal Dublin Fusiliers during the 1916 Easter Rising. During the war, Hammond illustrated military magazines. A number of his obituaries referred to him as ‘a pioneer of camouflage.’ He was attached to the camouflage section of the army shortly after the outbreak of World War II.

Hammond was noted in London social circles for his height of his breadth. The Western Gazette described Hammond as an artist whose appearance belied his profession, “You will see him, broad of shoulder and brawny of arm, strolling along Fleet Street, with his ‘sailor’s gait’ looking for all the world like a prize fighter – a naval welterweight.” His membership of The Savage Club led to his being mentioned in press social columns. When Hammond holidayed on the island of Brioni in the Adriatic with boxer, Gene Tunney; the Commercial Art Magazine published a feature article reviewing Hammond’s advertising work in 1927. The author of the feature, R. P. Gossop, asserted that Hammond’s posters ‘have those qualities of design that are bringing this country back to the position that it held in the early days of poster.’ After the war, he began work in Convent Garden as a paint room assistant. Hammond’s designs were always well received by the press overshadowing or rescuing the drama from negative reviews.

Topaze, written was by Marcel Pagnol and adapted by Benn Levy for the New Theatre, it was reported that “the scenery was the most effective part of the production.” Mr. Pickwick, based on The Pickwick Papers, which the critic Harris Dean deemed a failure as a play noted that it was only worth going to see because of Hammond’s “gorgeous” scenery. Another review stated that Hammond’s scenery designs ‘were worthy of a modern Hogarth.’ In a review of Now and Then the critic Ashley Dukes stated that the actors ‘were not good enough for the graceful costumes’ designed by Hammond. Hammond's theatre designs were compared with and could surpass work by Edward Gordon Craig and Claud Lovat Fraser. In the earlier half of his post-war career, Hammond worked on many productions with the playwright Ashley Dukes and the theatre impresarios Jose Levyand and C. B. Cochran. Hammond was listed in The Oxford Companion to the Theatre where he was described as ‘among the most successful scenic designers of the nineteen-twenties.’ In 1932, Hammond designed the costumes and stage setting for the Irish Hospitals' Sweepstake.

From the early 1930s Hammond was a regular scenery designer for productions at the Stratford-upon-Avon Festival. In the 1934 season he designed for four of the opening eight plays performed in the first eleven weeks of the Festival. By 1935 Hammond had become the’ general scenic supervisor’ for the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre. During the mid-1930s Hammond designed sets for numerous film including what was called ‘a remarkable feat of scenic construction’ at Ealing Studios for the production of Take a Chance; the ‘feat’ involved the overnight re-construction of parts of Goodwood Racecourse in the studios based on designs by Hammond.. His designs for The Cardinal were described as those of ‘a genius.’ The live television broadcast of the opera based on Mr. Pickwick from Alexandra Palace studios on November 13, 1936 just eleven days after the BBC made its first broadcast were the first opera scenes to appear live on television. Hammond was much involved in the production, not alone did he design the sets for the theatre production but he devised the revolving stage for the television broadcast allowing the scenes to be presented with continuity.

Hammond designed book covers during his career. Many were for British authors such as Lewis Melville but his most noted book cover design was for the 1927 English translation of Thea Gabriele von Harbou’s Metropolis. According to The Illustrated Dust Jacket ‘Hammond’s design juxtaposes delicate colour harmony with nightmarish vision’. A number of his book illustrations were of a commercial nature such as the Brighton Official Handbook and Sands Across the Sea. Hammond was a frequent contributor to The Graphic where he illustrated D. B. Wyndham Lewis’ columns along with once off caricatures dealing with events of the day. Many of Hammond’s poster designs were related to the theatre. Hammond featured in exhibitions of advertising posters at the V&A in 1931 and 1935 and his posters for The Little Theatre were still being discussed for their impact on the viewer. Earlier, in 1927, an exhibition dedicated to advertising posters featured Hammond and commentators remarked on how the “atrocities which used to adorn our hoardings are now giving place to works of art.”

When the state of British posters were compared negatively to American productions by the advertising consultant Sir