Goidelic languages

The Goidelic or Gaelic languages form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages. Goidelic languages formed a dialect continuum stretching from Ireland through the Isle of Man to Scotland. There are three modern Goidelic languages: Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx, which died out in the 20th century but has since been revived to some degree. Although Irish and Manx are referred to as Irish Gaelic and Manx Gaelic, the use of the word Gaelic is unnecessary because the terms Irish and Manx, to refer to language, always refer to these languages, but Scots has come to refer to a Germanic language and so "Scottish" can refer to things that are not Gaelic at all. Gaelic, by itself, is sometimes used to refer to Scottish Gaelic in Scotland, so it is ambiguous; the endonyms are derived from Old Irish Goídelc, which in turn is derived from Old Welsh Guoidel meaning "pirate, raider". The medieval mythology of the Lebor Gabála Érenn places its origin in an eponymous ancestor of the Gaels and the inventor of the language, Goídel Glas.

The family tree of the Goidelic languages is as follows: Primitive Irish Old Irish Middle Irish Modern Irish Scottish Gaelic Manx Goidelic was once restricted to Ireland and the west coast of Scotland. Medieval Gaelic literature tells us that the kingdom of Dál Riata emerged in western Scotland during the 6th century; the mainstream view is that Dál Riata was founded by Irish migrants, but this is not universally accepted. Archaeologist Ewan Campbell says there is no archaeological evidence for a migration or invasion, suggests strong sea links helped maintain a pre-existing Gaelic culture on both sides of the North Channel. Dál Riata grew in size and influence, Gaelic language and culture was adopted by the neighbouring Picts who lived throughout Scotland. Manx, the language of the Isle of Man, is akin to the Gaelic spoken in the Hebrides and the Irish spoken in northeast and eastern Ireland and the now-extinct Galwegian Gaelic of Galloway, with some influence from Old Norse through the Viking invasions and from the previous British inhabitants.

The oldest written Goidelic language is Primitive Irish, attested in Ogham inscriptions from about the 4th century. The forms of this speech are close, identical, to the forms of Gaulish recorded before and during the Roman Empire; the next stage, Old Irish, is found in glosses to Latin manuscripts—mainly religious and grammatical—from the 6th to the 10th century, as well as in archaic texts copied or recorded in Middle Irish texts. Middle Irish, the immediate predecessor of the modern Goidelic languages, is the term for the language as recorded from the 10th to the 12th century: a great deal of literature survives in it, including the early Irish law texts. Classical Gaelic, otherwise known as Early Modern Irish, covers the period from the 13th to the 18th century, during which time it was used as a literary language in Ireland and Scotland; this is called Classical Irish, while Ethnologue gives the name "Hiberno-Scottish Gaelic" to this standardised written language. As long as this written language was the norm, Ireland was considered the Gaelic homeland to the Scottish literati.

Orthographic divergence has resulted in standardised pluricentristic orthographies. Manx orthography, introduced in the 16th and 17th centuries, was based loosely on English and Welsh orthography, so never formed part of this literary standard. Irish is one of the Republic of Ireland's two official languages along with English; the predominant language of the island, it is now spoken in parts of the south and northwest. The defined Irish-speaking areas are called the Gaeltacht. At present, the Gaeltachtaí are found in Counties Cork, Mayo, Kerry, and, to a lesser extent, in Waterford and Meath. In the Republic of Ireland 1,774,437 regard themselves as able to speak Irish. Of these, 77,185 speak Irish on a daily basis outside school. Irish is undergoing a revival in Northern Ireland and has been accorded some legal status there under the 1998 Good Friday Agreement but its official usage remains divisive among a predominantly British population; the 2001 census in Northern Ireland showed that 167,487 people "had some knowledge of Irish".

Combined, this means. Despite the ascent in Ireland of the English and Anglicised ruling classes following the 1607 Flight of the Earls, Irish was spoken by the majority of the population until the Great Famine of the 1840s. Disproportionately affecting the classes among whom Irish was the primary spoken language and emigration precipitated a steep decline in native speakers which only has begun to reverse; the Irish language has been recognised as an official and working language of the European Union. Ireland's national language was the twenty-third to be given such recognition by the EU and had the status of a treaty language. Som

Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis

Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis cited as C. A. Doxiadis, was a Greek architect and town planner, he was known as the lead architect of Islamabad, the new capital of Pakistan, as the father of ekistics. Doxiadis was born on 14 May 1913 in Stenimachos Asenovgrad in Eastern Rumelia, at that time a thriving Greek town in Bulgaria to a family with deep roots in the city, he graduated in architectural engineering from the Technical University of Athens in 1935, obtaining a doctorate from Charlottenburg University a year later. In 1937 he was appointed Chief Town Planning Officer for the Greater Athens Area. During World War II he held the post of Head of the Department of Regional and Town Planning in the Ministry of Public Works, he was decorated by the Greek and British governments. He distinguished himself as Minister of Reconstruction at the end of the war and it was this experience that allowed him in the 1950s to gain large housing contracts in dozens of countries. In 1948-51 Doxiadis was a coordinator of the Greek Recovery Programme and under-secretary of the Ministry of Coordination.

In 1951 he founded Doxiadis Associates, a private firm of consulting engineers, which grew until it had offices on five continents and projects in 40 countries. In 1963 the company changed its name to DA International Co. Ltd. Consultants on Development and Ekistics. One of his best-known town planning works is Islamabad. Designed as a new city it was realised, unlike many of his other proposals in existing cities, where shifting political and economic forces did not allow full implementation of his plans; the plan for Islamabad, separates cars and people, allows easy and affordable access to public transport and utilities and permits low cost gradual expansion and growth without losing the human scale of his "communities". Doxiadis's work in Riyadh and elsewhere represented what one anthropologist has called "containment urbanism,", to say policies aimed at integrating rural masses migrating to cities and thus prevent the emergence of subversive political movements. In Riyadh, Doxiadis reoriented the city on a southwest-northeast access, rendering "the planned city...similar to an immense mosque facing Mecca."His firm helped design the redevelopment plan for the Philadelphia neighborhood of Eastwick.

Doxiadis was honored in 1965 by Industrial Designers Society of America with a Special Award for notable results and innovative concepts and long-term benefits to the industrial design profession, its educational functions and society at large. Doxiadis proposed ekistics as a science of human settlement and outlined its scope, intellectual framework and relevance. A major incentive for the development of the science is the emergence of large and complex settlements, tending to regional conurbations and to a worldwide city. However, ekistics attempts to encompass all scales of human habitation and seeks to learn from the archaeological and historical record by looking not only at great cities, but, as much as possible, at the total settlement pattern. In the 1960s and 1970s, urban planner and architect Constantinos Doxiadis authored books and reports including those regarding the growth potential of the Great Lakes Megalopolis. At the peak of his popularity, in the 1960s, he addressed the US Congress on the future of American cities, his portrait illustrated the front cover of Time Magazine, his company Doxiadis Associates was implementing large projects in housing and regional development in more than 40 countries, his Computer Centre was at the cutting edge of the computer technology of his time and at his annual "Delos Symposium" the World Society of Ekistics attracted the worlds foremost thinkers and experts.

In Greece, he faced persistent suspicion and opposition and his recommendations were ignored. Having won two large contracts from the Greek Junta he was criticised by competitors, after its fall in 1974, portrayed as a friend of the colonels, his visions for Athens airport to be constructed on the adjacent island of Makronissos, where political prisoners were held, together with a bridge, a rail link and a port at Lavrion were never realised. His influence had diminished at his death in 1975, as he was unable to speak for the last two years of his life, a victim of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, his company Doxiadis Associates changed owners several times after his death, the heir to his computer company remained but without any links to planning or ekistics. The Delos Symposium was discontinued, the World Society of Ekistics is today an obscure organisation; the Sacrifices of Greece in the Second World War Master Plan of Islamabad, The capital of Pakistan. Dynapolis The City Of The Future Doxiadis, Constantinos A..

Emergence and Growth of an Urban Region: The Developing Urban Detroit Area. Detroit: Detroit Edison. Doxiadis, Constantinos A.. Urban Renewal and the Future of the American City. Chicago: Public Administration Service. Doxiadis, Constantinos A.. Ekistics: An Introduction to the Science of Human Settlements. New York: Oxford University Press. Doxiadis, Constantinos A.. Anthropopolis: City for Human Development. New York: W. W. Norton. Doxiadis, Constantinos A.. G.. Ecumenopolis: The Inevitable City of the Future. Athens: Athens Center of Ekistics. Doxiadis, Constantinos A.. Building Entopia. Athens: Athens Publishing Center

Lisbon Marathon

The Lisbon Marathon or the Lisbon Marathon EDP is an annual marathon held in Lisbon, Portugal in the month of October, established in 1986. The Marathon starts in the beachside city of Cascais and finishes alongside the Luso Portugal Half Marathon in Lisbon. Both the marathon and half marathon are IAAF Gold Standard; the marathon course is flat and scenic. Both races feature live music along a Finish Line Concert. Key: Course record Portuguese championship race Lisbon Half Marathon Portugal Half Marathon Civai, Franco & Loonstra, Klaas. Cidade de Lisboa Marathon. Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Retrieved on 12 December 2011. Official website Marathoninfo profile