The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Clements Mountain is located in the Lewis Range, Glacier National Park in the U. S. state of Montana. Clements Mountain rises to the west of Logan Pass and above the Hidden Lake Trail which leads to Hidden Lake just west of the continental divide; the peak was named after Walter M. Clements who had worked to set up a treaty between the Blackfeet and the U. S. Government for the purchase of tribal lands east of the continental divide which became part of the park. Mountains and mountain ranges of Glacier National Park
Logan Pass is located along the Continental Divide in Glacier National Park, in the U. S. state of Montana. It is the highest point on the Going-to-the-Sun Road; the pass is named after the first superintendent of the park. The Logan Pass Visitor Center is open during the summer season just east of the pass; the pass is a popular starting point for backpacking trips. The most popular trail is the Highline Trail which heads north along the west side of the continental divide, through an area known as the Garden Wall, due to the proliferation of wildflowers which grow there during the summer. Just east of the pass, an area known as Big Drift records over 100 feet of snowfall, much of, pushed over the continental divide by the prevailing westerly winds during the winter; the pass is closed during the winter due to avalanche hazards and the virtual impossibility of keeping the Going-to-the-Sun Road open, yet is open from mid-to-late June until mid October. A record wind gust was recorded at Logan Pass on April 2014, of 139 miles per hour.
The pass was closed at that time. "The previous record gust recorded at Logan Pass was 133 mph, on Dec. 13, 2006. The average wind speed during the hour the record gust was recorded was 66 mph."The pass provides an excellent vantage point to view wildlife. A visitor is guaranteed to spot a mountain goat as they have become adjusted to summertime human visitation. Mountain passes in Montana Glacier National Park. "Logan Pass - July 20, 1999 around 8:00 pm". Retrieved 2006-05-08. TopoQuest. "USGS Logan Pass Quad". Retrieved 2008-06-30
Thomas Chalmers Vint
Thomas Chalmers Vint was a landscape architect credited for directing and shaping landscape planning and development during the early years of the United States National Park System. His work at Yosemite National Park and the development of the Mission 66 program are among his better known projects, although his influence can be seen in parks across America. Vint's true talents lay in his design elements; these can best be described as rustic, relating to how he was able to harmonize structures with their natural surroundings. Vint was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal, the highest honor conferred for meritorious service to the U. S. government. He was made a Fellow of the American Society of Landscape Architects and American Institute of Architects. Born in Salt Lake City, Utah to Scots-Irish parents, Vint's family moved shortly after his birth to Los Angeles where he spent his grade school years. Vint attended Polytechnic High School and upon graduation enrolled at the University of California, Berkeley into the field of landscape architecture.
During his college years Vint worked for building firms throughout Los Angeles. He found employment for an entire year alongside the successful landscape architect Lloyd Wright, the son of the famed architect Frank Lloyd Wright. By November 1922, Vint was employed as a draftsman for the landscape architect Daniel Ray Hull. Hull was the National Park System's chief landscape engineer for Yosemite National Park, a project which Vint soon became familiar with. One year in 1923, Vint rose to the position of assistant landscape engineer for the National Park System, working alongside architects Gilbert Stanley Underwood and Herbert Maier. In the summer of 1924 as Hull's assistant, Vint met with NPS Director Stephen Mather, Chief Engineer George Goodwin and Park Superintendent Charles Kraebel near Logan Pass in Glacier National Park to review and discuss the route of the proposed Transmountain Highway through the park. Goodwin proposed a route involving 15 switchbacks and grades up to 8% ascending up the Logan Creek drainage to the pass.
Vint decried Goodwin's route saying it would look "like miners had been there." Drawing on his training as a landscape architect, Vint instead proposed a simple route of one switchback with a rising grade of 6% that would meet the NPS goal of “lying on the land.” After that meeting Mather consulted with Bureau of Public Roads engineer Bill Austin and others as to which route should be selected. All agreed that while Vint's route would be more expensive it would more meet the NPS policies of preserving the scenic landscape; the result is the now famous Going-to-the-Sun Road, completed in 1932, enjoyed by millions of visitors. As another important result of this process the NPS and BPR entered into a collaboration that set a policy for all future National Park Service Roads. Vint became an associate landscape engineer in 1926, the following year he was promoted to the position of chief landscape architect for the Yosemite project, outranking Hull. In 1933 Vint moved to Washington to become the chief of the Park Service Branch of Plans and Designs, a position, enormously influential in the planning and conservation of the national parks.
Vint was active in the formulation and administration of design standards associated with the Park Service's Mission 66 program. He continued to be the foremost authority on architecture and landscape architecture for the National Park Service until retiring in the 1960s. At a time when park designers were focusing inward to plan appropriate park infrastructure, Vint masterfully dealt with the new influx of people spawned by the ever-growing automobile age. More people headed to parks now, facilities were becoming overwhelmed. Vint did not see this as a negative effect, he knew that the presence of people in the park would help with the park service's expansion and preservation, so long as structures harmonized with their environment. To solve these problems Vint knew it was important to understand the land well and how people would use this land, whether by themselves or in the presence of others; the need for new construction was evident, though Vint knew it would be important to not let new structures detract from the beauty of the nature in the park.
His experimentation with using native materials such as logs and stone to construct buildings and bridges helped to naturalize the park environment. This design philosophy can be found in the plans of an earlier landscape architect, Frederick Law Olmsted, whose work in places such as New York City's Central Park influenced Vint's designs; as Vint rose in the Park Service hierarchy, he became influential in park planning processes. In particular, Vint formulated the first master plan for any Park Service unit, at Mount Rainier National Park in 1931, which would be established as a basic planning principle from that point on for every park. One of the principles established in this study was the specific designation of certain park areas as wilderness. During his time as chief landscape architect for the National Park Service, Vint managed to expand the landscape program of the park service into an efficient system with a foundation in the idea of natural designs and landscape preservation, he created environments meeting the park service requirements of being accessible to the public while at the same time preserving the sites the way they are for future generations to enjoy.
Through his rustic designs, Thomas Vint managed to produce environments that were not a mix of buildings and trees, but rather fluid landscapes that emphasized the beauty of their surroundings. Vint was awarded the Distinguis
The Blackfeet Nation known as the Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation and headquarters for the Siksikaitsitapi people in the United States. Located in Montana, its members are composed of the Piegan Blackfeet band of the larger ethnic group described as the Blackfoot Confederacy, it borders the Canadian province of Alberta. Cut Bank Creek and Birch Creek form part of southern borders; the reservation contains 3,000 square miles, twice the size of the national park and larger than the state of Delaware. It is located in parts of Pondera counties; the reservation is east of the Lewis and Clark National Forest in Montana, which contains the Badger-Two Medicine area, sacred to the Blackfeet people. This sacred part of the Rocky Mountain Front was excluded from Blackfeet lands in a Treaty of 1896 but they reserved access and fishing rights. Since the early 1980s, when the Bureau of Land Management approved drilling rights leases without consultation with the tribe, the Blackfeet have worked to protect this sacred area, where they practiced their traditional religious rituals.
The federal government suspended all leasing activities for drilling in this area in the 1990s, in 2007 the Bush administration made permanent a moratorium on issuing new permits. Many leaseholders had relinquished their leases, in November 2016 the Department of Interior announced the cancellation of the 15 drilling rights leases held by Devon Energy Corporation in the Badger-Two Medicine area; the Blackfeet had documented that the area was not a "wilderness," as the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex was designated in 1964, but a "human landscape" shaped by and integral to their culture. Elevations in the reservation range from a low of 3,400 feet to a high of 9,066 feet at Chief Mountain. Adjacent mountains include Ninaki Papoose; the eastern part of the reservation is open hills of grassland, while a narrow strip along the western edge is covered by forests of fir and spruce. Free-ranging cattle are present in several areas, sometimes including on roadways. Several waterways drain the area with the largest being the St. Mary River, Two Medicine River, Milk River, Birch Creek and Cut Bank Creek.
There are eight major lakes on the reservation. The 2010 census reported a population of 10,405 living on the reservation lands; the population density is 3.47 people per square mile. The Blackfeet Nation has 16,500 registered members; the main community is Browning, the seat of tribal government. Other towns serve the tourist economy along the edge of the park: St. Mary and East Glacier Park Village, which has an Amtrak passenger station and the historic Glacier Park Lodge. Small communities include Babb, Blackfoot, Heart Butte, Starr School, Glacier Homes; the nation celebrates North American Indian Days, an annual festival held on pow wow grounds, near the Museum of the Plains Indian in Browning. Adjacent to the reservation's eastern edge is the city of Cut Bank. Babb Browning East Glacier Park Village Heart Butte Little Browning North Browning St. Mary South Browning Starr School The Blackfeet and their ancestors have occupied this area for 10,000 years, according to their oral history, they dominated a large territory extending into what has been defined as Canada since the 19th century.
Their sacred history was centered in what is now known as the Badger-Two Medicine area, known as their "Cathedral" of origin and creation. In the late 19th century, Blackfeet territory was encroached on by European Americans and Canadians, various branches of the people were forced to cede lands and move to smaller Indian reservations in the United States and reserves in Canada. Adjacent to their reservation, established by Treaty of 1896, are two federally controlled areas: the Lewis and Clark National Forest, set up in 1896, which contains the Badger-Two Medicine area, an area of 200 square miles; the Badger-Two Medicine area is at the Rocky Mountain Front of the national forest. The Blackfeet call the Rocky Mountains the "Backbone of the World." Their names for peaks include Morning Star, Little Plume, Running Crane, Spotted Eagle, Scarface, Elkcalf Bullshoe, Curly Bear. The Rocky Mountain Front near Birch Creek The Badger-Two Medicine is "covered by the Treaty of 1896, which gives Blackfeet tribal members the right to hunt and fish in any portion of the area in accordance with state law and cut wood for domestic use.
Blackfeet treaty claims as well as spiritual and cultural uses of the Badger-Two Medicine are pre-existing rights... Blackfeet tribal members have used the Badger-Two Medicine and its waters for hundreds of years for vision quests and for other religious and cultural purposes." The Blackfeet Nation runs the sovereign government on the reservation through its elected Tribal Business Council. For many years Earl Old Person led the organization, As of 2016 remains a council member. Old Person is the honorary chief of the tribe, it provides most services, including courts, child welfare, employment assistance, wildlife management, health care, land management, senior services, as well as garbage collection and water systems. They worked with the federal Bureau of Indian Affairs to replace native police with federal officers in 2003 because of problems in the local force; the reservation includes several types of land use. Of the total 1,462,640 acres, 650,558 acres are held in trust for enrolled tribal members, 311,324 acres (1,259.88
Stephen Tyng Mather was an American industrialist and conservationist who as president and owner of Thorkildsen-Mather Borax Company became a millionaire. With his friend and journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather led a publicity campaign to promote the creation of a unified federal agency to oversee National Parks administration, established in 1916. In 1917, Mather was appointed as the first director of the National Park Service, the new agency created within the Department of the Interior, he served until 1929, during which time Mather created a professional civil service organization, increased the numbers of parks and national monuments, established systematic criteria for adding new properties to the federal system. Stephen Tyng Mather was born July 4, 1867, in San Francisco, named for the prominent Episcopal minister Stephen Tyng of New York, admired by his parents, Joseph W. Mather and Bertha Jemima Walker. Mather was educated at the private Boys' High School in San Francisco, graduated from the University of California at Berkeley in 1887.
His family moved to New York, where Mather worked as a reporter for the New York Sun until 1893. During that time he met and befriended Robert Sterling Yard, another reporter, who would become a close friend. In 1893 Mather married Jane Thacker Floy of Elizabeth, New Jersey, with Yard serving as his best man, they had Bertha Floy Mather. In 1906, Mather became the sole owner of the Mather family homestead in Connecticut, built by his great-grandfather about 1778, he and his family used it during the summers and he regarded it as his true home. Mather started working for the Pacific Coast Borax Company at its headquarters in New York, where his father was administrator. Borax is a component of a variety of detergents and compounds, mined exclusively in California. Borax is a commodity, as such, one brand is as good as another. For a company to be successful, it had to mine the product more cheaply, process it more efficiently, or market it more aggressively. In 1894 the younger Mather moved with his wife to Chicago, where he established a distribution center for the company.
In this role, he proved vital in advertising and sales promotion for the company. In particular he is credited with the idea of adding the label "20 Mule Team Borax" to the company's product, which subsequently became a household name throughout the country. In 1898, Mather helped Thomas Thorkildsen, in starting another borax company. After suffering a severe episode of bipolar disorder in 1903 and having his salary withheld during extended sick leave, Mather resigned from Pacific Coast and joined Thorkildsen full-time in 1904, they named their firm the Thorkildsen-Mather Borax Company. Their company became prosperous, they were millionaires by 1914; this gave Mather the financial independence to pursue personal projects, while in his mid-forties, he retired from the company to pursue those. Mather was active in many civic groups, including the Chicago City Club and Municipal Voter's League. Travel with his wife to Europe in 1904 renewed Mather's longtime interest in nature. Seeing the parks of Europe and their public accessibility, Mather was inspired to work to preserve more parkland in the US, to encourage new transportation methods to reach them, to protect scenic resources and natural areas for the public good.
He became a dedicated conservationist, a friend and admirer of the influential John Muir. In 1904, Mather joined the Sierra Club, climbed Mount Rainier with some of its members the following year, he was active in the group and made numerous allies who helped support the creation of the National Park Service. In 1916 the Sierra Club made him an honorary vice-president. In 1915, Mather became a member of the Boone and Crockett Club, a conservation organization founded by Theodore Roosevelt and George Bird Grinnell in 1887. There is the traditional story of how Mather came to Washington to run the National parks, which Horace Albright said was wrong, though he had a part in keeping the story alive. Here's the traditional, if incorrect, story: In 1914, Mather observed the deteriorating conditions in several National Parks, wrote a letter of protest to Washington. Soon he received a reply from Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane, a former classmate of Mather's from the University of California.
Lane responded, "Dear Steve, If you don't like the way the parks are being run, come on down to Washington and run them yourself." But in years, Mather's assistant Horace Albright was to state: In reality, they didn't know each other. Mather had graduated from the University of California with a Bachelor of Letters degree in 1887. Although registered in the class of 1889, Lane never did graduate. Adolph Miller, who knew both men quite well, graduated in Mather's class and affirmed that the two were not acquainted until 1914. Mather did go to Washington as assistant secretary of the Interior, lobbied for the establishment of a bureau to operate the national parks. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed the bill authorizing the National Park Service. At the time, the government owned 14 parks and 19 national monuments, many administered by Army officers or political appointees, as battlefields were among the first parks designated, he used his personal funds to hire Robert Sterling Yard to work with him on publicizing the great resources of the parks.
Mather was effective in building support for the parks with a variety of politicians and wealthy corporate leaders. He led efforts to publicize the National Parks and develop wider appreciation for their scenic beauty among the population, he appointed Yard as head of the National Park Education Committee to coordinate the