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Constitution of the German Empire

The Constitution of the German Empire was the basic law of the German Empire of 1871-1918, from 16 April 1871, coming into effect on 4 May 1871. German historians refer to it as Bismarck's imperial constitution, in German the Bismarcksche Reichsverfassung. According to the constitution, the empire was a federation of 25 German states under the permanent presidency of Prussia, the largest and most powerful state; the presidency of the confederation was a hereditary office of the King of Prussia, who had the title of German Emperor. The Emperor appointed the Chancellor, the head of government and chairman of the Bundesrat, the council of representatives of the German states. Laws were enacted by the Bundesrat and the Reichstag, the Imperial Diet elected by male Germans above the age of 25 years; the constitution followed an earlier constitution of 1 January 1871, the Constitution of the German Confederation. That constitution incorporated some of the agreements between the North German Confederation and the four German states south of the River Main.

It gave the Prussian King the title of German Emperor. The constitutions of 1 January and 4 May 1871 are both an amended version of the North German Constitution, instigated by Otto von Bismarck; the political system remained the same. The constitution lost its effect in the November Revolution of 1918: the legislative and executive powers were performed by a new revolutionary organ. A national assembly created in 1919 a new, republican constitution: the Weimar Constitution, which has the same title in German as its predecessor; the constitution was signed by William I, the King of Prussia, acting in his capacity as Bundespräsidium of the North German Confederation, the Kings of Bavaria, Württemberg, the Grand Dukes of Baden and Hesse. Hesse north of the river Main was a member of the North German Confederation; the member states of the North German Confederation that now became members of the Empire were Prussia, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Brunswick, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Reuss, Schaumburg-Lippe, Lippe, Lübeck and Hamburg.

The empire was defined as a federation of the member states under the permanent presidency of Prussia. The presidency of the Confederation was a hereditary office of the King of Prussia. From 1 January 1871 onward, he was granted the additional title of German Emperor. Thus, the imperial crown was tied to the office of the King of Prussia. Wilhelm II discovered this at the end of World War I, he believed that he ruled the Empire in personal union with Prussia, could abdicate as German Emperor while keeping the Prussian crown. However, he realized that he could not do so without agreed renouncing the entire constitution, which would have been, in effect, the de jure dissolution of the Empire. Article 11 stated that the emperor had the power to declare war, represent the Empire abroad, conclude treaties and alliances, accredit and receive ambassadors. In the case of a non-defensive war being declared, consent of the Bundesrat was required. Both chambers of parliament had to approve a treaty and had to approve laws for it to be ratified.

He had other powers: To convene the Reichstag. To execute and publish Imperial laws. To appoint and dismiss Imperial officials; the Emperor exercised his powers with the assistance of the Chancellor of the Empire. The Chancellor was appointed by the Emperor, to whom he was responsible, he supervised the conduct of its business. The Chancellor had the right to delegate the power to represent him to any member of the Bundesrat. Decrees and ordinances of the Emperor required the counter-signature of the Chancellor to be valid. On paper, the Chancellor was a one-man cabinet. In practice, the Secretaries of State functioned much like ministers in other monarchies. Imperial laws were enacted, by both the Reichstag and the Bundesrat; these laws took precedence over the laws of the individual states. Article 13 required the annual convocation of both bodies; the Bundesrat could be called together for the preparation of business without the Reichstag, but not the converse. The Bundesrat was made up of representatives of the various states.

In German constitutional law, it was not considered a parliament chamber, but foreign commentators tended to reckon it as an upper house. It can be translated into English as Federal Council; each state was allocated a specified number of votes. Each state had a different number of representatives, with the larger and more powerful states having more. Voting had to be in person, representatives in some cases had to be bound by the instructions of their state governments. In the case of legislation affecting only certain states, only those states were allowed to vote; the Bundesrat's presiding officer could break ties. A represent

Marilynessa yulei

Marilynessa yulei is a species of snail in the family Camaenidae. This species is endemic to Australia. Hedley, C. 1889. Notes on the Helicidae. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland 6: 120-121 Stanisic, J. Shea, M. Potter, D. & Griffiths, O. 2010. Australian Land Snails. A field guide to eastern Australian species. Mauritius: Bioculture Press Vol. 1 595 pp. Forbes E.. On the Mollusca collected by Mr MacGillivray during the voyage of the Rattlesnake. Pp. 360-386, pls 2-3, in: MacGillivray J.. Narrative of the voyage of the H. M. S. Rattlesnake, commanded by the late Captain Owen Stanley, during the years 1846-1850, volume 2. London: T. & W. Boone. 395 pp "Catalogue of Life: Marilynessa yulei". Www.catalogueoflife.org. Retrieved 2019-11-15. Cox, J. C.. Descriptions of eight new species of shells from Australia and the Solomon Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 1870: 170-172 Pilsbry H. A.. Manual of conchology and systematic, with illustrations of the species, Second series: Pulmonata.

Vol. VI. Helicidae Vol. IV. pp. 1-64, pls 1-15

Ventnor West Branch

The Ventnor West Branch was the final addition to the Isle of Wight railway network, used an earlier scheme to run a railway from Shanklin to the railwayless south-west part of the island. The branch was opened by the Newport, Godshill & St Lawrence Railway between Merstone and St. Lawrence on 20 July 1897. From the day of opening, the branch was operated by the Isle of Wight Central Railway. A temporary terminus was provided at St Lawrence until the extension was opened to Ventnor Town on 1 June 1900; the terminus was renamed Ventnor West by the Southern Railway. In the days prior to the Grouping of the railways in 1923, the line struggled to make financial ends meet. However, after 1923 the services did improve and some of the increasing competition from road transport was lessened. An extensive programme of modernisation was undertaken by the Southern Railway, albeit with secondhand equipment from the mainland; some economies were made on the branch by the Southern Railway, most notably the removal of the passing loop and signal box at Whitwell in 1928.

The footbridge at Dean level crossing on the outskirts of Whitwell was removed around this time. The footbridge was re-erected at Wroxall. Nationalisation in 1948 brought the British Railways emblem to the locomotives but few other significant operational changes; the passenger numbers remained low and the branch continued to lose revenue to more convenient bus services. It was no surprise when closure was announced for 15 September 1952; the branch was visited by a large number of enthusiasts in its final months. Today all the station buildings are in residential use. From the junction at Merstone, the line turned south and continued through farmland to cross the main Newport-Shanklin road; the line continued through farmland to Godshill. From Godshill the line again traversed farmland on a large stretch of embankment that ran to the small hamlet of Southford on the outskirts of Whitwell. From Whitwell the line climbed up to the northern portal of St. Lawrence tunnel, crossing the B3327 road at Dean level crossing before reaching the tunnel itself.

The line entered the tunnel and began a long descent to St Lawrence and the terminus at Ventnor West. Merstone Godshill Whitwell St Lawrence Ventnor West Allen,P. C MacLeod,A. B Rails in the Isle of Wight: ISBN 0-7153-8701-4 Britton,A Britton,A Once upon a line: Oxford, OPC, 1994 ISBN 0-86093-513-2 Hay,P Steaming through the Isle of Wight: ISBN 0-906520-56-8 Paye,P The Ventnor West Branch: ISBN 978-1-874103-02-8 Pomeroy, C. A Isle of Wight Railways: ISBN 0-947971-62-9

Tina Ramirez

Tina Ramirez is a Puerto Rican/Mexican-American dancer and choreographer, best known as the Founder and Artistic Director of Ballet Hispanico, the premier Latino dance organization in the United States. Ramirez was born in Caracas, Venezuela in 1929, where her father, the Mexican bullfighter Jose Ramirez, known as Gaonita, was appearing, her mother, Gloria Cestero, was the daughter of a politically active Puerto Rican family and subsequently became a leader in the Puerto Rican immigrant community in New York City. Ramirez moved to New York City at the age of seven; as a young dance student, at a time when the worlds of ballet, modern dance, ethnic dance were separate, she trained rigorously in all three, studying Spanish dance with Lola Bravo and Luisa Pericet, classical ballet with Chester Hale and Alexandra Danilova, modern dance with Anna Sokolow. Her professional performing career included tours with the Federico Rey Dance Company, the Xavier Cugat Orchestra, solo engagements in Spain, the inaugural Festival of Two Worlds in Spoleto, Italy with John Butler's company, the Broadway productions of Copper and Brass and Lute Song, the television adaptation of Man of La Mancha.

In 1963, Ramirez fulfilled a promise to take over Miss Bravo's studio upon her retirement. In 1967, with federal funding through an anti-poverty program, she conceived and directed an intensive training program for younger students called "Operation High Hopes." In addition to teaching, Ramirez arranged performances for her young students. While she demanded professional behavior of them, she was aware that there were few opportunities for Latinos in professional dance at the time. Encouraged by the growing skill of her pupils and increasing requests for performances, Ramirez formally established Ballet Hispanico in 1970 to include a company, a school, educational programs. Ramirez' vision for the Ballet Hispanico Company gave contemporary Hispanic culture its place in American dance, much as Alvin Ailey did for the Black community. During her 39 years as Artistic Director, she invited 50 choreographers from diverse backgrounds to provide a modern-day interpretation of Spanish-speaking cultures, drawing on the versatility of her dancers in ballet, modern dance, jazz and other dance techniques.

World-renowned artists responded to her vision, including ballet artists Vicente Nebrada and Alberto Alonso. "More than most artistic directors, she has given exposure to fresh talent," nurturing artists early in their careers, including William Whitener, former Artistic Director of Kansas City Ballet. For each of the 75 new works she commissioned for the Company, Ramirez provided top production values receiving acclaim for sets and lighting designs provided by such award-winning talents as Eugene Lee, Patricia Zipprodt, Willa Kim, Roger Morgan, Donald Holder. During her tenure, Ballet Hispanico performed for over two million people across three continents; the Company's national tours included engagements at such major venues as The John F. Kennedy Center in Washington, DC, the Music Center in Los Angeles, The Wortham Center in Houston, Boston's Celebrity Series, Jacob's Pillow. In 1983, the Company was one of the first to appear at The Joyce Theater, has since presented its New York season there.

The Company represented the United States at Expo'92 in Seville, where it was featured at a special Independence Day Celebration at the United States Pavilion. While on a three-week tour of South America in 1993, Ramirez and the dancers were honored guests at a private reception with President Carlos Menem; the Company's television appearances included "CBS Sunday Morning" with Charles Osgood in 1995 and CBS "The Early Show" in 2008. Ramirez' "contribution as an educator is in many ways as important as her legacy as an artist and director." The Ballet Hispanico School of Dance employs Ramirez' original core curriculum of ballet and Spanish dance techniques - a singular practice among America's dance training institutions. The School has grown to train hundreds of students year-round. To ensure access for children of all backgrounds, the School provides scholarship support, which has grown to over $100,000 per year. In addition to performing with Ballet Hispanico's own company, alumni trained at the School have gone on the significant careers, including Linda Celeste Sims, a leading dancer with the Ailey Company.

Leelee Sobieski and Jennifer Lopez took their earliest dance classes at the School. A number of alumni are now artistic directors in their own right, including Damaris Ferrer and Artistic Director of Bailes Ferrer. Former Company member Eduardo Vilaro was Founder and Artistic Director of Luna Negra Dance Theater before taking the reins as Artistic Director at Ballet Hispanico when Ramirez stepped down. Ramirez drew on the resources of the Company and School to create Ballet Hispanico's innovative educational

Mitch Laddie

Mitchell Thomas Laddie is an English guitarist, vocalist and producer from Consett, County Durham. He was born in Shotley Bridge, County Durham, raised in Ebchester. Blues & Soul has described Laddie as "the most exciting young blues player of the current bunch and the only serious prospect for major global success this country has produced in several decades", his 2012 full-length album Burning Bridges won Blues & Soul's "Album Of The Year". Mitchell Thomas Laddie was born on 24 September 1990 in Shotley Bridge, County Durham and grew up in Ebchester, County Durham, he is of Irish descent. Influenced by his Grandfather's love of music and his parents' record collection, which included blues and prog rock, Laddie was drawn to music from an early age. Growing up in a house full of guitars, he became fascinated with the instrument and picked up and played with his Father's Stratocaster. At the age of five, he discovered Motown music and was influenced by artists such as Michael Jackson and Stevie Wonder.

After a sporting injury at the age of 13, Laddie was hospitalised for several months. It was during this time he began playing guitar influenced by the likes of Jimi Hendrix, Chuck Berry and Dave Gilmour. Upon discovering Stevie Ray Vaughan his love of Blues music was rekindled, leading to heavy influence from Albert King, BB King, Walter Trout and Vaughan, he formed Vanilla Moon at the age of 14 with school friends. During his mid-teens, Laddie's influences began to expand into Jazz, Soul and Fusion, from artists such as Kenny Burrell, Miles Davis, James Brown, Prince, D'Angelo, Eric Johnson and Robben Ford. Laddie met Blues guitarist and idol Walter Trout at the age of 15, was asked to join the guitarist on stage the following year; this led to further appearances in the Netherlands. It was during a performance with Trout at the Paradiso that landed him his first recording contract with Provogue Records at the age of 17. Laddie's debut album This Time Around was recorded in 2009, produced by Laddie and released in 2010 on Mascot Label Group, gaining positive critical response from Classic Rock Magazine and receiving airplay on various radio stations, including BBC Radio 2.

The album was promoted with a European tour with Walter Trout Band. Laddie moved to UK-based Mystic Records, his follow-up album Burning Bridges was recorded in 2011 and released in 2012, again produced by Laddie; the album was received to critical acclaim, gaining heavy press coverage from Classic Rock Magazine, Blues & Soul, R2 & Blues Matters! as well as coverage on various radio stations. Laddie recorded a live session at Maida Vale for BBC Radio 2; the album was voted joint Album of the Year by Blues & Soul in 2012, tied with Tedeschi Trucks Band. The album was promoted with various UK and European tours, alongside Johnny Winter, Royal Southern Brotherhood and Walter Trout. Laddie revamped his band line-up in late 2012 and branded himself as Mitch Laddie Band in 2013; the band's first move was to release a Live album. Live In Concert was recorded on 13 September 2013 at The Cluny, Newcastle-upon-Tyne to a sell out show and released in early 2014; the album featured new tracks "Linger" & "Open Your Eyes" which became tracks on the band's next studio album.

Mitch Laddie Band played Royal Albert Hall in 2014 as part of "BluesFest." In 2015, Mitch Laddie broke away from Mystic Records and formed Independent record label "MLBP" and began work on his third studio album, "Let You Go" with Mitch Laddie Band. MLB set a goal to write, record and produce an album on their own with no outside influence; the album was recorded over the period of 4 months at the band's personal studios in County Durham, UK. The album was independently released under the MLBP label in September 2015 and was praised for the band's songwriting and change of direction, citing a Soul and R&B influence. "Classic Rock: The Blues" magazine saying "It's time to get funky as this Blues Man becomes a Soul brother" & "Blues Rock Review" saying "Once you listen to Let You Go, you will understand why The Mitch Laddie Band are popular in the UK. They have the ability to bring a variety of sounds together creating unique music that will get you groovin’." This Time Around Provogue Burning Bridges Mystic Records Live In Concert Mystic Records Let You Go MLBP Another World MLBP