The Golan Heights, or the Golan, is a region in the Levant, spanning about 1,800 square kilometres. The region defined as the Golan Heights differs between disciplines: as a geological and biogeographical region, the Golan Heights is a basaltic plateau bordered by the Yarmouk River in the south, the Sea of Galilee and Hula Valley in the west, the Anti-Lebanon with Mount Hermon in the north and Wadi Raqqad in the east; this region includes the western two-thirds of the geological Golan Heights and the Israeli-occupied part of Mount Hermon. The earliest evidence of human habitation on the Golan dates to the Upper Paleolithic period. According to the Bible, an Amorite Kingdom in Bashan was conquered by Israelites during the reign of King Og. Throughout the biblical period, the Golan was "the focus of a power struggle between the kings of Israel and the Aramaeans who were based near modern-day Damascus." After Assyrian and Babylonian rule, Persia dominated the region and allowed it to be resettled by returning Jews from the Babylonian Captivity.
The Itureans, an Arab or Aramaic people, settled there in the 2nd century BCE and remained until the end of the Byzantine period. Gamla, the capital of Jewish Galaunitis, would play a major role in the Jewish-Roman wars, came to house the earliest known urban synagogue from the Hasmonean/Herodian realm. Organized Jewish settlement in the region came to an end in 636 CE when it was conquered by Arabs under Umar ibn al-Khattāb. In the 16th century, the Golan was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and was part of the Vilayet of Damascus until it was transferred to French mandate in 1918; when the mandate terminated in 1946, it became part of the newly independent Syrian Republic. Since the 1967 Six-Day War, the western two-thirds of the Golan Heights has been occupied and administered by Israel, whereas the eastern third remains under control of the Syrian Arab Republic. Following the war, Syria dismissed any negotiations with Israel as part of the Khartoum Resolution. Construction of Israeli settlements began in the remainder of the territory held by Israel, under military administration until the Knesset passed the Golan Heights Law in 1981, which applied Israeli law to the territory.
This move was condemned by the United Nations Security Council in Resolution 497, which stated that "the Israeli decision to impose its laws and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan Heights is null and void and without international legal effect", Resolution 242, which emphasises "inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war". Israel maintains it has a right to retain the Golan citing the text of UN Resolution 242, which calls for "safe and recognised boundaries free from threats or acts of force". After the onset of the Syrian Civil War, control of the Syrian-administered part of the Golan Heights was split between the government and opposition forces, with the UNDOF maintaining a 266 km2 buffer zone in between, to implement the ceasefire of the Purple Line. From 2012 to 2018, the eastern Golan Heights became a scene of repeated battles between the Syrian Arab Army, rebel factions of the Syrian opposition including the moderate Southern Front, jihadist al-Nusra Front, ISIL-affiliated factions.
In July 2018, the Syrian government regained control of the eastern Golan Heights. On 25 March 2019, U. S. President Donald Trump proclaimed that "the United States recognizes that the Golan Heights are part of the State of Israel", making the United States the first and only country to recognize Israeli sovereignty over the annexed regions of the Golan Heights; the 28 member states of the European Union declared in turn they do not recognize Israeli sovereignty, several Israeli experts on international law stated the principle remains that land gained by defensive or offensive wars cannot be annexed under international law. In the Bible, Golan is mentioned as a city of refuge located in Bashan: Deuteronomy 4:43, Joshua 20:8, 1 Chronicles 6:71. 19th-century authors interpreted the word Golan as meaning "something surrounded, hence a district". The Greek name for the region is Gaulanîtis. In the Mishna the name is Gablān similar to Aramaic language names for the region: Gawlāna, Guwlana and Gublānā.
The Arabic names are Jawlān and Djolan and are arabized versions of the Canaanite and Hebrew name "Golan". Arab cartographers of the Byzantine period referred to the area as jabal, though the region is a plateau; the name Golan Heights was not used before the 19th century. The plateau that Israel controls is part of a larger area of volcanic basalt fields stretching north and east that were created in the series of volcanic eruptions that began in geological terms 4 million years ago, continue to this day; the rock forming the mountainous area in the northern Golan Heights, descending from Mount Hermon, differs geologically from the volcanic rocks of the plateau and has a different physiography. The mountains are characterised by Jurassic-age limestone of sedimentary origin. Locally, the limestone is broken by faults and solution channels to form a karst-like topography in which springs are common. Geologically, the Golan plateau and the Hauran plain to the east constitute a Holocene volcanic field that extends northeast to Damascus.
Much of the area is scattered with dormant volcanos, as well a
Latifa Echakhch is a Moroccan-French visual artist working in Switzerland who creates installations. She participated in the Venice Biennale in 2011 and won the Marcel Duchamp Prize in 2013. Latifa Echakhch immigrated to France at the age of three, she attended the École supérieure d'Art de Grenoble and graduated from the National School of Arts Cergy-Pontoise and the Lyon National School of Fine Arts. Echakhch began her career in 2002, she participated in the Venice Biennale in 2011. She was awarded the Marcel Duchamp Prize in 2013. Alfred Pacquement, director of the Musée National d'Art Moderne, president of the jury, said: "Her work, between surrealism and conceptualism, questions with economy and precision the importance of symbols and reflects the fragility of modernism." In December 2015 she was the first woman guest curator of the annual Masters' exhibition at the Haute École d'art et de design Genève, GET OUT. 2007: Le Magasin, Grenoble 2008: Tate Modern, London 2009: Fridericianum, Kassel 2009: Latifa Echakhch - Partitures, Bielefelder Kunstverein, Bielefeld.
2009: Swiss Institute Contemporary Art New York, New York 2010: Le Rappel des oiseaux, FRAC Champagne-Ardenne. 2012: Latifa Echakhch - The Birds. Project under the European Cultural Days of the ECB. Portikus, Frankfurt am Main. 2013: Latifa Echakhch - Laps, Musée d'art contemporain de Lyon, Lyon 2013: Hammer Museum, Los Angeles 2015: Latifa Echakhch - Screen Shot, Zurich Art Prize 2015, Haus Konstruktiv, Zurich. Echakhch works in Martigny in Switzerland; as of December 2015 she lives with Valentin Carron an artist. Kamel Mennour, Latifa Echakhch, texts by Jean-Christophe Ammann, Latifa Echakhch, Annabelle Gugnon Bernard Marcadé, Zürich / Dijon, Switzerland / France, JRP | Ringier Kunstverlag / Les Presses real, 2012, ISBN 978-2-914171-46-5 Thierry Raspail, Latifa Echakhch. Laps, France, Musée d'art contemporain de Lyon, 2013, ISBN 978-2-90646-187-1
This is a list of foreign players in the Ligue 1, which commenced play in 1932. The following players must meet both of the following two criteria: Have played at least one Ligue 1 game. Players who were signed by Ligue 1 clubs, but only played in lower league, cup and/or European games, or did not play in any competitive games at all, are not included. Are considered foreign, i.e. outside France and its dependencies, determined by the following:A player is considered foreign if he is not eligible to play for the national teams of France. More If a player has been capped on international level, the national team is used; these include French players with dual citizenship. Players who played for France but came as foreign players are listed. If a player has not been capped on international level, his country of birth is used, except those who were born abroad from French parents or moved to France at a young age, those who indicated to have switched his nationality to another nation. Clubs listed are those.
Seasons listed are those. Note that seasons, not calendar years, are used. For example, "1992-95" indicates that the player has played in every season from 1992–93 to 1994–95, but not every calendar year from 1992 to 1995. In bold: players still active in Ligue 1 and their respective teams in current season. Last updated February 14, 2013 David Astley – Metz – 1946–47 Brynley Griffiths – Sète, FC Nancy – 1952–54, 1954–57 and 1958–59 William Arthur Hayward – Fives – 1932–33 Barreaud, Marc. Dictionnaire des footballeurs étrangers du championnat professionnel français. L'Harmattan, Paris. ISBN 2-7384-6608-7. Tamás Dénes. Kalandozó magyar labdarúgók. ISBN 963-85967-0-8. AJ Auxerre former players AJ Auxerre former players Girondins de Bordeaux former players Girondins de Bordeaux former players Les ex-Tangos, Stade Lavallois former players Olympique Lyonnais former players Olympique de Marseille former players FC Metz former players AS Monaco FC former players Ils ont porté les couleurs de la Paillade...
Montpellier HSC Former players AS Nancy former players FC Nantes former players Paris SG former players Red Star Former players Red Star former players Stade de Reims former players Stade Rennais former players CO Roubaix-Tourcoing former players AS Saint-Étienne former players Sporting Toulon Var former players stat2foot footballenfrance French Clubs' Players in European Cups 1955-1995, RSSSF Finnish players abroad, RSSSF Italian players abroad, RSSSF Romanians who played in foreign championships Swiss players in France, RSSSF EURO 2008 CONNECTIONS: FRANCE, Stephen Byrne Bristol Rovers official site