The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
The Gold Diggers' Song (We're in the Money)
"The Gold Diggers' Song" is a song from the 1933 Warner Bros. film Gold Diggers of 1933, sung in the opening sequence by Ginger Rogers and chorus. The entire song is never performed in the 1933 movie, though it introduces the film in the opening scene. In the movie, the tune is heard off stage in rehearsal as the director continues a discussion on camera about other matters; the lyrics were written by the music by Harry Warren. It became its melody is well known; the song's lyrics reflect a positive financial turnaround and a fantasized end to the Great Depression, which in the U. S. began to turn around in early 1933 but wouldn't end until the late 1930s:We're in the money! We're in the money! We've got a lot of what it takes to get along! We're in the money! The skies are sunny! Ol' Man Depression, you are through, you done us wrong! We never see a headline'bout a bread line today,And when we see the landlord,We can look that guy right in the eye! We're in the money! Come on, my honey! Let's lend it, spend it, send it rolling along!
Early popular recordings of this song were by performed by Ted Lewis & His Band and by Hal Kemp & His Orchestra. Dick Powell, who does not sing a note of "The Golddigger's Song" in the motion picture, recorded a version that sold well. Other 1933 versions were by The Dorsey Brothers, Leo Reisman and His Orchestra. Bing Crosby recorded the song in 1954 for use on his radio show and it was subsequently included in the box set The Bing Crosby CBS Radio Recordings issued by Mosaic Records in 2009. Rosemary Clooney included the song in her album Dedicated to Nelson. American swing revivalists the Cherry Poppin' Daddies recorded a version for their 2016 covers album The Boop-A-Doo. Mike Coupe sung and hummed'We're in the Money' while waiting for an ITV News interview about his supermarket's merger with competitor Asda, he did not know he was than filmed... and the film turned into a viral clip on TV's around the world and on YouTube. M. Coupe made a statement, saying:'This was an unguarded moment trying to compose myself before a TV interview.
It was an unfortunate choice of song, from the musical 42nd Street, which I saw last year, I apologise if I have offended anyone.' The song was used again in two other Warner Bros. productions: as the theme song of the 1933 Merrie Melodies cartoon We're in the Money. Media On the first Simpsons episode, Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire and Barney sing the first three lines of the song. In the Simpsons episode "HOMR", the first two lines of the song are sung by a chorus in Homer's head; the Man Who Broke the Bank at Monte Carlo
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
The ingénue is a stock character in literature, a role type in the theatre. Ingénue may refer to a new young actress or one typecast in such roles; the term comes from the feminine form of the French adjective ingénu meaning "ingenuous" or innocent and candid. The term may imply a lack of sophistication and cunning; the ingénue is beautiful, gentle, virginal, naïve, in mental or emotional danger, or physical danger a target of the cad. Due to lack of independence, the ingénue lives with her father, husband, or a father figure; the vamp is a foil for the ingénue. The ingénue is accompanied with a romantic side plot; this romance is considered pure and harmless to both participants. In many cases, but not all, the male participant is just as innocent as the ingénue; the ingénue is similar to the girl next door archetype. In opera and musical theatre, the ingénue is sung by a lyric soprano; the ingénue stereotypically has the fawn-eyed innocence of a child, but subtle sexual appeal as well. Damsel in distress Femme fatale Girl next door Loosu ponnu Child, Ben.
"Russell Crowe: Female Actors Should Act Their Age". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2015-01-05. Silver, Elizabeth L.. "The Death of the Ingénue". The Millions. Retrieved 2015-01-05; the dictionary definition of ingenue at Wiktionary
Jack L. Warner
Jack Leonard "J. L." Warner, born Jacob Warner, was a Canadian-American film executive, the president and driving force behind the Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, California. Warner's career spanned some 45 years, its duration surpassing that of any other of the seminal Hollywood studio moguls; as co-head of production at Warner Bros. Studios, he worked with his brother, Sam Warner, to procure the technology for the film industry's first talking picture. After Sam's death, Jack clashed with his surviving older brothers and Albert Warner, he assumed exclusive control of the film production company in the 1950s, when he secretly purchased his brothers' shares in the business after convincing them to participate in a joint sale of stocks. Although Warner was feared by many of his employees and inspired ridicule with his uneven attempts at humor, he earned respect for his shrewd instincts and tough-mindedness, he recruited many of Warner Bros.' Top promoted the hard-edged social dramas for which the studio became known.
Given to decisiveness, Warner once commented, "If I'm right fifty-one percent of the time, I'm ahead of the game."Throughout his career, he was viewed as a contradictory and enigmatic figure. Although he was a staunch Republican, Warner encouraged film projects that promoted the agenda of Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal, he opposed European fascism and criticized Nazi Germany well before America's involvement in World War II. An opponent of Communism, after the war Warner appeared as a friendly witness before the House Un-American Activities Committee, voluntarily naming screenwriters, fired as suspected Communists or sympathizers. Despite his controversial public image, Warner remained a force in the motion picture industry until his retirement in the early 1970s. Jack Warner was born in London, Ontario, in 1892, his parents were Jewish immigrants from Poland who spoke Yiddish. Jack was the fifth surviving son of Benjamin Warner a cobbler from Krasnosielc and his wife, the former Pearl Leah Eichelbaum.
Following their marriage in 1876, the couple had three children in Poland, one of whom died at a young age. One of the surviving children was Hirsch; the Warner family had occupied a "hostile world", where the "night-riding of cossacks, the burning of houses, the raping of women were part of life's burden for the Jews of the'shtetl'". In 1888, in search of a better future for his family and himself, Benjamin made his way to Hamburg and took a ship to America; the Warner surname was originally "Wonsal" or "Wonskolaser" Upon arriving in New York City, Benjamin introduced himself as "Benjamin Warner", the surname "Warner" remained with him for the rest of his life. Pearl Warner and the couple's two children joined him in Baltimore, less than a year later. In Baltimore, the couple had five more children, including Sam Warner. Benjamin Warner's decision to move to Canada in the early 1890s was inspired by a friend's advice that he could make an excellent living bartering tin wares with trappers in exchange for furs.
Their sons Jack and David were born in Ontario. After two arduous years in Canada and Pearl Warner returned to Baltimore, bringing along their growing family. Two more children and Milton, were added to the household there. In 1896, the family relocated to Youngstown, following the lead of Harry Warner, who established a shoe repair shop in the heart of the emerging industrial town. Benjamin worked with his son Harry in the shoe repair shop until he secured a loan to open a meat counter and grocery store in the city's downtown area. Jack spent much of his youth in Youngstown, he observed in his autobiography. Warner wrote: "J. Edgar Hoover told me that Youngstown in those days was one of the toughest cities in America, a gathering place for Sicilian thugs active in the Mafia. There was a murder or two every Saturday night in our neighborhood, knives and brass knuckles were standard equipment for the young hotheads on the prowl." Warner claimed that he belonged to a street gang based at Westlake's Crossing, a notorious neighborhood located just west of the city's downtown area.
Meanwhile, he received his first taste of show business in the burgeoning steel town, singing at local theaters and forming a brief business partnership with another aspiring "song-and-dance man". During his brief career in vaudeville, he changed his name to Jack Leonard Warner. Jack's older brother Sam disapproved of these youthful pursuits. "Get out front where they pay the actors," Sam Warner advised Jack. "That's where the money is." In Youngstown, the Warner brothers took their first tentative steps into the entertainment industry. In the early 20th century, Sam Warner formed a business partnership with another local resident and "took over" the city's Old Grand Opera House, which he used as a venue for "cheap vaudeville and photoplays"; the venture failed after one summer. Sam Warner secured a job as a projectionist at Idora Park, a local amusement park, he convinced the family of the new medium's possibilities and negotiated the purchase of a Model B Kinetoscope from a projectionist, "down on his luck".
The purchase price was $1,000, Jack Warner contributed $150 to the venture by pawning a horse, according to his obituary. The enterprising brothers screened a well-used copy of The Great Train Robbery throughout Ohio and Pennsylvania before renting a vacant store in New Castle, Pennsylvania; this makeshift theatre, called the Bijou, was furnished with chai
Guy Bridges Kibbee was an American stage and film actor. Kibbee was born in Texas, his father was editor of the El Paso Herald-Post newspaper, Kibbee learned how to set type at age 7. His younger brother was actor Milton Kibbee. At the age of 14 he ran away to join a traveling show. Kibbee began his entertainment career on Mississippi riverboats, he became an actor in traveling stock companies. He began to lose his hair at 19, in his early days on stage he was a romantic leading man. In 1930, he made his debut on Broadway in the play, Torch Song, which won acclaim in New York and attracted the interest of Hollywood. Shortly afterwards, Paramount Pictures signed, he became part of Warner Bros.' stock company, contract actors who cycled through different productions in supporting roles. Kibbee's specialty was daft and jovial characters, he is best remembered for the films 42nd Street, Gold Diggers of 1933, Captain Blood, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, though he played the expat inn owner in Joan Crawford's Rain.
One of his few starring performances during this period was in the title role of Babbit, a much altered and compressed version of Sinclair Lewis’ novel. He is remembered for his performance as Mr. Webb, editor of the Grover's Corners, New Hampshire newspaper, father of Emily Webb, played by Martha Scott, in the film version of the classic Thornton Wilder play Our Town. Kibbee was married to Brownie Reed, they had a daughter, Shirley Ann, two sons, Guy Jr. and Robert J. Kibbee, an academic who became the chancellor of the City University of New York. Kibbee died of Parkinson's disease at the Percy Williams Home for actors in East Islip, New York on May 24, 1956. Guy Kibbee eggs is the name for a breakfast dish which consists of a hole cut out of the center of a slice of bread, an egg cracked into it, all of, fried in a skillet; the actor prepared this dish in the 1935 Warner Bros. film Mary Jane's Pa, hence the eponym. This dish is known by other names, such as "egg in a basket" and "egg in a frame."
Guy Kibbee is mentioned in the iconic Hot August Night concert/album performed by Neil Diamond in 1972 at the Greek Theatre in Los Angeles: Thank you people in the audience! Tree people out there, God bless ya, I'm singin for you too! Are you still there tree people? This is, this is the Greek Theatre; this is the place that God made for performers when they die, they go to a place called the Greek Theatre. And you're met there by an MC, wearing a long robe and smoking a cigar, looks like Guy Kibbee, that's what it is. It's performers' paradise. Guy Kibbee on IMDb Guy Kibbee at the Internet Broadway Database Guy Kibbee at the TCM Movie Database
Harry Warren was an American composer and lyricist. Warren was the first major American songwriter to write for film, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Song eleven times and won three Oscars for composing "Lullaby of Broadway", "You'll Never Know" and "On the Atchison and the Santa Fe". He wrote the music for the first blockbuster film musical, 42nd Street, choreographed by Busby Berkeley, with whom he would collaborate on many musical films. Over a career spanning four decades, Warren wrote more than 800 songs. Other well known Warren hits included "I Only Have Eyes for You", "You Must Have Been a Beautiful Baby", "Jeepers Creepers", "The Gold Diggers' Song", "That's Amore", "There Will Never Be Another You", "The More I See You", "At Last" and "Chattanooga Choo Choo". Warren was one of America's most prolific film composers, his songs have been featured in over 300 films. Warren was born Salvatore Antonio Guaragna, one of eleven children of Italian immigrants Antonio and Rachel De Luca Guaragna, grew up in Brooklyn, New York.
His father changed the family name to Warren. Although his parents could not afford music lessons, Warren had an early interest in music and taught himself to play his father's accordion, he sang in the church choir and learned to play the drums. He began to play the drums professionally by age 14 and dropped out of high school at 16 to play with his godfather's band in a traveling carnival. Soon he taught himself to play the piano and by 1915, he was working at the Vitagraph Motion Picture Studios, where he did a variety of administrative jobs, such as props man, played mood music on the piano for the actors, acted in bit parts and was an assistant director, he played the piano in cafés and silent-movie houses. In 1918 he joined the U. S. Navy, where he began writing songs. Warren wrote over 800 songs between 1981, publishing over 500 of them, they were written for 56 feature films or were used in other films that used Warren's newly written or existing songs. His songs appeared in over 300 films and 112 of Warner Bros.
Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies cartoons. 42 of his songs were on the top ten list of the radio program "Your Hit Parade", a measure of a song's popularity. 21 of these reached #1 on Your Hit Parade. "You'll Never Know" appeared 24 times. His song "I Only Have Eyes for You" is listed in the list of the 25 most-performed songs of the 20th Century, as compiled by the American Society of Composers and Publishers. Warren was the director of ASCAP from 1929 to 1932, he collaborated on some of his most famous songs with lyricists Al Dubin, Billy Rose, Mack Gordon, Leo Robin, Ira Gershwin and Johnny Mercer. In 1942 the Gordon-Warren song "Chattanooga Choo-Choo", as performed by the Glenn Miller Orchestra, became the first gold record in history, it was No.1 for nine weeks on the Billboard pop singles chart in 1941–1942, selling 1.2 million copies. Among his biggest hits were "There Will Never Be Another You", "I Only Have Eyes for You", "Forty-Second Street", "The Gold Diggers' Song", "Lullaby of Broadway", "Serenade In Blue", "At Last", "Jeepers Creepers", "You're Getting to Be a Habit with Me", "That's Amore", "Young and Healthy".
Warren's first hit song was "Rose of the Rio Grande", with lyrics by Edgar Leslie. He wrote a succession of hit songs in the 1920s, including "I Love My Baby" and "Seminola" in 1925, "Where Do You Work-a John?" and "In My Gondola" in 1926 and "Nagasaki" in 1928. In 1930, he composed the music for the song "Cheerful Little Earful" for the Billy Rose Broadway revue and Low, composed the music, with lyrics by Mort Dixon and Joe Young, for the Ed Wynn Broadway revue The Laugh Parade in 1931, he started working for Warner Brothers in 1932, paired with Dubin to write the score for the first blockbuster film musical, 42nd Street, continued to work there for six years, writing the scores for 32 more musicals. He worked for 20th Century Fox writing with Mack Gordon, he moved to MGM starting in 1944, writing for musical films such as The Harvey Girls and The Barkleys of Broadway, many starring Fred Astaire. He worked for Paramount, starting in the early 1950s, writing for the Bing Crosby movie Just for You and the Martin and Lewis movie The Caddy, the latter containing the hit song "That's Amore".
He continued to write songs for several more Jerry Lewis comedies. Warren is remembered for writing scores for the films of Busby Berkeley, his "uptempo songs are as memorable as Berkeley's choreography, as for the same reason: they capture, in a few snazzy notes, the vigorous frivolity of the Jazz Age."Warren won the Academy Award for Best Song three times, collaborating with three different lyricists: "Lullaby of Broadway" with Al Dubin in 1935, "You'll Never Know" with Mack Gordon in 1943, "On the Atchison and the Santa Fe" with Johnny Mercer in 1946. He was nominated for eleven Oscars. In 1955, Warren wrote "The Legend of Wyatt Earp", used in the ABC/Desilu Studios television series, The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp, he wrote the opening theme, "Hey, Marty", for the film Marty, which won the Academy Award for Best Picture in 1955. The last musical score that Warren composed for Broadway was Shangri-La, a disastrous 1956 adaptation of James Hilton's Lost Horizon, which ran for only 21 performances.
In 1957, he received his last Academy Award nomination for "An Affair To Remember". He continued to write songs for movies throughou