Gold dollar

The gold dollar or gold one-dollar piece is a gold coin, struck as a regular issue by the United States Bureau of the Mint from 1849 to 1889. The coin had three types over its lifetime, all designed by Mint Chief Engraver James B. Longacre; the Type 1 issue has the smallest diameter of any United States coin minted to date. A gold dollar coin had been proposed several times in the 1830s and 1840s, but was not adopted. Congress was galvanized into action by the increased supply of bullion caused by the California gold rush, in 1849 authorized a gold dollar. In its early years, silver coins were being hoarded or exported, the gold dollar found a ready place in commerce. Silver again circulated after Congress in 1853 required that new coins of that metal be made lighter, the gold dollar became a rarity in commerce before federal coins vanished from circulation because of the economic disruption caused by the American Civil War. Gold did not again circulate in most of the nation until 1879. In its final years, it was struck in small numbers.

It was in demand to be mounted in jewelry. The regular issue gold dollar was last struck in 1889. Damaged common date gold dollars tend to be worth anywhere from melt value to about US$110. In proposing his plan for a mint and a coinage system, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in 1791 proposed that the one-dollar denomination be struck both as a gold coin, as one of silver, representative of the two metals which he proposed be made legal tender. Congress followed Hamilton's recommendation only in part, authorizing a silver dollar, but no coin of that denomination in gold. In 1831, the first gold dollar was minted, at the private mint of Christopher Bechtler in North Carolina. Much of the gold being produced in the United States came from the mountains of North Carolina and Georgia, the dollars and other small gold coins issued by Bechtler circulated through that region, were now and seen further away. Additional one-dollar pieces were struck by Christopher's son. Soon after the Bechtlers began to strike their private issues, Secretary of the Treasury Levi Woodbury became an advocate of having the Mint of the United States strike the one-dollar denomination in gold.

He was opposed by Robert M. Patterson. Woodbury persuaded President Andrew Jackson to have pattern coins struck. In response, Patterson had Mint Second Engraver Christian Gobrecht break off work on the new design for the silver one-dollar coin and work on a pattern for the gold dollar. Gobrecht's design featured a Liberty cap surrounded by rays on one side, a palm branch arranged in a circle with the denomination and name of the country on the other. Consideration was given to including the gold dollar as an authorized denomination in the revisionary legislation that became the Mint Act of 1837; the Philadelphia newspaper Public Ledger, in December 1836, supported a gold dollar, stating that "the dollar is the smallest gold coin that would be convenient, as it would be eminently so, neither silver nor paper should be allowed to take its place." After Mint Director Patterson appeared before a congressional committee, the provision authorizing the gold dollar was deleted from the bill. In January 1844, North Carolina Representative James Iver McKay, the chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means, solicited the views of Director Patterson on the gold dollar.

Patterson had more of Gobrecht's pattern dollar struck to show to committee members, again advising against a coin that if issued would be only about a half inch in diameter. He told Treasury Secretary John C. Spencer that the only gold coins of that size in commerce, the Spanish and Colombian half-escudos, were unpopular and had not been struck for more than twenty years; this seemed to satisfy the committee as nothing more was done for the time, when a gold dollar was proposed again in 1846, McKay's committee recommended against it. Before 1848, record amounts of gold were flowing to American mints to be struck into coin, but the California Gold Rush vastly increased these quantities; this renewed calls for a gold dollar, as well as for a higher denomination than the eagle the largest gold coin. In January 1849, McKay introduced a bill for a gold dollar, referred to his committee. There was much discussion in the press about the proposed coin. McKay amended his legislation to provide for a double eagle and wrote to Patterson, who replied stating that the annular gold dollar would not work, neither would another proposal to have dollar piece consisting of a gold plug in a silver coin.

Gobrecht's successor as chief engraver, James B. Longacre, prepared patterns, including some with a square hole in the middle. McKay got his fellow Democrat, New Hampshire Senator Charles Atherton, to introduce the bill to authorize the gold dollar and the double eagle in the Senate on February 1, 1849—Atherton was chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. McKay introduced a version into the House on February 20; the dollar was attacked by congressmen from the Whig Party in the minority, on the grounds that it would be too small, would be counterfeited and in bad light might be mistakenly spent as a half dime, the coins being similar in size. McKay did not resp

Paul Henri Fischer

Paul Henri Fischer, was a French physician and paleontologist. He is known as Paul Fischer, he studied science and medicine, securing doctorates in both, became assistant in paleontology at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris. He was made assistant naturalist there in 1872. Beginning in 1856, he was joint editor, with A. C. Bernardi to start of the Journal de Conchyliologie, he served several terms as president of the Société Géologique de France and the Société Zoologique de France. In 1880, he was a member of the commission for submarine dredging. Faune conchyliologique marine du departement de la Gironde et des côtes du sud-ouest de la France Catalogue des nudibranches et céphalopodes des côtes océaniques de la France Recherches sur les Actinies des côtes océaniques de France L. C. Kiener & Paul Fischer, Spécies général et iconographie des coquilles vivantes comprenant la collection du Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Paris: la collection Lamarck, celle du prince Masséna et les découvertes récentes des voyageurs.

B. Baillière,1873-80 Une nouvelle classification des bivalves Fischer P. Oehlert P. & Woodward S. P.. Manuel de conchyliologie et de paléontologie conchyliologique ou histoire naturelle des mollusques vivants et fossiles suivi d'un appendice sur les brachipodes. Avec 23 planches contenant 1138 gravures dans le texte. Pp. I-XXIV, pp. 1-1369, Plates I-XXIII, 1 map. Paris. Paléontologie de l'ile de Rhodes “Études sur les mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles,” in Mission scientifique en Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale "Fischer, Paul Henri". Nordisk familjebok. 8. 1908. P. 402. Gilman, D. C.. "Fischer, Paul Henri". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Fischer, Paul Henri". Encyclopedia Americana. Works by or about Paul Henri Fischer at Internet Archive

1983 USC Trojans football team

The 1983 USC Trojans football team represented the University of Southern California in the 1983 NCAA Division I-A football season. In their first year under head coach Ted Tollner, the Trojans compiled a 4–6–1 record, finished in fourth place in the Pacific-10 Conference, were outscored by their opponents by a combined total of 238 to 210. Quarterback Sean Salisbury led the team in passing, completing 142 of 248 passes for 1,882 yards with ten touchdowns and nine interceptions. Michael Harper led the team in rushing with 151 carries for six touchdowns. Timmie Ware led the team in receiving yards with 23 catches for five touchdowns. USC sacked Pac-10 total offense leader Gale Gilbert eight times