An epiphyte is a plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air and sometimes from debris accumulating around it. Epiphytes differ from parasites in that epiphytes grow on plants for physical support. An epiphytic organism that is not a plant is called an epibiont, epiphytes are usually found in the temperate zone or in the tropics. Epiphyte species make good houseplants due to their water and soil requirements. Epiphytes provide a rich and diverse habitat for other organisms including animals, bacteria, epiphyte is one of the subdivisions of the Raunkiær system. The term epiphytic derives from the Greek epi- and phyton, epiphytic plants are sometimes called air plants because they do not root in soil. However, there are aquatic species of algae, including seaweeds. The best-known epiphytic plants include mosses and bromeliads such as Spanish moss, 89% of epiphyte species are flowering plants. The second largest group are the ferns, with about 2800 species.
In fact, about one third of all ferns are epiphytes, the third largest group is clubmosses, with 190 species, followed by a handful of species in each of the spikemosses, other ferns and cycads. Epiphytic organisms usually derive only physical support and not nutrition from their host and semiparasitic plants growing on other plants are not true epiphytes, but are still epiphytic in habit. Some epiphytic plants are trees that begin their lives high in the forest canopy. Over decades they send roots down the trunk of a host tree eventually overpowering and replacing it, the strangler fig and the northern rātā of New Zealand are examples of this. Epiphytes that end up as free standing trees are called hemiepiphytes, epiphytic plants use photosynthesis for energy and obtain moisture from the air or from dampness on the surface of their hosts. Roots may develop primarily for attachment, and specialized structures may be used to collect or hold moisture, the first important monograph on epiphytic plant ecology was written by A. F. W.
Assemblages of large epiphytes occur most abundantly in moist tropical forests, in Europe there are no dedicated epiphytic plants using roots, but rich assemblages of mosses and lichens grow on trees in damp areas, and the common polypody fern grows epiphytically along branches. Rarely, small bushes or small trees may grow in suspended soils up trees, epiphytic plants attached to their hosts high in the canopy have an advantage over herbs restricted to the ground where there is less light and herbivores may be more active. Epiphytic plants are important to certain animals that may live in their water reservoirs, such as some types of frogs
Golden lion tamarin
The golden lion tamarin, known as the golden marmoset, is a small New World monkey of the family Callitrichidae. The golden lion tamarin gets its name from its reddish orange pelage. Its face is dark and hairless and it is believed that the tamarin gets its hair color from sunlight and carotenoids in its food. The golden lion tamarin is the largest of the callitrichines and it is typically around 261 mm and weighs around 620 g. There is almost no difference between males and females. As with all New World monkeys, the lion tamarin has tegulae. Tegulae enable tamarins to cling to the sides of tree trunks and it may move quadrupedally along the small branches, whether through walking, leaping or bounding. This gives it a more similar to squirrels than primates. The golden lion tamarin has a limited distribution range, as over time they have lost all. The first population estimate made in 1972 approximated the count at between 400 and 500, by 1981 the population was reduced to less than 200. Surveys from as recently as 1995 suggested that there may only have been at most 400 golden lion tamarins left in the wild, they have made a nice comeback and now number 3500 in the wild.
Tamarins live along the far southeast border of the country in the municipalities of Silva Jardim, Cabo Frio, however, they have been successfully reintroduced to the municipalities of Rio das Ostras, Rio Bonito, and Casimiro de Abreu. Tamarins live in lowland forests less than 300 m above sea level. They can be found in forests and swamp forests. The golden lion tamarin is active for a maximum of 12 hours daily and it uses different sleeping dens each day. By frequently moving their sleeping nests around, groups minimize the scent left behind, the first activities of the day are traveling and feeding on fruits. As the afternoon nears, tamarins focus more on insects, by late afternoon, they move to their night dens. Tamarin groups use hollow tree cavities, dense vines or epiphytes as sleeping sites, sites that are between 11 and 15 m off the ground are preferred
Sustainable agriculture is farming in sustainable ways based on an understanding of ecosystem services, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment. Wes Jackson is credited with the first publication of the expression in his 1980 book New Roots for Agriculture, the term became popularly used in the late 1980s. Sustainable agriculture can be understood as an approach to agriculture. Practices that can cause damage to soil include excessive tilling of the soil. Long-term experiments have provided some of the best data on how various practices affect soil properties essential to sustainability, the most important factors for an individual site are sun, soil and water. Of the five and soil quality and quantity are most amenable to human intervention through time, although air and sunlight are available everywhere on Earth, crops depend on soil nutrients and the availability of water. When farmers grow and harvest crops, they some of these nutrients from the soil. Without replenishment, land suffers from nutrient depletion and becomes either unusable or suffers from reduced yields, sustainable agriculture depends on replenishing the soil while minimizing the use or need of non-renewable resources, such as natural gas, or mineral ores.
The last option was proposed in the 1970s, but is recently becoming feasible. Sustainable options for replacing other nutrient inputs are more limited, crops that require high levels of soil nutrients can be cultivated in a more sustainable manner if certain fertilizer management practices are adhered to. Nationwide food producers require vast amounts of land and soil to produce food at an accelerated rate and this diminishes the nutrients in the soil and decimates the idea of sustainable agriculture, which is best built through local, regional agricultural methods. In some areas sufficient rainfall is available for growth. For irrigation systems to be sustainable, they require proper management, the water source effectively becomes a non-renewable resource. However, this progress has come at a price, in many areas, such as the Ogallala Aquifer, the water is being used faster than it can be replenished. Several steps must be taken to develop drought-resistant farming systems even in years with average rainfall.
Indicators for sustainable water resource development are, Internal renewable water resources and this is the average annual flow of rivers and groundwater generated from endogenous precipitation, after ensuring that there is no double counting. It represents the amount of water resource produced within the boundaries of a country. This value, which is expressed as an average on a basis, is invariant in time
Monogamy is a form of relationship in which an individual has only one partner during his or her lifetime or at any one time, as compared to polygyny, polyandry, or polyamory. The term is applied to the social behavior of some animals. It is important to have an understanding of the nomenclature of monogamy because scientists use the term monogamy for different relationships. Biologists, biological anthropologists, and behavioral ecologists often use the term monogamy in the sense of sexual, if not genetic, modern biological researchers, using the theory of evolution, approach human monogamy as the same in human and non-human animal species. They postulate the following four aspects of monogamy, Marital monogamy refers to marriages of two people. Social monogamy refers to two living together, having sex with each other, and cooperating in acquiring basic resources such as shelter, food. Sexual monogamy refers to two partners remaining sexually exclusive with other and having no outside sex partners.
Genetic monogamy refers to sexually monogamous relationships with genetic evidence of paternity, when cultural or social anthropologists and other social scientists use the term monogamy, the meaning is social or marital monogamy. There are philosophical aspects in the field of interest of e. g. philosophical anthropology and philosophy of religion, the word monogamy comes from the Greek μονός, monos which means alone, and γάμος, gamos which means marriage. According to the Ethnographic Atlas, of 1,231 societies from around the noted,186 were monogamous,453 had occasional polygyny,588 had more frequent polygyny. Many societies that we consider monogamous in fact allow easy divorce, in many western countries divorce rates approach 50%. Those who remarry do so on average 3 times and remarriage can thus result in serial monogamy, i. e. multiple marriages but only one legal spouse at a time. In all, these account for 16 to 24% of the monogamous category, the prevalence of sexual monogamy can be roughly estimated as the percentage of married people who do not engage in extramarital sex.
The Standard Cross-Cultural Sample describes the amount of sex by men and women in over 50 pre-industrial cultures. The amount of sex by men is described as universal in 6 cultures, moderate in 29 cultures, occasional in 6 cultures. The amount of sex by women is described as universal in 6 cultures, moderate in 23 cultures, occasional in 9 cultures. These findings support the claim that the amount of extramarital sex differs across cultures. Recent surveys conducted in non-Western nations have found cultural and gender differences in extramarital sex
The palm branch is a symbol of victory, triumph and eternal life originating in the ancient Near East and Mediterranean world. The palm was sacred in Mesopotamian religions, and in ancient Egypt represented immortality, in Judaism, a closed frond of the date palm is part of the festival of Sukkot. A palm branch was awarded to athletes in ancient Greece. In Christianity, the branch is associated particularly with Palm Sunday. It was adopted into Christian iconography to represent the victory of martyrs, since a victory signals an end to a conflict or competition, the palm developed into a symbol of peace, a meaning it can have in Islam, where it is often associated with Paradise. The palm appears on several flags or seals representing countries or other places, in Assyrian religion, the palm is one of the trees identified as the Sacred Tree connecting heaven, represented by the crown of the tree, and earth, the base of the trunk. Reliefs from the 9th century BC show winged genii holding palm fronds in the presence of the Sacred Tree and it is associated with the goddess Ishtar and is found on the Ishtar Gate.
In ancient Mesopotamia, the palm may have represented fertility in humans. The Mesopotamian goddess Inanna, who had a part in the marriage ritual, was believed to make the dates abundant. Palm stems represented long life to the Ancient Egyptians, and the god Huh was often holding a palm stem in one or both hands. The palm was carried in Egyptian funeral processions to represent eternal life, the Kingdom of Nri used the omu, a tender palm frond, to sacralize and restrain. The palm was a symbol of Phoenicia and appeared on Punic coins, in ancient Greek, the word for palm, was thought to be related to the ethnonym. In Archaic Greece, the tree was a sacred sign of Apollo. The palm thus became an icon of the Delian League, in recognition of the alliance, Cimon of Athens erected a bronze statue of a palm tree at Delphi as part of a victory monument commemorating the Battle of the Eurymedon. In addition to representing the victorious League, the palm was a visual pun on the defeated Phoenician fleet.
From 400 BC onward, a branch was awarded to the victor in athletic contests. The palm became so associated with victory in ancient Roman culture that the Latin word palma could be used as a metonym for victory. A lawyer who won his case in the forum would decorate his front door with palm leaves, the toga palmata was a toga ornamented with a palm motif, it was worn to celebrate a military triumph only by those who had a previous triumph
Restoration ecology emerged as a separate field in ecology in the 1980s. Restoration ecology is commonly used for the academic study of the process. E. O. Wilson, a biologist states that, Here is the means to end the great extinction spasm, the next century will, I believe, be the era of restoration in ecology. Restoration ecology is the study of ecological restoration. Estimates of the current extinction rate is 1,000 to 10,000 times more than the normal rate, for many people biological diversity, has an intrinsic value that humans have a responsibility towards other living things, and an obligation to future generations. On a more level, natural ecosystems provide human society with food, fuel. Such processes have been estimated to be trillions of dollars annually. Habitat loss is the cause of both species extinctions and ecosystem service decline. The two ways to reverse trend of habitat loss are conservation of currently viable habitat and restoration of degraded habitats. The fundamental difference between restoration and other conservation efforts is analogous to the difference between disease prevention and treatment, conservation attempts to maintain and protect existing habitat and biodiversity, whereas restoration attempts to reverse existing environmental degradation and population declines.
Targeted human intervention is used to promote habitat, biodiversity recovery, the possibility of restoration, does not provide an excuse for converting extremely valuable pristine habitat into other uses, as in medicine, it better to prevent than to treat. Though restoration ecologists and other conservation biologists generally agree that habitat is the most important locus of biodiversity protection, conservation biology as an academic discipline is rooted in population biology. Because of that, it is organized at the genetic level. Restoration ecology is organized at the community level, looking at specific ecosystems, conservation biologys focus on rare or endangered species limit the number of manipulative studies that can be performed. As a consequence, conservation studies tend to be descriptive, however, the highly manipulative nature of restoration ecology allows the researcher to test the hypotheses vigorously. Restorative activity often reflects an experimental test of what limits populations, Restoration ecology draws on a wide range of ecological concepts.
Disturbance is a change of environmental conditions, which interferes with the functioning of a biological system, disturbance, at a variety of spatial and temporal scales, is a natural component of many communities. Humans have had limited natural impacts on ecosystems for as long as humans have existed, however and minimizing the differences between modern anthropogenic and natural disturbances is crucial to restoration ecology
They are among the basal families within the Poales and are unique because they are the only family within the order that has septal nectaries and inferior ovaries. These inferior ovaries characterize the Bromelioideae, a subfamily of the Bromeliaceae, the family includes both epiphytes, such as Spanish moss, and terrestrial species, such as the pineapple. Many bromeliads are able to water in a structure formed by their tightly-overlapping leaf bases. The largest bromeliad is Puya raimondii, which reaches 3–4 m tall in vegetative growth with a flower spike 9–10 m tall, Bromeliads are plants that are adapted to various climates. Foliage takes different shapes, from needle-thin to broad and flat, symmetrical to irregular, the foliage, which usually grows in a rosette, is widely patterned and colored. Leaf colors range from maroon, through shades of green, to gold, varieties may have leaves with red, yellow and cream variations. Others may be spotted with purple, red, or cream, while others have different colors on the tops, the inflorescences produced by bromeliads are regarded as considerably more diverse than any other plant family.
Some flower spikes may reach 10 meters tall, while others only measure 2–3 mm across, upright stalks may be branched or simple with spikes retaining their color from two weeks up to 12 months, depending on species. In some species, the flower remains unseen, growing deep in the base of the plants, root systems vary according to plant type. Terrestrial bromeliad species have complex systems that gather water and nutrients, while epiphytic bromeliads only grow hard, wiry roots to attach themselves to trees. Some bromeliads are faintly scented, while others are heavily perfumed, blooms from the species Tillandsia cyanea have a fragrance resembling that of clove spice. One study found 175,000 bromeliads per hectare in one forest, a wide variety of organisms takes advantage of the pools of water trapped by bromeliads. A study of 209 plants from the Ecuadorian lowlands identified 11,219 animals, representing more than 300 distinct species, examples include some species of ostracods, small salamanders about 2.5 cm in length, and tree frogs.
Some bromeliads even form homes for other species of bromeliads, plants in the Bromeliaceae are widely represented in their natural climates across the Americas. One species can be found in Africa and they can be found at altitudes from sea level to 4200 meters, from rainforests to deserts. 1814 species are epiphytes, some are lithophytes, and some are terrestrial, Bromeliads often serve as phytotelmata, accumulating water between their leaves. The aquatic habitat created as a result is host to an array of invertebrates. These bromeliad invertebrates benefit their hosts by increasing nitrogen uptake into the plant, Bromeliads are among the more recent plant groups to have emerged
Old-growth features include diverse tree-related structures that provide diverse wildlife habitat that increases the biodiversity of the forested ecosystem. The concept of tree structure includes multi-layered canopies and canopy gaps, greatly varying tree heights and diameters. Old-growth forests are valuable, and logging of these forests has been a point of contention between the logging industry and environmentalists. Old-growth forests tend to have trees and standing dead trees, multi-layered canopies with gaps that result from the deaths of individual trees. Depending on the forest, this may take anywhere from a century to several millennia, hardwood forests of the eastern United States can develop old-growth characteristics in one or two generations of trees, or 150–500 years. In British Columbia, old growth is defined as 120 to 140 years of age in the interior of the province where fire is a frequent and natural occurrence. In British Columbia’s coastal rainforests, old growth is defined as more than 250 years.
In Australia, eucalypt trees rarely exceed 350 years of age due to frequent fire disturbance, Forest types have very different development patterns, natural disturbances and appearances. Levels of biodiversity may be higher or lower in old-growth forests compared to that in second-growth forests, depending on circumstances, environmental variables. Logging in old-growth forests is an issue in many parts of the world. Excessive logging reduces biodiversity, affecting not only the old-growth forest itself, a forest in old-growth stage has a mix of tree ages, due to a distinct regeneration pattern for this stage. New trees regenerate at different times from other, because each one of them has different spatial location relative to the main canopy. The mixed age of the forest is an important criterion in ensuring that the forest is a stable ecosystem in the long term. A climax stand that is uniformly aged becomes senescent and degrades within a relatively short time-period to result in a new cycle of forest succession, uniformly aged stands are a less stable ecosystem.
Forest canopy gaps are essential in creating and maintaining mixed-age stands, some herbaceous plants only become established in canopy openings, but persist beneath an understory. Openings are a result of death due to small impact disturbances such as wind, low-intensity fires. Because old-growth forest is structurally diverse it provides higher-diversity habitat than forests in other stages, sometimes higher biological diversity can be sustained in old-growth forest, or at least a biodiversity that is different from other forest stages. The characteristic topography of much old-growth forest consists of pits and mounds, mounds are caused by decaying fallen trees, and pits by the roots pulled out of the ground when trees fall due to natural causes, including being pushed over by animals
Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia. The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the group to the choanoflagellates. Animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives and their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs, they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance, most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion, about 542 million years ago. Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates, vertebrates have a backbone or spine, and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species. They include fish, reptiles and mammals, the remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs, annelids, flatworms, ctenophores, the study of animals is called zoology.
The word animal comes from the Latin animalis, meaning having breath, the biological definition of the word refers to all members of the kingdom Animalia, encompassing creatures as diverse as sponges, jellyfish and humans. Aristotle divided the world between animals and plants, and this was followed by Carl Linnaeus, in the first hierarchical classification. In Linnaeuss original scheme, the animals were one of three kingdoms, divided into the classes of Vermes, Pisces, Amphibia and Mammalia. Since the last four have all been subsumed into a single phylum, in 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into two subkingdoms and Protozoa. The protozoa were moved to the kingdom Protista, leaving only the metazoa, thus Metazoa is now considered a synonym of Animalia. Animals have several characteristics that set apart from other living things. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, which separates them from bacteria and they are heterotrophic, generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae.
They are distinguished from plants and fungi by lacking cell walls. All animals are motile, if only at life stages. In most animals, embryos pass through a stage, which is a characteristic exclusive to animals. With a few exceptions, most notably the sponges and Placozoa and these include muscles, which are able to contract and control locomotion, and nerve tissues, which send and process signals
Foraging is searching for wild food resources. It affects an animals fitness because it plays an important role in an ability to survive. Foraging theory is a branch of ecology that studies the foraging behavior of animals in response to the environment where the animal lives. Behavioral ecologists use economic models to understand foraging, many of these models are a type of optimality model, thus foraging theory is discussed in terms of optimizing a payoff from a foraging decision. The payoff for many of these models is the amount of energy an animal receives per unit time, more specifically, foraging theory predicts that the decisions that maximize energy per unit time and thus deliver the highest payoff will be selected for and persist. Behavioral ecologists first tackled this topic in the 1960s and 1970s and their goal was to quantify and formalize a set of models to test their null hypothesis that animals forage randomly. Learning is defined as a change or modification of a behavior based on a previous experience.
Since an animals environment is changing, the ability to adjust foraging behavior is essential for maximization of fitness. Studies in social insects have shown there is a significant correlation between learning and foraging performance. In nonhuman primates, young individuals learn foraging behavior from their peers and elders by watching other group members forage and learning from other members of the group ensure that the younger members of the group learn what is safe to eat and become proficient foragers. One measure of learning is foraging innovation—an animal consuming new food, foraging innovation is considered learning because it involves behavioral plasticity on the animals part. The animal recognizes the need to come up with a new foraging strategy, forebrain size has been associated with learning behavior. Animals with larger sizes are expected to learn better. A higher ability to innovate has been linked to larger sizes in North American. In this study, bird orders that contained individuals with larger forebrain sizes displayed a higher amount of foraging innovation, examples of innovations recorded in birds include following tractors and eating frogs or other insects killed by it and using swaying trees to catch their prey.
Another measure of learning is learning, which refers to an individuals ability to associate the time of an event with the place of that event. This type of learning has been documented in the behaviors of individuals of the stingless bee species Trigona fulviventris. Foraging behavior can be influenced by genetics, honey bee foraging activity occurs both inside and outside the hive for either pollen or nectar
Mammals are any vertebrates within the class Mammalia, a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles by the possession of a neocortex, three middle ear bones and mammary glands. All female mammals nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands, Mammals include the largest animals on the planet, the great whales. The basic body type is a quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme, all modern mammals give birth to live young, most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group. The largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha, the next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, and the Carnivora. Living mammals are divided into the Yinotheria and Theriiformes There are around 5450 species of mammal, in some classifications, extant mammals are divided into two subclasses, the Prototheria, that is, the order Monotremata, and the Theria, or the infraclasses Metatheria and Eutheria.
The marsupials constitute the group of the Metatheria, and include all living metatherians as well as many extinct ones. Much of the changes reflect the advances of cladistic analysis and molecular genetics, findings from molecular genetics, for example, have prompted adopting new groups, such as the Afrotheria, and abandoning traditional groups, such as the Insectivora. The mammals represent the only living Synapsida, which together with the Sauropsida form the Amniota clade, the early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period, this group diverged from the line that led to todays reptiles. Some mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation. Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies, most mammals are polygynous, but some can be monogamous or polyandrous.
They provided, and continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as commodities such as meat, dairy products, wool. Mammals are hunted or raced for sport, and are used as model organisms in science, Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, and appear in literature, film and religion. Defaunation of mammals is primarily driven by anthropogenic factors, such as poaching and habitat destruction, Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus initially defined the class. No classification system is accepted, McKenna & Bell and Wilson & Reader provide useful recent compendiums. Though field work gradually made Simpsons classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to a classification of mammals