National Socialism, more known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – the National Socialist German Workers' Party – in Nazi Germany, of other far-right groups with similar aims. Nazism is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but incorporated fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, eugenics into its creed, its extreme nationalism came from Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement prominent in the German nationalism of the time, it was influenced by the Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after Germany's defeat in World War I, from which came the party's "cult of violence", "at the heart of the movement."Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on racial purity which represented a people's community.
The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum and exclude those who they deemed either community aliens or "inferior" races. The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both Marxist international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concepts of class conflict and universal equality, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism, sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organization; the Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party – to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats and the Communists – and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization.
The National Socialist Program or "25 Points" was adopted in 1920 and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined the anti-Semitism and anti-Communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion; the Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, making them the largest party in the legislature by far, but still short of an outright majority. Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, in 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg, through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party. Through the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg, a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis had soon established a one-party state.
The Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel functioned as the paramilitary organizations of the Nazi Party. Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives, including the leadership of the SA. After the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in Hitler's hands and he became Germany's head of state as well as the head of the government, with the title of Führer, meaning "leader". From that point, Hitler was the dictator of Nazi Germany, known as the "Third Reich", under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, imprisoned or murdered. Many millions of people were exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust during World War II, including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe. Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced.
It is regarded as immoral and evil, with only a few fringe racist groups referred to as neo-Nazis, describing themselves as followers of National Socialism. The full name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei for which they used the acronym NSDAP; the term "Nazi" was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backwards farmer or peasant, characterizing an awkward and clumsy person. In this sense, the word Nazi was a hypocorism of the German male name Ignatz – Ignatz being a common name at the time in Bavaria, the area from which the NSDAP emerged. In the 1920s, political opponents of the NSDAP in the German labour movement seized on this and – using the earlier abbreviated term "Sozi" for Sozialist as an example – shortened NSDAP's name, Nationalsozialistische, to the dismissive "Nazi", in order to associate them with the derogatory use of the term mentioned above; the first use of the term "Nazi" by the National Socialists occurred in 1926 in a publication by Joseph Goebbels called Der Nazi-Sozi.
In Goebbels' pamphlet, the word "Nazi" only appears when linked with the word "Sozi" as an abbreviation of
Archibald "Archie" Andrews, created in 1941 by publisher John L. Goldwater and artist Bob Montana in collaboration with writer Vic Bloom, is the main character in the Archie Comics franchise, including the long-running Archie Andrews radio series, a syndicated comic strip, The Archie Show, Archie's Weird Mysteries, Riverdale; the live action version of Archie is portrayed by KJ Apa in Riverdale. Archibald "Archie" Andrews debuted in Pep Comics 22, he is the only child of Fred Andrews. His father works as a mid-level business executive, his earlier life is revealed in the "Little Archie" stories. Archie lives in Riverdale. Archie is a typical small-town teenager, his main crush is Veronica Lodge, but he is fond of Betty Cooper, forming the love triangle driving many of the comic's plot lines. He has the best intentions, but comes into conflict with Veronica's rich father, Hiram Lodge, Riverdale High's principal, Waldo Weatherbee; as the lead singer of The Archies, Archie performs with Betty and Veronica as well as his friend Reggie Mantle, who battles him for Veronica's heart, his best friend Jughead Jones.
Mary and Fred Andrews are of Scottish descent. Archie's paternal grandfather, Andy Andrews, immigrated to the United States from Scotland and befriended Moose Mason's Russian ancestor, who had emigrated at the same time. Archie has been depicted playing bagpipes; the Little Archie series, published from 1956 through the mid-1990s, chronicles the adventures of pre-teen Archie and his friends while in elementary school. The 2010 revival of the Life with Archie series chronicles two alternate, parallel story lines in which Archie marries both Veronica and Betty. Archie and Betty have been love interests all their lives; when Veronica Lodge moves to Riverdale, however, he switched his attention to her, making Betty both angry and jealous. She began competing with Veronica for his affection. In the comics, he sometimes thinks of Betty more as a close confidant, he dislikes it. Now that Betty sporadically dates Jason Blossom and Adam Chisholm, Archie shows a tinge of jealousy. Archie is married to Betty in Archie Marries Betty: Life With Archie series and is married to Veronica in Archie Marries Veronica: Life with Archie series.
Archie Often competes for the attention of Betty and Veronica with his rival, Reggie Mantle, other boys. Veronica keeps Archie guessing, never letting him take her for granted. Betty, on the other hand lets Archie know she adores him. Archie chooses to keep fighting for Veronica. A third love interest is a wealthy red-headed girl named Cheryl Blossom. At first, she was deemed too sexual and a bit promiscuous and was taken out of the series, but due to her popularity, she was brought back in Love Showdown, a four-part mini-series in which Archie attempts to make a decision between Cheryl and Veronica. On May 15, 2009, Archie Comics announced that Archie would pick one of the girls to marry, in a story arc in Archie #600–606. However, Archie Comics publicly revealed this to be a dream sequence to show two possible futures: one where Archie marries Veronica, the other Betty. In both, he has twins: a boy named Archie who looks like him, a girl named after and resembling whichever girl he married. Issue 606 was an epilogue to Archie Marries Veronica/Archie Marries Betty that returns to the comics' old format.
In Archie # 608, Archie began a relationship with Valerie Brown, making her Archie's first girlfriend of African descent. The Archies and Josie and the Pussycats were touring together and, while rehearsing and Valerie secretly fell in love as they co-wrote the song "More Than Words" that described their feelings. Issue # 609 revealed. Archie and Valerie were forced apart when the Pussycats were touring Europe without the Archies, but hoped to keep their relationship going. In the comic Archie Marries Valerie, Valerie is expecting a baby with Archie. Jughead Jones has been Archie's best friend since childhood; when Jughead first came to Riverdale, he tended to dismiss Archie. However, Archie, of good heart, tried to cheer up Jughead and the two have been inseparable since. Jughead wears an inscrutable, closed-eyelid expression. Jughead has to help Archie out from a tricky situation. Jughead knows when Archie's ideas will not work, but is powerless to avoid getting involved. Reggie Mantle is athletic rival.
Each makes attempts to separate the other from Veronica exhibiting physical violence, both have won their fair share of scrapes with each other. Reggie takes every opportunity to make cynical wisecracks. However, Reggie is shown as a companion to and of Archie despite his arrogance and competitive nature, they are seen together practicing athletics or pursuing dates. Archie's other friends include Dilton Doiley, the local genius who gets Archie into and out of trouble through his experiments and inventions.
Tarzan is a fictional character, an archetypal feral child raised in the African jungle by the Mangani great apes. Created by Edgar Rice Burroughs, Tarzan first appeared in the novel Tarzan of the Apes, subsequently in 25 sequels, several authorized books by other authors, innumerable works in other media, both authorized and unauthorized; the film version of Tarzan as the noble savage, as acted by Johnny Weissmuller, does not reflect the original character in the novels, gracious and sophisticated. Tarzan is the son of a British lord and lady who were marooned on the Atlantic coast of Africa by mutineers; when Tarzan was an infant, his mother died, his father was killed by Kerchak, leader of the ape tribe by whom Tarzan was adopted. Soon after his parents' death, Tarzan became a feral child, his tribe of apes are known as the Mangani, Great Apes of a species unknown to science. Kala is his ape mother. Burroughs added stories occurring during Tarzan's adolescence in his sixth Tarzan book, Jungle Tales of Tarzan.
Tarzan is his ape name. In fact, Burroughs's narrator in Tarzan of the Apes describes both Clayton and Greystoke as fictitious names – implying that, within the fictional world that Tarzan inhabits, he may have a different real name; as an eighteen-year-old young adult, Tarzan meets Jane Porter. She, her father, others of their party are marooned on the same coastal jungle area where Tarzan's human parents were twenty years earlier; when Jane returns to the United States, Tarzan leaves the jungle in search of her, his one true love. In The Return of Tarzan and Jane marry. In books he lives with her for a time in England, they have one son, who takes the ape name Korak. Tarzan is contemptuous of what he sees as the hypocrisy of civilization, he and Jane return to Africa, making their home on an extensive estate that becomes a base for Tarzan's adventures; as revealed in Tarzan's Quest, Jane, Tarzan's monkey friend Nkima, their allies gained some of the Kavuru's pills that grant immortality to their consumer.
Burroughs created an elegant version of the wild man figure unalloyed with character flaws or faults. Tarzan is described as being tall, athletic and tanned, with grey eyes and long black hair, he wears no clothes, except for a loincloth. He is courageous, intelligent and steadfast, he is presented as behaving ethically in most situations, except when seeking vengeance under the motivation of grief, as when his ape mother Kala is killed in Tarzan of the Apes, or when he believes Jane has been murdered in Tarzan the Untamed. He is in love with his wife and devoted to her; when presented with a situation where a weaker individual or party is being preyed upon by a stronger foe, Tarzan invariably takes the side of the weaker party. In dealing with other men, Tarzan is forceful. With male friends, he is reserved but loyal and generous; as a host, he is generous and gracious. As a leader, he commands devoted loyalty. In keeping with these noble characteristics, Tarzan's philosophy embraces an extreme form of "return to nature".
Although he is able to pass within society as a civilized individual, he prefers to "strip off the thin veneer of civilization", as Burroughs puts it. His preferred dress is a knife and a loincloth of animal hide, his preferred abode is any convenient tree branch when he desires to sleep, his favored food is raw meat, killed by himself. Tarzan's primitivist philosophy was absorbed by countless fans, amongst whom was Jane Goodall, who describes the Tarzan series as having a major influence on her childhood, she states that she felt she would be a much better spouse for Tarzan than his fictional wife and that when she first began to live among and study the chimpanzees she was fulfilling her childhood dream of living among the great apes just as Tarzan did. Rudyard Kipling's Mowgli has been cited as a major influence on Edgar Rice Burroughs' creation of Tarzan. Mowgli was an influence for a number of other "wild boy" characters. Tarzan's jungle upbringing gives him abilities far beyond those of ordinary humans.
These include climbing and leaping as well as any great ape, or better. He uses branches and swings from hanging vines to travel at great speed, a skill acquired among the anthropoid apes, his strength, stamina, reflexes, flexibility, durability and swimming are extraordinary in comparison to normal men. He has wrestled full grown bull apes and gorillas, rhinos, pythons, tigers, man-size seahorses and dinosaurs. Tarzan is a skilled tracker and uses his exceptional senses of hearing and smell to follow prey or avoid predators, kills only for food, yet is a skilled thief when raiding African tribal villages or hunting parties that Tarzan has judged to be brutal and deserving of no pity, taking their spears, bows and most metal arrowheads. A keen sense of hearing allows him to eavesdrop on conversations between other people near him. Intelligent, T
Archie Comic Publications, Inc. is an American comic book publisher headquartered in Pelham, New York. The company's many titles feature fictional teenagers Archie Andrews, Jughead Jones, Betty Cooper, Veronica Lodge, Reggie Mantle, Sabrina Spellman, Josie and the Pussycats; the company began in 1939 as MLJ Comics, which published superhero comics. The initial Archie characters were created in 1941 by publisher John L. Goldwater and artist Bob Montana, in collaboration with writer Vic Bloom, they first appeared in Pep Comics #22. With the creation of Archie, publisher John Goldwater hoped to appeal to fans of the Andy Hardy movies starring Mickey Rooney. Archie Comics was the title of the company's longest-running publication, the first issue appearing with a cover date of Winter 1942. Starting with issue #114, the title was shortened to Archie; the flagship series was relaunched from issue #1 in July 2015 with a new look and design suited for a new generation of readers. Archie Comics characters and concepts have appeared in numerous films, television programs and video games.
Images from top to bottom: Pep Comics #36, Pep Comics #67, Ginger #1 Maurice Coyne, Louis Silberkleit, John L. Goldwater formed MLJ Magazines and started publishing in November 1939; the company name was derived from the initials of the partners' first names. Coyne served as MLJ's bookkeeper and CFO. Coyne and Silberkleit had been partners in Columbia Publications, a pulp company that published its last pulp in 1960. Silberkleit had a college degree from St. John's University, was a licensed and registered pharmacist, had a law degree from New York Law School, his efforts were focused on the business, separating and financial ends of the company. John Goldwater served as editor-in-chief. Goldwater was one of the founders of the Comics Magazine Association of America, he served as its president for 25 years. Goldwater was a national commissioner of the Anti-Defamation League. MLJ's first comic book, published in November 1939, was Blue Ribbon Comics with the first half full color and the last half in red and white tints.
In January 1940, Pep Comics debuted with the Shield, the first USA patriotic comic book hero, created by writer and managing editor Harry Shorten and designed by artist Irv Novick. Top Notch Comics was launched in December 1941; until March 1944, the cover feature of Pep was the Shield. The Shield was a forerunner for Joe Simon's and Jack Kirby's Captain America, being published 14 months earlier; the Andy Hardy movies were an inspiration for Goldwater to have a comic book about a relatable normal person. Teenaged Archibald "Chick" Andrews debuted with Betty Cooper and Jughead Jones in Pep Comics #22, in a story by writer Vic Bloom and artist Bob Montana. Archie soon became MLJ Magazine's headliner, which led to the company changing its name to Archie Comic Publications. Siberkleit and Coyne discontinued Columbia Publications. In the late 1950s, Archie Publishing launched its "Archie Adventure Series" line with a new version of the Shield and two new characters; the February 1962 issue of Harvey Kurtzman's Help! magazine featured his parody of the Archie characters in its Goodman Beaver story, "Goodman Goes Playboy", illustrated by frequent collaborator Will Elder.
Help! Publisher Jim Warren received a letter on December 6, 1961, accusing Help! of copyright infringement and demanding removal of the offending issue from newsstands. Warren was unable to recall the magazine, but he agreed to settle out of court rather than risk an expensive lawsuit. Warren paid Archie Comics $1000, ran a note of apology in a subsequent issue of Help! The story was reprinted in the book collection Executive Comic Book in 1962, with the artwork modified by Elder to obscure the appearance of the Archie characters. Archie Comics found their appearance still too close to its copyrighted properties, threatened another lawsuit. Kurtzman and Elder settled out of court by handing over the copyright to the story. Archie Comics refused to allow the story to be republished. A request from Denis Kitchen in 1983 to include the story in his Goodman Beaver reprint collection was turned down. After The Comics Journal co-owner Gary Groth discovered that Archie Comics had allowed the copyright on "Goodman Goes Playboy" to expire, he had the story reprinted in The Comics Journal #262, made it available as a PDF on the magazine's website.
In the mid-1960s, during the period fans and historians call the Silver Age of Comic Books, Archie switched its superheroes to a new imprint, "Mighty Comics Group," with the MLJ heroes done in the campy humor of the Batman TV show. This imprint ended in 1967. In the early 1970s, Archie Enterprises Inc. went public. Just over 10 years Louis Silberkleit's son Michael and John Goldwater's son Richard returned Archie Comic Publications to private ownership. Michael Silberkleit served as chairman and co-publisher, while Richard Goldwater served as president and co-publisher. Coyne retired in the 1970s as CFO. In the 1970s and 1980s, Spire Christian Comics, a line of comic books by Fleming H. Revell, obtained license to feature the Archie characters in several of its titles, including Archie's Sonshine, Archie's Roller Coaster, Archie's Family Album, Archie's Parables; these comics used Archie and his friends to tell stories with strong Christian themes and morals, sometimes incorporating Bible scripture.
In at least one instance, the regular characters meet a Christ-like figure on the beach, listen as he preaches Christian values. Archie launched a short-lived fantasy and
Robin is the name of several fictional superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by Bob Kane, Bill Finger, Jerry Robinson, to serve as a junior counterpart to the superhero Batman; the character's first incarnation, Dick Grayson, debuted in Detective Comics #38. Conceived as a way to attract young readership, Robin garnered overwhelmingly positive critical reception, doubling the sales of the Batman titles; the early adventures of Robin included Star Spangled Comics #65–130, the character's first solo feature. Robin made regular appearances in Batman related comic books and other DC Comics publications from 1940 through the early 1980s until the character set aside the Robin identity and became the independent superhero Nightwing; the team of Batman and Robin has been referred to as the Caped Crusaders or Dynamic Duo. The character's second incarnation Jason Todd first appeared in Batman #357; this Robin made regular appearances in Batman related comic books until 1988, when the character was murdered by the Joker in the storyline "A Death in the Family".
Jason would find himself alive after a reality changing incident becoming the Red Hood. The premiere Robin limited series was published in 1991 which featured the character's third incarnation Tim Drake training to earn the role of Batman's vigilante partner. Following two successful sequels, the monthly Robin ongoing series began in 1993 and ended in early 2009, which helped his transition from sidekick to a superhero in his own right. In 2004 storylines, established DC Comics character Stephanie Brown became the fourth Robin for a short duration before the role reverted to Tim Drake. Damian Wayne succeeds Drake as Robin in the 2009 story arc "Battle for the Cowl". Following the 2011 continuity reboot "the New 52", Tim Drake was revised as having assumed the title Red Robin, Jason Todd, operating as the Red Hood, was repairing his relationship with Batman. Dick Grayson resumed his role as Nightwing and Stephanie Brown was introduced anew under her previous moniker Spoiler in the pages of Batman Eternal.
The 2016 DC Rebirth continuity relaunch starts off with Damian Wayne as Robin, Tim Drake as Red Robin, Jason Todd as Red Hood, Dick Grayson as Nightwing. Robins have been featured throughout stories set in parallel worlds, owing to DC Comics' longstanding "Multiverse" concept. For example, in the original Earth-Two, Dick Grayson never adopted the name Nightwing, continues operating as Robin into adulthood. In the New 52's "Earth-2" continuity, Robin is Helena Wayne, daughter of Batman and Catwoman, stranded on the Earth of the main continuity and takes the name Huntress. About a year after Batman's debut, Batman creators Bob Kane and Bill Finger introduced Robin the Boy Wonder in Detective Comics #38; the name "Robin the Boy Wonder" and the medieval look of the original costume were inspired by The Adventures of Robin Hood. Robinson noted he "came up with Robin Hood because The Adventures of Robin Hood were boyhood favorites of mine. I had been given a Robin Hood book illustrated by N. C. Wyeth... and that's what I sketched out when I suggested the name Robin Hood, which they seemed to like, showed them the costume.
And if you look at it, it's Wyeth's costume, from my memory, because I didn't have the book to look at." Although Robin is best known as Batman's sidekick, the Robins have been members of the superhero group the Teen Titans—with the original Robin, Dick Grayson, as a founding member and the group's leader and with Tim Drake as the team leader as of 2012. In Batman stories, the character of Robin was intended to be Batman's Watson: Bill Finger, writer for many early Batman adventures, wrote: "Robin was an outgrowth of a conversation I had with Bob; as I said, Batman was a combination of Sherlock Holmes. Holmes had his Watson; the thing that bothered me was that Batman didn't have anyone to talk to, it got a little tiresome always having him thinking. I found. That's. Bob said he was going to put a boy in the strip to identify with Batman. I thought it was a great idea." The following fictional characters have assumed the Robin role at various times in the main DC Comics Universe continuity: In the comics, Dick Grayson was an 8-year-old acrobat and the youngest of a family act called the "Flying Graysons".
A gangster named Boss Zucco, loosely based on actor Edward G. Robinson's Little Caesar character, had been extorting money from the circus and killed Grayson's parents and Mary, by sabotaging their trapeze equipment as a warning against defiance. Batman investigated the crime and, as his alter ego billionaire Bruce Wayne, had Dick put under his custody as a legal ward. Together they collected the evidence needed to bring him to justice. From his debut appearance in 1940 through 1969, Robin was known as the Boy Wonder. Batman creates a costume for Dick, consisting of a red tunic, yellow cape, green gloves, green boots, green spandex briefs, a utility belt; as he grew older, graduated from high school, enrolled in Hudson University, Robin continued his career as the Teen Wonder, from 1970 into the early 1980s. The character was rediscovered by a new generation of fans during the 1980s because of the success of The New Teen Titans, in which he left Batman's shadow to assume t
Animation is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most animations are made with computer-generated imagery. Computer animation can be detailed 3D animation, while 2D computer animation can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth or faster real-time renderings. Other common animation methods apply a stop motion technique to two and three-dimensional objects like paper cutouts, puppets or clay figures; the effect of animation is achieved by a rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon and beta movement, but the exact causes are still uncertain. Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, flip book and film. Television and video are popular electronic animation media that were analog and now operate digitally.
For display on the computer, techniques like animated GIF and Flash animation were developed. Animation is more pervasive. Apart from short films, feature films, animated gifs and other media dedicated to the display of moving images, animation is heavily used for video games, motion graphics and special effects. Animation is prevalent in information technology interfaces; the physical movement of image parts through simple mechanics – in for instance the moving images in magic lantern shows – can be considered animation. The mechanical manipulation of puppets and objects to emulate living beings has a long history in automata. Automata were popularised by Disney as animatronics. Animators are artists; the word "animation" stems from the Latin "animationem", noun of action from past participle stem of "animare", meaning "the action of imparting life". The primary meaning of the English word is "liveliness" and has been in use much longer than the meaning of "moving image medium"; the history of animation started long before the development of cinematography.
Humans have attempted to depict motion as far back as the paleolithic period. Shadow play and the magic lantern offered popular shows with moving images as the result of manipulation by hand and/or some minor mechanics. A 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in Shahr-e Sukhteh, has five sequential images painted around it that seem to show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree. In 1833, the phenakistiscope introduced the stroboscopic principle of modern animation, which would provide the basis for the zoetrope, the flip book, the praxinoscope and cinematography. Charles-Émile Reynaud further developed his projection praxinoscope into the Théâtre Optique with transparent hand-painted colorful pictures in a long perforated strip wound between two spools, patented in December 1888. From 28 October 1892 to March 1900 Reynaud gave over 12,800 shows to a total of over 500.000 visitors at the Musée Grévin in Paris. His Pantomimes Lumineuses series of animated films each contained 300 to 700 frames that were manipulated back and forth to last 10 to 15 minutes per film.
Piano music and some dialogue were performed live, while some sound effects were synchronized with an electromagnet. When film became a common medium some manufacturers of optical toys adapted small magic lanterns into toy film projectors for short loops of film. By 1902, they were producing many chromolithography film loops by tracing live-action film footage; some early filmmakers, including J. Stuart Blackton, Arthur Melbourne-Cooper, Segundo de Chomón and Edwin S. Porter experimented with stop-motion animation since around 1899. Blackton's The Haunted Hotel was the first huge success that baffled audiences with objects moving by themselves and inspired other filmmakers to try the technique for themselves. J. Stuart Blackton experimented with animation drawn on blackboards and some cutout animation in Humorous Phases of Funny Faces. In 1908, Émile Cohl's Fantasmagorie was released with a white-on-black chalkline look created with negative prints from black ink drawings on white paper; the film consists of a stick figure moving about and encountering all kinds of morphing objects, including a wine bottle that transforms into a flower.
Inspired by Émile Cohl's stop-motion film Les allumettes animées, Ladislas Starevich started making his influential puppet animations in 1910. Winsor McCay's Little Nemo showcased detailed drawings, his Gertie the Dinosaur was an early example of character development in drawn animation. During the 1910s, the production of animated short films referred to as "cartoons", became an industry of its own and cartoon shorts were produced for showing in movie theaters; the most successful producer at the time was John Randolph Bray, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process that dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade. El Apóstol was a 1917 Argentine animated film utilizing cutout animation, the world's first animated feature film. A fire that destroyed producer Federico Valle's film studio incinerated the only known copy of El Apóstol, it is now considered a lost film. In 1919, the silent animated short Feline Follies was released, marking the debut of Felix the Cat, being the first animated character in the silent film era to win a high level of popularity.
The earliest extant feature-length animated film is The Adve