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Golden Bull of 1222

The Golden Bull of 1222 was a golden bull, or edict, issued by King Andrew II of Hungary. King Andrew II was forced by his nobles to accept the Golden Bull, one of the first examples of constitutional limits being placed on the powers of a European monarch; the Golden Bull was issued at the year 1222 diet of Fehérvár. The law established the rights of the Hungarian nobility, including the right to disobey the King when he acted contrary to law; the nobles and the church were freed from all taxes and could not be forced to go to war outside of Hungary and were not obligated to finance it. This was a important document because it set down the principles of equality for all of the nation's nobility. Seven copies of the edict were created, one for each of the following institutions: to the Pope, to the Knights Templar, to the Knights Hospitaller, to the Hungarian king itself, to the chapters of Esztergom and Kalocsa and to the palatine; the charter's creation was influenced by the emergence of a nobility middle class, unusual in the nation's feudal system.

As a regular gesture of generosity, King Andrew donated property to faithful servants, who thereafter gained new economic and class power. With the nation's class system and economic state changing, King Andrew found himself coerced into decreeing the Golden Bull of 1222 to relax tensions between hereditary nobles and the budding middle class nobility; the Golden Bull is compared to Magna Carta. The Golden Bull that Andrew II of Hungary issued in the spring of 1222 is "one of a number of charters published in thirteenth-century Christendom that sought to constrain the royal power." Peter II of Aragon had in 1205 planned to make concessions to his subjects. Simon de Montfort, supreme commander of the Albigensian Crusade, issued the Statute of Pamiers in 1212, confirming the privileges of the clergymen and limiting the authority of the future rulers of Toulouse and Carcassone; the statute influenced the Magna Carta of John, King of England, which secured the liberties of the Church and regulated feudal relationships in 1215.

The Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, strengthened the authority of the imperial prelates in 1220. Contacts between Hungary and these countries can be demonstrated during this period. Aragonese nobles settled in Hungary in the early 13th century. Hungarian participants of the Fifth Crusade could meet Robert Fitzwalter and other leaders of the movement which had achieved the issue of the Magna Carta. Two Hungarian prelates visited Canterbury in 1220. However, no direct connection between the texts of the Golden Bull and other early 13th-century grants of liberties can be demonstrated. Historian James Clarke Holt says, there is no need to assume that the authors of these documents borrowed from each other, because all these charters embodied the "natural reaction of feudal societies to monarchical importunity"; the existence of at least a dozen distinct social groups can be documented in Hungary in the 12th and 13th centuries. Freemen and serfs were the two fundamental categories, but intermediate "semi-free" groups existed.

Freemen could in theory choose their lords, but they were in practice required to remain loyal to their masters. On the other hand, unfree warriors could hold large estates which were protected against arbitrary actions of royal officials; the highest-ranking royal officials were appointed from among men who regarded themselves the descendants of either the Hungarian chieftains of the period of the establishment of the kingdom or of the foreign warriors who settled in Hungary during the subsequent centuries. They were mentioned as "noblemen" from the end of the 12th century, but they did not form a hereditary elite; the most prominent families started to name themselves after their forefathers in the 1200s, but their genealogies were fabricated. The Gesta Hungarorum, completed around 1200, emphasized that the ancestors of many noblemen played a preeminent role in the Hungarian Conquest of the Carpathian Basin; each freeman was required to serve in the royal army. Those who were unable to perform this duty were obliged to pay taxes in the 12th century.

The majority of the castle warriors were unfree, but freemen could choose to serve the ispáns of the royal castles. They were to defend the royal castles and accompany the monarchs to their military campaigns in exchange for the parcels they held in royal lands around the castles. Free castle warriors could retain their own estates; the highest ranking castle warriors started to refer to themselves as "freemen" or "warriors of the holy kings" to emphasize their privileged status. Thousands of foreigners—Slavs, Germans and Walloons—came to Hungary to populate the sparsely inhabited lands or to work in the centers of royal administration; these "guests" preserved their personal freedom if they settled in the estates of the aristocrats or churchmen. Jews could settle only in the centers of the bishoprics, but they also lived in other towns, they were merchants, engaged in long-distance trade. Muslims who settled in Hungary were employed in the administration of royal revenues, but the presence of Muslim warriors is documented.

Béla III of Hungary, who ruled from 1172 to 1196, was one of the wealthiest European monarchs of his time, according to a summary of his revenues. He earned income from the periodical exchange of coins, royal salt monopoly and customs duties, but significant part of his revenues came from the royal estates, because he owned more than half of landed property in the kingdo

Gene Cretz

Gene Allan Cretz is a career diplomat who retired from the Senior Foreign Service in 2015. Before retiring, he was the U. S. Ambassador to Ghana. Before this, he was the first U. S. Ambassador to Libya after being nominated in July 2007 by President Bush, his nomination was confirmed by the US Senate on November 21, 2008. He was sworn-in as U. S. Ambassador to Libya by Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice on December 17, 2008, at the State Department, he arrived in Libya on December 27, 2008. Cretz speaks several languages, including Arabic, Dari and Chinese. President Barack Obama nominated him for the post to Ghana in April 2012, he was sworn-in as the U. S. Ambassador to Ghana by Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton on September 11, 2012, his retirement ceremony was held at the U. S. State Department on Wednesday, July 1, 2015, he is married to the former Annette Williams and the couple has two adult children and Gabrielle. Gene Cretz served in key diplomatic posts in Israel and Syria. In addition to these postings, he has been stationed in Pakistan, China, in Washington D.

C. Cretz was Christopher Stevens' immediate predecessor as U. S. Ambassador to Libya. Prior to assuming his post in Libya, he was a Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs; as of 2015, Mr. Cretz is one of two representatives for the Director of the Multinational Force & Observers, he is living in Tel Aviv, Israel. Cretz was born in Albany, New York and attended Albany High School, graduating with the class of 1968, he subsequently taught there from 1977 to 1979. He received a bachelor's degree in English Literature from the University of Rochester and a master's degree in Linguistics and Secondary Education from Buffalo State College at Buffalo. Foreign relations of Libya Appearances on C-SPAN

List of Dinosaur Train episodes

This is a list of Dinosaur Train episodes. The second season of Dinosaur Train began airing on August 22, 2011 with a one-hour special, "Dinosaur Big City." Other hour-long specials during season two included "Dinosaurs A to Z," which aired May 14, 2012 and "Dinosaur Train Submarine Adventure," which aired February 18, 2013. PBS Kids ordered a third season of 13 half-hour episodes to premiere in the spring of 2014; the first two episodes aired on January 20, 2014 as a one-hour special titled "Nature Trackers Adventure Camp." The others started to air on August 18, 2014 beginning with the one-hour "Classic in the Jurassic" special. PBS Kids renewed Dinosaur Train for a fourth season of 10 half-hour episodes, which premiered on December 7, 2015; the final two episodes of the fourth season first aired as a one-hour "What's at The Center of The Earth?" special on February 20, 2017. On September 25, 2018, the Jim Henson Company announced the fifth season of Dinosaur Train would consist of 11 half-hour episodes that would air on PBS Kids during the summer of 2019.

It premiered in the United States on PBS Kids on August 26, 2019. Dinosaur Train on IMDb