Golden Fleece

In Greek mythology, the Golden Fleece is the fleece of the golden-woolled, winged ram, held in Colchis. The fleece is a symbol of kingship, it figures in the tale of the hero Jason and his crew of Argonauts, who set out on a quest for the fleece by order of King Pelias, in order to place Jason rightfully on the throne of Iolcus in Thessaly. Through the help of Medea, they acquire the Golden Fleece; the story was current in the time of Homer. It survives among which the details vary. Athamas the Minyan, a founder of Halos in Thessaly but king of the city of Orchomenus in Boeotia, took the goddess Nephele as his first wife, they had the boy Phrixus and the girl Helle. Athamas became enamored of and married Ino, the daughter of Cadmus; when Nephele left in anger, drought came upon the land. Ino plotted their deaths. Nephele, or her spirit, appeared to the children with a winged ram; the ram had been sired by Poseidon in his primitive ram-form upon Theophane, a nymph and the granddaughter of Helios, the sun-god.

According to Hyginus, Poseidon carried Theophane to an island where he made her into a ewe, so that he could have his way with her among the flocks. There Theophane's other suitors could not distinguish his consort. Nepheles' children escaped on the yellow ram over the sea, but Helle fell off and drowned in the strait now named after her, the Hellespont; the ram spoke to Phrixus, encouraging him, took the boy safely to Colchis, on the easternmost shore of the Euxine Sea. There Phrixus sacrificed the winged ram to Poseidon returning him to the god; the ram became the constellation Aries. Phrixus settled in the house of son of Helios the sun god, he hung the Golden Fleece preserved from the sacrifice of the ram on an oak in a grove sacred to Ares, the god of war and one of the Twelve Olympians. The golden fleece was defended by bulls with hoofs of breath of fire, it was guarded by a never sleeping dragon with teeth which could become soldiers when planted in the ground. The dragon was at the foot of the tree.

Pindar employed the quest for the Golden Fleece in his Fourth Pythian Ode, though the fleece is not in the foreground. When Aeetes challenges Jason to yoke the fire-breathing bulls, the fleece is the prize: "Let the King do this, the captain of the ship! Let him do this, I say, have for his own the immortal coverlet, the fleece, glowing with matted skeins of gold". In versions of the story, the ram is said to have been the offspring of the sea god Poseidon and Themisto; the classic telling is the Argonautica of Apollonius of Rhodes, composed in the mid-third century BC Alexandria, recasting early sources that have not survived. Another, much less-known Argonautica, using the same body of myth, was composed in Latin by Valerius Flaccus during the time of Vespasian. Where the written sources fail, through accidents of history, sometimes the continuity of a mythic tradition can be found among the vase-painters; the story of the Golden Fleece appeared to have little resonance for Athenians of the Classic age, for only two representations of it on Attic-painted wares of the fifth century have been identified: a krater at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and a kylix in the Vatican collections.

In the kylix painted by Douris, ca 480-470, Jason is being disgorged from the mouth of the dragon, a detail that does not fit into the literary sources. Jason's helper in the Athenian vase-paintings is not Medea— who had a history in Athens as the opponent of Theseus— but Athena; the early origin of the myth in preliterate times means that during the more than a millennium when it was to some degree part of the fabric of culture, its perceived significance passed through numerous developments. Several euhemeristic attempts to interpret the Golden Fleece "realistically" as reflecting some physical cultural object or alleged historical practice have been made. For example, in the 20th century, some scholars suggested that the story of the Golden Fleece signified the bringing of sheep husbandry to Greece from the east. A more widespread interpretation relates the myth of the fleece to a method of washing gold from streams, well attested in the region of Georgia to the east of the Black Sea. Sheep fleeces, sometimes stretched over a wooden frame, would be submerged in the stream, gold flecks borne down from upstream placer deposits would collect in them.

The fleeces would be hung in trees to dry before the gold was combed out. Alternatively, the fleeces would be used on washing tables in alluvial mining of gold or on washing tables at deep gold mines. Judging by the early gold objects from a range of cultures, washing for gold is a old human activity. Strabo describes the way in which gold could be washed: "It is said that in their country gold is carried down by the mountain torrents, that the barbarians obtain it by means of perforated troughs and fleecy skins, that this is the origin of the myth of the golden fleece—unless they call them Iberians, by the same name as the western Iberians, from the gold mines in both countries." Another interpretation is based on the refe

Henrietta Russell, Duchess of Bedford

Henrietta Russell, Dowager Duchess of Bedford is a landowner and horse breeder, the widow of Robin Russell, 14th Duke of Bedford, with whom she lived, at Woburn Abbey. Until her husband succeeded to the Dukedom in 2002, she was better known as the Marchioness of Tavistock. Henrietta Joan Tiarks was born in London on 5 March 1940, the daughter of Henry Frederick Tiarks III, a merchant banker with Schroders, Ina Florence Marshman Bell, an actress known as Joan Barry, her parents married on 3 October 1936. The Arms of Henrietta Joan Tiarks as a maiden lady can be found at She is a granddaughter of Frank Cyril Tiarks and a relative of Mark Phillips. She married the Marquess of Tavistock, Robin Russell, on 20 June 1961 at St Clement Danes in London, thereby becoming the Marchioness of Tavistock, he succeeded his father, becoming the 14th Duke of Bedford, on 25 October 2002, at which point Henrietta, became Duchess of Bedford. They had three sons: Andrew Ian Henry Russell, 15th Duke of Bedford Lord Robin Loel Hastings Russell Lord James Edward Herbrand Russell Her husband died on 13 June 2003 aged 63 as the result of a stroke.

They had handed over control of Woburn Abbey to their eldest son Andrew Lord Howland, in 2001. The Duke and Duchess appeared in three series of the BBC Two reality television programme Country House, screened from 1999 to 2002 detailing daily life at Woburn Abbey, the Bedfords' ancestral home in Bedfordshire, England, her autobiography, Chance to Live, was published in 1991, she appeared as a "castaway" on the BBC Radio programme Desert Island Discs on 3 May 1992. The 11th Duke of Bedford gifted Himalayan tahr to the New Zealand government in 1903 and 1909. Himalayan tahr are near-threatened in their native India and Nepal, but are so numerous in New Zealand's Southern Alps that they are hunted recreationally. A statue of a Himalayan tahr was unveiled in May 2014 at Lake Pukaki and dedicated by the Dowager Duchess of Bedford. 5 March 1940 – 20 June 1961: Miss Henrietta Joan Tiarks 20 June 1961 – 25 October 2002: Marchioness of Tavistock 25 October 2002 – 13 June 2003: Her Grace The Duchess of Bedford 12 June 2003 – present: Her Grace The Dowager Duchess of Bedford ——.

Chance to Live. Headline. ISBN 978-0747203537

Grand Traverse Light

Grand Traverse Light is a lighthouse in the U. S. state of Michigan, located at the tip of the Leelanau Peninsula, which separates Lake Michigan and Grand Traverse Bay. It marks the Manitou passage. In 1858, the present light was built, replacing a separate round tower built in 1852; the lighthouse is located inside Leelanau State Park, 8 miles north of Northport, a town of about 650 people. This area, in the Michigan wine country, is visited by tourists during the summer months; some call this "Cat's Head Point Light." It is locally called Northport Light, in honor of the nearby town of Northport. The first version of this light, which no longer exists, was ordered built by President Millard Fillmore in July 1850. A brick tower with separate keeper's quarters was constructed at a site east of the present Lighthouse in the state park campground; this first house and tower were deemed inadequate and razed in 1858 when the present structure was built. Still visible is a portion of the lighthouse foundation and the original tower site was located in 1999.

The 1858 light is listed in the National Register of Historic Places, Reference #84001799, Name of Listing: GRAND TRAVERSE LIGHT. It is on the State List/Inventory having been listed in 1991. Alpena, Michigan's Fourth Order Fresnel Lens is on display in the lighthouse keeper's house; the complex is listed as Michigan Registered Site S0615, a state historical marker was erected in 1993. Today, one can tour the restored lighthouse resembling a keeper's home of the 1930s. Exhibits on area lighthouses, foghorns and local history are located in the Lighthouse and Fog Signal Building; the restored air diaphone foghorn is demonstrated throughout the year, visitors can climb the tower for views of Lake Michigan. An admission fee is charged. Detroit News, Interactive map on Michigan lighthouses. Grand Traverse Lighthouse official site Rowlett, Russ. "Lighthouses of the United States: Michigan's Western Lower Peninsula". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Michigan Lighthouse Conservancy, Grand Traverse Light.

National Park Service Maritime Heritage, Inventory of Historic Light Stations Grand Traverse Light. Terry Pepper, Grand Traverse lighthouse at Seeing the Light. "Historic Light Station Information and Photography: Michigan". United States Coast Guard Historian's Office. Archived from the original on 2017-05-01