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Golden Horde

The Golden Horde, Ulug Ulus was a Mongol and Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate, it is known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi. After the death of Batu Khan in 1255, his dynasty flourished for a full century, until 1359, though the intrigues of Nogai instigated a partial civil war in the late 1290s; the Horde's military power peaked during the reign of Uzbeg Khan. The territory of the Golden Horde at its peak included most of Eastern Europe from the Urals to the Danube River, extended east deep into Siberia. In the south, the Golden Horde's lands bordered on the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, the territories of the Mongol dynasty known as the Ilkhanate; the khanate experienced violent internal political disorder beginning in 1359, before it reunited under Tokhtamysh. However, soon after the 1396 invasion of Timur, the founder of the Timurid Empire, the Golden Horde broke into smaller Tatar khanates which declined in power.

At the start of the 15th century, the Horde began to fall apart. By 1466, it was being referred to as the "Great Horde". Within its territories there emerged numerous predominantly Turkic-speaking khanates; these internal struggles allowed the northern vassal state of Muscovy to rid itself of the "Tatar Yoke" at the Great Stand on the Ugra River in 1480. The Crimean Khanate and the Kazakh Khanate, the last remnants of the Golden Horde, survived until 1783 and 1847 respectively; the name Golden Horde, a partial calque of Russian Золотая Орда, itself a partial calque of Turkic Altan Orda, is said to have been inspired by the golden color of the tents the Mongols lived in during wartime, or an actual golden tent used by Batu Khan or by Uzbek Khan, or to have been bestowed by the Slavic tributaries to describe the great wealth of the khan. The Turkic word orda means "palace", "camp" or "headquarters", in this case the headquarters of the khan, being the capital of the khanate, metonymically extended to the khanate itself.

It was not until the 16th century that Russian chroniclers begin explicitly using the term "Golden Horde" to refer to this particular successor khanate of the Mongol Empire. The first known use of the term, in 1565, in the Russian chronicle History of Kazan, applied it to the Ulus of Batu, centered on Sarai. In contemporary Persian and Muslim writings, in the records of the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries such as the Yuanshi and the Jami' al-tawarikh, the khanate was called the "Ulus of Jochi", "Dasht-i-Qifchaq" or "Khanate of the Qipchaq" and "Comania"; the eastern or left wing was referred to as the Blue Horde in Russian chronicles and as the White Horde in Timurid sources. Western scholars have tended to follow the Timurid sources' nomenclature and call the left wing the White Horde, but Ötemish Hajji, a historian of Khwarezm, called the left wing the Blue Horde, since he was familiar with the oral traditions of the khanate empire, it seems that the Russian chroniclers were correct, that the khanate itself called its left wing the Blue Horde.

The khanate used the term White Horde to refer to its right wing, situated in Batu's home base in Sarai and controlled the ulus. However, the designations Golden Horde, Blue Horde, White Horde have not been encountered in the sources of the Mongol period. At his death in 1227, Genghis Khan divided the Mongol Empire amongst his four sons as appanages, but the Empire remained united under the supreme khan. Jochi was the eldest; the westernmost lands occupied by the Mongols, which included what is today southern Russia and Kazakhstan, were given to Jochi's eldest sons, Batu Khan, who became ruler of the Blue Horde, Orda Khan, who became the leader of the White Horde. In 1235, Batu with the great general Subutai began an invasion westwards, first conquering the Bashkirs and moving on to Volga Bulgaria in 1236. From there he conquered some of the southern steppes of present-day Ukraine in 1237, forcing many of the local Cumans to retreat westward; the Mongol campaign against the Kypchaks and Cumans had started under Jochi and Subutai in 1216–1218 when the Merkits took shelter among them.

By 1239 a large portion of Cumans were driven out of the Crimean peninsula, it became one of the appanages of the Mongol Empire. The remnants of the Crimean Cumans survived in the Crimean mountains, they would, in time, mix with other groups in the Crimea to form the Crimean Tatar population. Moving north, Batu began the Mongol invasion of Rus' and spent three years subjugating the principalities of former Kievan Rus', whilst his cousins Möngke, Güyük moved southwards into Alania. Using the migration of the Cumans as their casus belli, the Mongols continued west, raiding Poland and Hungary, which culminated in Mongol victories at the battles of Legnica and Mohi. In 1241, however, Ögedei Khan died in the Mongolian homeland. Batu turned back from his siege of Vienna but did not return to Mongolia, rather opting to stay at the Volga River, his brother Orda returned to take part in the succession. The Mongol armies would never again travel so far west. In 1242, after retreating thro

Yamagata Corporation

Yamagata Printing Co. Ltd was founded in 1906 by Heiji Yamagata in Japan. Although in 2005 the company merged with several of its group holdings to become Yamagata Corporation. With facilities across Asia and the US. Founded in 1906 to offer printing services to local companies in Yokohama, Japan. Yamagata Printing was the first commercial printing company in Japan to provide English typesetting. Most of the work in the early days were focused on printing forms and stationery items but in the mid-1950s Yamagata expanded its services to include technical translations. In 1935, Yamagata in collaboration with Fujiya Hotel published We Japanese, a book about Japanese customs for English-Speakers unfamiliar with Japanese culture; the book became an instant hit with several editions released until 1950, which helped the company recover from the damages caused by the air raids on Japan during the war. Fujiya Hotel Yamagata Corporation's Official Website Global Speed--Full-Service Provider of Print Management and Translation Solutions Yamagata Intech

Rati

Rati is the Hindu goddess of love, carnal desire, lust and sexual pleasure. Described as the daughter of Prajapati Daksha, Rati is the female counterpart, the chief consort and the assistant of Kama, the god of love. A constant companion of Kama, she is depicted with him in legend and temple sculpture, she enjoys worship along with Kama. Rati is associated with the arousal and delight of sexual activity, many sex techniques and positions derive their Sanskrit names from hers; the Hindu scriptures stress Rati's sensuality. They depict her as a maiden; when the god Shiva burnt her husband to ashes, it was Rati, whose beseeching or penance, leads to the promise of Kama's resurrection. This resurrection occurs when Kama is reborn as Pradyumna, the son of Krishna. Rati – under the name of Mayavati – plays a critical role in the upbringing of Pradyumna, separated from his parents at birth, she acts as his nanny, as well as his lover, tells him the way to return to his parents by slaying the demon-king, destined to die at his hands.

Kama-Pradyumna accepts Rati-Mayavati as his wife. The name of the goddess Rati comes from the Sanskrit root ram, meaning "enjoy" or "delight in." Although the verb root refers to any sort of enjoyment, it carries connotations of physical and sensual enjoyment. Etymologically, the word rati refers to anything; the Kalika Purana narrates the following tale about Rati's birth. After the creation of the 10 Prajapatis, Brahma – the creator-god – creates Kama, the god of love, from his mind. Kama is ordered to spread love in the world by shooting his flower-arrows and Prajapati Daksha is requested to present a wife to Kama. Kama first uses his arrows against Brahma and the Prajapatis, who are all incestuously attracted to Brahma's daughter Sandhya. Shiva, passing by, watches them and laughs. Embarrassed and the Prajapatis tremble and perspire. From the sweat of Daksha rises a beautiful woman named Rati, who Daksha presents to Kama as his wife. At the same time, the agitated Brahma curses Kama to be burnt to ashes by Shiva in the future.

However, on Kama's pleading, Brahma assures him. The Brahma Vaivarta Purana narrates. God Vishnu resurrects her and names her Rati, marries her to Kama; the Shiva Purana mentions that after her suicide, Sandhya is reborn from the sweat of Daksha as Rati. In some texts, the god Shiva is described as the father of Rati; the Harivamsa, an appendix to the epic Mahabharata, mentions that Kama and Rati have two children and Yashas. However, the Vishnu Purana mentions; the epics Mahabharata as well as the Ramayana attest to Rati being the consort of Kama. The demon Tarakasura had created havoc in the universe, only the son of god Shiva could slay him, but Shiva had turned to ascetic ways after the death of his first wife, Sati. Kama was thus instructed by the gods to make Shiva fall in love again. Kama went to Mount Kailash with Rati and Madhu or Vasanta, shot his love-arrows at Shiva and invoked desire. Wounded by Kama's arrows, Shiva becomes attracted to Parvati, the reincarnation of Sati, but agitated, burns Kama by a glance of his third eye.

The Bhagavata Purana narrates further that the grief-stricken Rati goes mad by Kama's death and in the Matsya Purana and the Padma Purana versions, she smears herself with her husband's ashes. Further in Bhagavata Purana, Rati undergoes severe penance and pleads with Parvati to intercede with Shiva to restore her husband. Parvati reassures her that Kama would be reborn as Pradyumna, the son of Krishna, the Avatar of the god Vishnu on earth, Rati should wait for him in the demon Sambara's house. In other versions of the narrative like the Matsya Purana, the Padma Purana, the Shiva Purana, the Linga Purana and the Kathasaritsagara, it is Shiva who blesses Rati with the boon of Kama's resurrection. In other variants, she curses the gods who sent Kama for this doomed mission and the gods, as a group or Brahma, seeks relief for the grieving Rati from Shiva or the Supreme Goddess, Parvati being one of her many manifestations. In some legends, like the one in the Brahmanda Purana, the Goddess revives Kama hearing the pleading of the wailing Rati and the gods.

The renowned Sanskrit poet Kalidasa dedicates canto IV discussing the plight of Rati in his Kumarasambhava, which focuses on the story of the wedding of Shiva and Parvati and the birth of their son Skanda, who kills Tarakasura. Canto IV narrates that Rati witnesses the death of her husband and laments his death, tries to immolate herself on a funeral pyre. A heavenly voice stops her on time, stating that after the marriage of Shiva, he will revive her husband; the Kedara Khanda chapter of the Skanda Purana presents a different version. In this version, after the burning of Kama, Parvati is worried that she could not achieve Shiva in absence of Kama. Parvati is consoled by Rati, who asserts that she will revive Kama and starts severe austerities to achieve her goal. Once, the divine sage Narada asks her "whose she was". Agitated, Rati insults Narada; the spiteful Narada provokes the demon Sambara to kidnap Rati. Sambara takes her to his house, but is unable to touch her as the goddess decreed that he would be reduced to ashes if he touches her.

There, Rati is known as Mayavati. The Bhagavata Purana and the Kathasarit