Golden Horseshoe

The Golden Horseshoe is a secondary region of Southern Ontario, which lies at the western end of Lake Ontario, with outer boundaries stretching south to Lake Erie and north to Lake Scugog and Lake Simcoe. It includes the Greater Toronto Area; the region is the most densely industrialized in Canada. With a population of 7,826,367 people in its core and 9,245,438 in its greater area, the Golden Horseshoe accounts for over 21 per cent of the population of Canada and more than 55 per cent of Ontario's population, it is part of the Quebec City -- the Great Lakes Megalopolis. The core of the Golden Horseshoe starts from Niagara Falls at the eastern end of the Niagara Peninsula and extends west, wrapping around the western end of Lake Ontario at Hamilton and turning northeast to Toronto, before terminating at Oshawa; the term Greater Golden Horseshoe is used to describe a broader region that stretches inland from the core to the area of the Trent–Severn Waterway, such as Peterborough, in the northeast, to Barrie and Lake Simcoe in the north, to the Grand River area, including centres such as Brantford, Waterloo Region, Guelph to the west.

The extended region's area covers 33,500 km2, out of this, 7,300 km2 or 22 per cent of the area is covered by the environmentally protected Greenbelt. The Greater Golden Horseshoe forms the neck of the Ontario Peninsula; the horseshoe part of the region's name is derived from the characteristic horseshoe shape of the west end of Lake Ontario with Cootes Paradise between Burlington and Hamilton positioned in the centre. The golden part is attributed to the region's wealth and prosperity, according to the Canadian Oxford Dictionary; the phrase Golden Horseshoe was first used by Westinghouse Electric Corporation president Herbert H. Rogge in a speech to the Hamilton Chamber of Commerce on January 12, 1954: Hamilton in 50 years will be the forward cleat in a "golden horseshoe" of industrial development from Oshawa to the Niagara River... 150 miles long and 50 miles wide... It will run from Niagara Falls on the south to about Oshawa on the north and take in numerous cities and towns there, including Hamilton and Toronto.

The speech writer who penned the phrase was Charles Hunter MacBain, executive assistant to five Westinghouse presidents including Rogge. The Golden Horseshoe has been recognised as a geographic region since the 1950s, but it was only on July 13, 2004, that a report from the provincial Ministry of Public Infrastructure Renewal entitled Places to Grow coined the term Greater Golden Horseshoe, extending the boundaries west to Waterloo Region, north to Barrie/Simcoe County, northeast to the county and city of Peterborough. A subsequent edition released February 16, 2005, broadened the term further, adding Brant and Northumberland Counties to the now quasi-administrative region; the Greater Golden Horseshoe region is designated in Ontario Regulation 416/05 under the Places to Grow Act. The designation Greater Golden Horseshoe has legal significance with respect to taxation: in April 2017, the Government of Ontario announced plans to impose a 15 per cent Non-Resident Speculation Tax on non-Canadian citizens, non-permanent residents and non-Canadian corporations buying residential properties containing one to six units in the Greater Golden Horseshoe.

The provincial transit authority Metrolinx makes use of the term Greater Golden Horseshoe. The Metrolinx definition is consistent with the original 2004 Places to Grow definition. However, the city and county of Peterborough is not included; the population of the Golden Horseshoe was 7.82 million residents at the 2016 census. The region is projected to grow to 11.5 million people by 2031. The economy of this region is diverse; the Toronto Stock Exchange is the third largest in North America by market capitalization, seventh largest in the world. Cities including Hamilton, Oakville and Kitchener all contain major large-scale industrial production facilities, Hamilton being dominated by the steel industry and Oakville and Oshawa in the automotive industry. Other significant automotive-production facilities exist in Brampton, St. Catharines. While manufacturing remains important to the economy of the region, the manufacturing sector has experienced a significant decline since 2000 as a result of unfavourable currency exchange rates, increasing energy costs, reduced demand from the United States, by far the largest market for Ontario's goods.

The Port of Hamilton and the Port of Toronto are the two largest seaports on Lake Ontario. The Welland Canal system handles recreational traffic through the Great Lakes. Large rail and truck distribution facilities are located in Toronto and Brampton. Food processing is a key ingredient in the economy. Niagara Falls has one of the world's largest per-capita tourist economies, benefiting from millions of tourists coming to see its majestic waterfalls, shop in its numerous stores, visit its many attractions; the winemaking and fruit growing industries of the Niagara Peninsula produce award-winning wines, which are beginning to attract attention around the world, in particular the ice wine for which the region is known. As of 2014, sectors such as information technology, health care, tourism and finance provide the bulk of growth in the Golden Horseshoe; the suburban cities within Greater Toronto, such as Brampton and Mississauga, are emerging as hubs for technology and

Jamie Campbell Bower

James Metcalfe Campbell Bower is an English actor and model. He is best known for his roles as Anthony Hope in Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street, Caius in The Twilight Saga, the young Gellert Grindelwald in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1 and Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald, Jace Wayland in The Mortal Instruments: City of Bones and playwright Kit Marlowe in the short-lived series Will. Bower is the lead vocalist and founding member of Counterfeit, a band formed in 2015 in London. Bower was born in London, his mother, Anne Elizabeth, is a music manager, his father, David Bower, works for the Gibson Guitar Corporation. His maternal great-great-great-great-grandfather was Sir John Campbell, of Airds, Lieutenant Governor of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, he attended Bedales School, a co-educational independent school in Hampshire, is a former member of the National Youth Music Theatre and the National Youth Theatre. Bower began his professional career when his friend Laura Michelle Kelly, recommended him to her agent.

He was a part-time model with Select Model Management in London. He played Jack in Winter in Wartime, he starred in the 2009 remake of the series The Prisoner as Number 11–12. In 2009, he played the vampire Caius Volturi in the film The Twilight Saga: New Moon and both Twilight: Breaking Dawn films, he appeared as the younger Gellert Grindelwald, the dark wizard defeated by Albus Dumbledore, in the 2010 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1. He played King Arthur in the 2011 television series Camelot. In 2010, he starred in the music video for "Young" by The Xcerts. In 2012, Bower appeared in the music video for "Never Let Me Go" by Florence + The Machine, he played Jace Wayland in The Mortal Instruments: City of Bones, the film adaption of The Mortal Instruments series, by Cassandra Clare. In December 2013, he joined the cast of Burberry's Campaign Stars for spring/summer 2014. In June 2015, Bower began playing the role of Joe, in the new West End musical Bend It Like Beckham, he is the frontman for the band Counterfeit, which released its first album in March 2017 and had a US Tour in 2017.

In July 2017, he was on Will. As of January 2019, Bower announced. In February 2010, Bower was confirmed to be dating actress Bonnie Wright whom he had met on the set of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1. In April 2011, they confirmed their engagement. On 30 June 2012, they amicably ended their engagement. Jamie Campbell Bower on IMDb


Avelar is a civil parish of the municipality of Ansião, Portugal. It was a vila during two occasions: for the first time from November 12, 1514 through December 31, 1836; the name avelar is said to come from avellanal, related to hazels. The name was appended to the town as a result of the Jewish expulsions from Spain and the subsequent resettlement of Jews in Portugal. An old Roman pathway connecting Conímbriga to Sellium passed through the location of modern day Avelar; the first known reference to Avelar is from the year 1137, when Afonso Henriques cites an "Avellaal" on the foral granted to Penela. In November 1221, King Afonso II, the grandson of Afonso I, gave the Avelar estate to Martim Anes, his alferes-mor. In November 1497, King Manuel I names Fernão de Pina, Rui Boto and João Façanha as officials of the Forals of the Court, with the intention of starting a reform of the old forals. Seventeen years on November 12, 1514, Avelar was granted its foral declaring it a town. Came the Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 and, with it, the Iberian Union.

The union ended with the Portuguese Restoration War, but the Marquesses of Vila Real owners of the Avelar estate, supported the right of the Spanish Kings to the Portuguese throne. Because of this, King John IV of Portugal accused them of treason, had their properties and riches confiscated, including the Avelar estate; those confiscated goods were passed on to the House of the Infantado, created by King John IV himself as an appanage for the second eldest son of the Portuguese monarch. On December 31, 1836, due to a royal decree, Avelar loses its title of vila and becomes part of the concelho of Chão de Couce until 1855, it becomes part of the concelho of Figueiró dos Vinhos. In 1895, it becomes part of the concelho of Ansião, of which it remains to this day; this timeline, however, is disputed: other sources list Avelar as being a part of Figueiró dos Vinhos in as early as 1832. On June 21, 1995, Avelar regains its position as a vila. Since 2018, the town celebrates the anniversary of this event every year during the "Vila of Avelar Week".

As of February 2020, the president of the executive body of Avelar is Fernando Inácio Pires Medeiros. As of February 2020, president of Avelar's legislature is Dina Maria Caseiro Henriques Rosa, of the Social Democratic Party. Avella, a town in southern Italy