The Scottish people or Scots, are a nation and Celtic ethnic group native to Scotland. They emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland in the 9th century; the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland; the Latin word Scoti referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has been used for Scottish people outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as'Scotch', he states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century.
People of Scottish descent live in many countries. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history; the Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France and the Low Countries to Scotland.
Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living there are British citizens; the highest concentrations of people of Scottish descent in the world outside of Scotland are located in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island in Canada and Southland in New Zealand, the Falklands Islands, Northern Ireland in the United Kingdom. In the Early Middle Ages, Scotland saw several ethnic or cultural groups mentioned in contemporary sources, namely the Picts, the Gaels, the Britons, the Angles, with the latter settling in the southeast of the country. Culturally, these peoples are grouped according to language. Most of Scotland until the 13th century spoke Celtic languages and these included, at least the Britons, as well as the Gaels and the Picts. Germanic peoples included the Angles of Northumbria, who settled in south-eastern Scotland in the region between the Firth of Forth to the north and the River Tweed to the south.
They occupied the south-west of Scotland up to and including the Plain of Kyle and their language, Old English, was the earliest form of the language which became known as Scots. Use of the Gaelic language spread throughout nearly the whole of Scotland by the 9th century, reaching a peak in the 11th to 13th centuries, but was never the language of the south-east of the country. King Edgar divided the Kingdom of Northumbria between England. South-east of the Firth of Forth in Lothian and the Borders, a northern variety of Old English known as Early Scots, was spoken; as a result of David I, King of Scots' return from exile in England in 1113 to assume the throne in 1124 with the help of Norman military force, David invited Norman families from France and England to settle in lands he granted them to spread a ruling class loyal to him. This Davidian Revolution, as many historians call it, brought a European style of feudalism to Scotland along with an influx of people of Norman descent - by invitation, unlike England where it was by conquest.
To this day, many of the common family names of Scotland can trace ancestry to Normans from this period, such as the Stewarts, the Bruces, the Hamiltons, the Wallaces, the Melvilles, some Browns and many others. The Northern Isles and some parts of Caithness were Norn-speaking. From 1200 to 1500 the Early Scots language spread across the lowland parts of Scotland between Galloway and the Highland line, being used by Barbour in his historical epic The Brus in the late 14th century in Aberdeen. From 1500 on, Scotland was divided by language into two groups of people, Gaelic-speaking "Highlanders" and the Inglis-speaking "Lowlanders". Today, immigrants have brought other languages, but every adult throughout Scotland is fluent in the English language. Today, Scotland has a population of just over five million people, the majority of whom co
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Toronto City Council
The Toronto City Council is the governing body of the City of Toronto in Ontario, Canada. Members represent wards throughout the city, are known as councillors; the passage of provincial legislation in the summer of 2018 established that the number of wards be reduced from 44 to 25 and that they be based upon the city's federal electoral districts as of the year 2000. While the federal districts have been redistributed since the ward boundaries remain the same; the city council had at its peak 45 members: 44 ward councillors plus the mayor. On September 19, 2018 an Ontario Court of appeals granted a stay order of a previous court decision that would have prevented this reduction, thus re-establishing the move to 25 wards; the actual court appeal of Bill 5 has yet to be scheduled, but was heard subsequent to the municipal election on October 22, 2018. The current decision-making framework and committee structure at the City of Toronto was established by the City of Toronto Act and came into force January 1, 2007.
The decision-making process at the City of Toronto involves committees. Committees propose and debate policies and recommendations before their arrival at City Council for debate. Citizens and residents can only make deputations on policy at committees, citizens cannot make public presentations to City Council; each City Councillor sits on one committee. The Mayor is entitled to one vote. There are three types of committees at the City of Toronto: the Executive Committee, Standing Committees and other Committees of Council; the City posts agendas for council and committee meetings on its website. The Executive Committee is an advisory body; the Executive Committee is composed of the Mayor, Deputy Mayor, the chairs of the seven standing committees who are appointed by the Mayor and four "at-large" members appointed by City Council. The role of the Executive Committee is to set the City of Toronto's priorities, manage financial planning and budgeting, labour relations, human resources, the operation of City Council.
The Executive Committee makes recommendations to city council on: strategic policy and priorities governance policy and structure financial planning and budgeting fiscal policy intergovernmental and international relations Council operations Human resources and labour relationsSeveral committees report to the Executive Committee: Budget Committee, Affordable Housing Committee, Employee and Labour Relations Committee. Source: City of Toronto Following the sudden decision by the Provincial government to reduce the size of City Council in summer 2018, the committee structure is under review. There were eleven other committees; the seven standing policy committees were: There are four other committees that report to Council: Source: City of Toronto All members of Toronto city council serve on a community council. Community Councils report to City Council but they have final decision-making power on certain items, such as front yard parking and appointments to local boards and Business Improvement Areas.
The city is divided into four community councils. Their meeting locations are as follows: Etobicoke York – Etobicoke Civic Centre North York – North York Civic Centre Scarborough – Scarborough Civic Centre Toronto and East York – Toronto City Hall The current council term began on December 1, 2018. In 2014, the Mayor's salary was $177,499 and Councillors was $105,397. Starting January 1, 2017, the Mayor's salary was increased to $188,544 and Councillors to $111,955, a 2.1 per cent change. The Office of the Mayor is located on the second floor at Toronto City Hall; the general public and media can access it via stairs. The current staff of the office consists of: Chief of Staff - Luke Robertson Deputy Chief of Staff - Courtney Glen Principal Secretary - Vince Gasparro Executive Assistant to the Mayor - Dee Dee Heywood Executive Assistant to the Chief - Karen Cooper Executive Director of Communications & Strategic Issues Management - Don Peat Executive Director of Budget & Finance - Sophia Arvanitis Director, Legislative Affairs - Edward Birnbaum Senior Advisor, Legislative Affairs - Daniela Magisano Senior Advisor, Legislative Affairs - Matt Buckman Senior Advisor, Tour - Emily Hillstrom Advisor, Constituency Affairs - Farnaz Patel Advisor, Communications - Avi Yufest Advisor, Communications & Tour - Louise Brunet Special Assistant, Outreach - Kema Joseph Special Assistant, Constituency Affairs & Tour - Abinaya Chandrabalan Special Assistant, Constituency Affairs & Outreach - Cindy Lee Special Assistant, Communications & Tour - Gabe Ciufo Assistant, Constituent Affairs - Steevan Sritharan Current members of the Committee: Paul Ainslie Ana Bailão Gary Crawford Denzil Minnan-Wong Frances Nunziata James Pasternak Michael Thompson John Tory The committee existed in the old City of Toronto beginning in 1969.
Before that Toronto had a Board of Control, as did former cities North Etobicoke. Vacancies in a council seat may be filled in one of two ways, either by the holding of a by-election or through direct appointment of an interim councillor chosen by the council in an internal vote; the council is allowed to decide which process to follow in each individual case. The process results in public debate, however; the by-election process is seen as more democratic, while the appointment process is seen as less expensive for the city t
Golden Mile (Brentford)
The Golden Mile is the name given to a stretch of the Great West Road north of Brentford running west from the western boundary of Chiswick in London, United Kingdom. It was so called due to the concentration of industry along this short stretch of road; this section of the Great West Road was opened in 1925 in order to bypass the notoriously congested Brentford High Street and several factories of architectural merit were built along the road to take advantage of both the good communications it provided, the easy availability of land for new buildings. Many examples of the Art Deco architecture remain. However, no commercial buildings could be built further west along the Great West Road after Syon Lane as the land was owned by the Church Commissioners. Syon Lane railway station was built for the workers at these various factories. Land for the Great West Road was compulsorily purchased, it seems that housing was dictated by the 1923 Housing Acts which gave house builders incentives to build houses.
These factories included: Smith's Potato Crisps Ltd opened in 1927. Factory expanded in 1930 with colonnaded frontage; the Firestone Tyre Company. Built 1928, designed by Wallis and Partners, it was the first overseas factory built by the Firestone company of America. The building frontage was demolished during a public holiday in August 1980 shortly before a preservation order was due to be served on it to retain the Art Deco architecture; the Art Deco gatehouse was demolished in 2004 to make way for increased parking facilities. The remaining gates and piers are in a Jazz Modern style and are Grade II listed; the Trico Products Windscreen Wiper factory, No. 980, opened in 1928. The Trico business relocated to Pontypool, South Wales in 1992 and the building was demolished; the site, together with the adjacent site, Maclean's toothpaste factory to its east, was to be used for the UK headquarters of Samsung. The 1997 Asian financial crisis prevented this, the site now houses the headquarters building of GlaxoSmithKline known as "GSK".
Leonard Williams Ltd.. No. 971, in 1929 Jantzen Knitting Mills Factory, opened in 1931 Sperry Gyroscope Company Limited Factory, opened in 1931 Coty Cosmetics Factory, No. 941, designed by Wallis and Partners opened in 1932. The building now operates as BMI Syon Clinic; the Macleans Factory opened in 1932. Macleans was founded in 1919 by Alex C Maclean to produce'own-brand' products for chemists. "Did you Maclean your teeth today?" The Gillette Factory, designed by Sir Banister Flight Fletcher in 1936–1937. Gillette stopped moving production to Poland; the building is as of 2013 undergoing conversion into a mixed use complex with a hotel and residential apartments. The Pyrene Fire Extinguisher Company, No. 981, built between 1929 and 1930, designed by Gilbert & Partners. Wallis House, built between 1936 and 1942 for Simmonds Aerocessories, designed by Wallis and Partners. Named after the architect, Thomas Wallis. Latterly used by Beecham Pharmaceuticals as Beecham House. Assael Architecture was commissioned by the Barratt Group to convert and restore the Listed building and redevelopment took place between 2005–2008 into apartments, retaining the basic fascia, although with a new glass entrance enclosure, reglazed windows replacing the Crittall originals.
The Currys Factory and head office, No. 991, built in 1936, now Grade II listed, front office building now restored by Foster & Partners between 1997 and 2000 for JCDecaux Henly's Car Showroom with a distinctive tower – on the east side of the Smith's Crisps factory – opened in 1937 and became a warehouse for Martini, following redevelopment after a fire in 1989 retaining the tower, an office for Data General EMC Corporation Harvey's Wines, who had their own railway line to deliver goods from Bristol. MacFarlane Biscuit Factory, behind the Gillette building (Demolished in the 1980s and now a Tesco Supermarket and the HQ of Sky; this stretch of road included an illuminated, advertising sign known to many drivers coming into London on the M4 motorway. The sign, showing a bottle of Lucozade emptying into a glass, was on the wall of what was the Lucozade factory, which opened in 1953 and was demolished in late 2004; the sign was removed to Gunnersbury Park Museum in September 2004 after a brief campaign to preserve it in situ.
A replica was subsequently installed controversially removed at the end of 2015 and replaced with a digital billboard. Another memorable animated signage was of a female diver advertising Jantzen swimwear. One of the most beautiful single-storey deco buildings belonged to the Firestone Tyre Factory – painted in white –, controversially demolished one Sunday just a day before a preservation order was to be placed on it. Only the white railings at the front remain, it is now the site of the West Cross Business Centre. Syon Lane railway station The Archive Photographs Series, Tempus Publishing Ltd, ISBN 0-7524-0627-2
The Globe and Mail
The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada. With a weekly readership of 2,018,923 in 2015, it is Canada's most read newspaper on weekdays and Saturdays, although it falls behind the Toronto Star in overall weekly circulation because the Star publishes a Sunday edition while the Globe does not; the Globe and Mail is regarded by some as Canada's "newspaper of record". The newspaper is owned based in Toronto; the predecessor to The Globe and Mail was called The Globe. Brown's liberal politics led him to court the support of the Clear Grits, precursor to the modern Liberal Party of Canada; the Globe began in Toronto as a weekly party organ for Brown's Reform Party, but seeing the economic gains that he could make in the newspaper business, Brown soon targeted a wide audience of liberal minded freeholders. He selected as the motto for the editorial page a quotation from Junius, "The subject, loyal to the Chief Magistrate will neither advise nor submit to arbitrary measures."
The quotation is carried on the editorial page to this day. By the 1850s, The Globe had become an well-regarded daily newspaper, it began distribution by railway to other cities in Ontario shortly after Confederation. At the dawn of the twentieth century, The Globe added photography, a women's section, the slogan "Canada's National Newspaper", which remains on its front-page banner, it began opening bureaus and offering subscriptions across Canada. On 23 November 1936, The Globe merged with The Mail and Empire, itself formed through the 1895 merger of two conservative newspapers, The Toronto Mail and Toronto Empire. Press reports at the time stated, "the minnow swallowed the whale" because The Globe's circulation was smaller than The Mail and Empire's; the merger was arranged by George McCullagh, who fronted for mining magnate William Henry Wright and became the first publisher of The Globe and Mail. McCullagh committed suicide in 1952, the newspaper was sold to the Webster family of Montreal.
As the paper lost ground to The Toronto Star in the local Toronto market, it began to expand its national circulation. The newspaper was unionised under the banner of the American Newspaper Guild. From 1937 until 1974, the newspaper was produced at the William H. Wright Building, located at 140 King Street West on the northeast corner of King Street and York Street, close to the homes of the Toronto Daily Star at Old Toronto Star Building at 80 King West and the Old Toronto Telegram Building at Bay and Melinda; the building at 130 King Street West was demolished in 1974 to make way for First Canadian Place, the newspaper moved to 444 Front Street West, the headquarters of the Toronto Telegram newspaper, built in 1963. In 1965, the paper was bought by Winnipeg-based FP Publications, controlled by Bryan Maheswary, which owned a chain of local Canadian newspapers. FP put a strong emphasis on the Report on Business section, launched in 1962, thereby building the paper's reputation as the voice of Toronto's business community.
FP Publications and The Globe and Mail were sold in 1980 to The Thomson Corporation, a company run by the family of Kenneth Thomson. After the acquisition there were few changes made in news policy. However, there was more attention paid to national and international news on the editorial, op-ed, front pages in contrast to its previous policy of stressing Toronto and Ontario material; the Globe and Mail has always been a morning newspaper. Since the 1980s, it has been printed in separate editions in six Canadian cities: Montreal, Winnipeg and Vancouver. Southern Ontario Newspaper Guild employees took their first strike vote at The Globe in 1982 marking a new era in relations with the company; those negotiations ended without a strike, the Globe unit of SONG still has a strike-free record. SONG members voted in 1994 to sever ties with the American-focused Newspaper Guild. Shortly afterwards, SONG affiliated with the Communications and Paperworkers Union of Canada. Under the editorship of William Thorsell in the 1980s and 1990s, the paper endorsed the free trade policies of Progressive Conservative Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
The paper became an outspoken proponent of the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown Accord, with their editorial the day of the 1995 Quebec Referendum quoting a Mulroney speech in favour of the Accord. During this period, the paper continued to favour such liberal policies as decriminalizing drugs and expanding gay rights. In 1995, the paper launched globeandmail.com. Since the launch of the National Post as another English-language national paper in 1998, some industry analysts had proclaimed a "national newspaper war" between The Globe and Mail and the National Post; as a response to this threat, in 2001, The Globe and Mail was combined with broadcast assets held by Bell Canada to form the joint venture Bell Globemedia. In 2004, access to some features of globeandmail.com became restricted to paid subscribers only. The subscription service was reduced a few years to include an electronic edition of the newspaper, access to its archives, membership to a premium investment site
Toronto Public Library
Toronto Public Library is a public library system in Toronto, Ontario. It is the largest public library system in Canada and in 2008, had averaged a higher circulation per capita than any other public library system internationally, making it the largest neighbourhood-based library system in the world. Within North America, it had the highest circulation and visitors when compared to other large urban systems. Established as the library of the Mechanics' Institute in 1830, the Toronto Public Library now consists of 100 branch libraries and has over 12 million items in its collection; the first subscription library service to open in the city was at Elmsley House. During the Burning of York in April 1813, several American officers under Commodore Issac Chauncey's command looted books from the library. Discovering his officers were in possession of the stolen books after they returned to Sackets Harbor, Chauncey ordered the looted books returned to York; the stolen books were returned in two crates, although by the time the time they arrived, the library had closed.
The books were auctioned off in 1822. In 1830, a library was established in the York Mechanics' Institute. In 1882, the provincial legislature passed a free libraries act. In 1884, the Mechanic's Institute's collection became the Toronto Public Library. James Bain was the first chief librarian and he supplemented the collection with $15,000 worth of books purchased on a trip to England in late 1883. Between 1907 and 1916, ten libraries were built with funds from the Andrew Carnegie Trust. Several of these Carnegie libraries continue to be used by the public library. Henry Cummings Campbell was Chief Librarian of the Toronto Public Library from 1956 to 1978, the first Chief Librarian to hold a professional library degree, he is credited for having contributed to the expansion of the library and its adaptation to an dynamic and multicultural city. Prior to the Amalgamation of Toronto in 1998, each of the former municipalities of Metropolitan Toronto operated their own public libraries, they include: Etobicoke Public Library: in the City of Etobicoke, which established 1950 with 13 branches North York Public Library: in the City of North York, which established 1955 with 19 branches York Public Library: in the City of York, which established 1967 with 6 branches East York Public Library: in the Borough of East York, which established 1967 with 5 branches Scarborough Public Library: in the City of Scarborough, which established 1955 with 19 branches Metro Toronto Public Library: across Metropolitan Toronto, which established 1967 with 1 branch Toronto Public Library: in Old Toronto, which established 1883 with 33 branches After the 1998 amalgamation of Metropolitan Toronto, the individual library boards and the Toronto Reference Library merged into the Toronto Public Library.
The merger caused the Toronto Public Library to become the largest library system in North America, serving a population of 2.3 million people with 98 branches at the time. In 2004, a new library was opened in the St. James Town neighbourhood of Toronto, bringing the total number of branches to 99. In 2014, the city's 100th library was opened in Scarborough City Centre; the Toronto Public Library is governed by a Board appointed by Toronto City Council. The Board is composed of eight citizen members, four Toronto City Councillors and the Mayor or his designate; the library's collection count is 11 million items. Toronto Public Library's special collections is located in several branches throughout the city. A number of special collections are housed at the Marilyn & Charles Baillie Special Collections Centre in the Toronto Reference Library. Special collections at the reference library includes the Arthur Conan Doyle Collection, the Baldwin Collection of Canadiana. Special collections located at other branches of the Toronto Public Library Merril Collection of Science Fiction, the Osborne Collection of Early Children's Books, located at Lillian H. Smith branch.
The Rita Cox Black and Caribbean Heritage Collection is spread throughout four branches of TPL, Maria A. Shchuka, York Woods branch; the TPL operates two Bookmobile buses, targeting communities who lack easy access to a neighbourhood branch. There are 32 regular Bookmobile stops including one on Ward's Island; the bookmobile concept was used in the library systems of the former municipalities of North York and Scarborough as well as in Toronto as far back as 1948. Since April 2016, the Parkdale branch has a collection of musical instruments including guitars, keyboards, percussion instruments, others that you can borrow for free with your library card; the residents of Toronto can borrow museum passes with their library card. Each pass allows 4 kids entering one site. Passes are distributed on a first-served basis. Passes for popular sites, such as the Toronto Zoo, the ROM and the Ontario Science Centre, may require waiting in line; the Toronto Public Library technology services include public access computers and free wireless internet access in all branches.
The Library provides access to e-books, music and other electronic collections. The Toronto Public Library website allows users to reserve materials and have them transferred to the user's preferred branch; the library operates a Dial-a-Story telephone hotline, which reads stories to children in sixteen languages. Toronto Public Library cardholders can digitally borrow books and movies since 2014 by creating an account on the online platform Hoopla. Als
A flea market is a type of street market which provides space for vendors to sell previously-owned merchandise. This type of market is seasonal, however in recent years there has been the development of'formal' and'casual' markets which divides a fixed-style market with long-term leases and a seasonal-style market with short-term leases. There tends to be an emphasis on sustainable consumption whereby items such as used goods, collectibles and vintage clothing can be purchased. Flea market vending is distinguished from street vending in that the market itself, not any other public attraction, brings in buyers. There is a variety of vendors. Vendors require skill in following retro and vintage trends as well as selecting merchandise which connects with the culture and identity of their customers. Different English-speaking countries use various names for flea markets. In Australian English, they are called'trash and treasure markets'. In Philippine English, the word is tianggê from the word tianguis via Mexican Spanish, supplanting the indigenous term talipapâ.
In India, it is known as gurjari or shrukawadi bazaar or as juna bazaar. In the United Kingdom, they are known as "car boot sales" if the event takes place in a field or car park, as the vendors will sell goods from the'boot' of their car. If the event is held indoors, such as a school or church hall it is known as either a "jumble sale", or a "bring and buy sale". In Quebec and France, they are called Marché aux puces, while in French-speaking areas of Belgium, the name Brocante or vide-grenier is used. In German there are many words in use but the most common word is "Flohmarkt", meaning "flea market". In the predominantly Cuban/Hispanic areas of South Florida, they are called pulgero from pulga, the Spanish word for fleas. In the Southern part of Andalusia, due to the influence of Gibraltar English, they are known as "piojito", which means "little louse". In Chile they can be called persas or mercados persa and ferias libres, if selling fruit and vegetables. While the concept existed in places such as what are now India and China for millennia, the origins of the term "flea market" are disputed.
According to one theory, the Fly Market in 18th-century New York City began the association. The Dutch word vlaie was located at Maiden Lane near the East River in Manhattan; the land on which the market took place was a salt marsh with a brook, by the early 1800s the "Fly Market" was the city's principal market. A second theory maintains that "flea market" is a common English calque from the French "marché aux puces" which translates to "market of the fleas", labelled as such because the items sold were owned and worn containing fleas; the first reference to this term appeared in two conflicting stories about a location in Paris in the 1860s, known as the "marché aux puces". The traditional and most-publicized story is in the article "What Is a Flea Market?" by Albert LaFarge in the 1998 winter edition of Today's Flea Market magazine: "There is a general agreement that the term'Flea Market' is a literal translation of the French marché aux puces, an outdoor bazaar in Paris, named after those pesky little parasites of the order Siphonaptera that infested the upholstery of old furniture brought out for sale."
The second story appeared in the book Flea Markets, published in Europe by Chartwell Books, has in its introduction: In the time of the Emperor Napoleon III, the imperial architect Haussmann made plans for the broad, straight boulevards with rows of square houses in the center of Paris, along which army divisions could march with much pompous noise. The plans forced many dealers in second-hand goods to flee their old dwellings; these dislodged merchants were, allowed to continue selling their wares undisturbed right in the north of Paris, just outside the former fort, in front of the gate Porte de Clignancourt. The first stalls were erected in about 1860; the gathering together of all these exiles from the slums of Paris was soon given the name "marché aux puces", meaning "flea market" translation. There are flea markets in Japan. However, because the words "flea" and "free" are transcribed in the same Japanese katakana phonetic letters, they have mistaken them and started to use "free market" instead of "flea market."
Braderie Car boot sale Charity shop Farmers' market Garage sale Hamfest MASP Antique Market Pasar malam White elephant sale Flea market directories at Curlie World's best flea markets directory at fleamapket Flea market stories and tips at Flea Market Insiders