Mitchelstown is a town in County Cork, Ireland with a population of approximately 3300. Mitchelstown is situated in the valley to the south of the Galty Mountains,12 km south-west of the Mitchelstown Caves,28 km from Cahir,50 km from Cork and 59 km from Limerick. The River Gradoge runs by the town into the River Funshion, the town is best known as a centre for cheese production. The name of Mitchelstown originates from the Anglo-Norman family called St Michel who founded a settlement close to the site of the present town in the 13th century, the village was originally known as Villa Michel. The modern name comes from the Anglicized version of the Gaelic derived Ballyvisteala or Ballymistealy, the town evolved as a hodgepodge of cabins and lane-ways beside Mitchelstown Castle. Evidence would suggest that the castle was built first and that the village and town came later, in the 1770s, the medieval town was replaced by the present town which is situated east and south of King Square. It was laid out in a pattern of two main streets intersected by a number of smaller streets.
Mitchelstown is today regarded as one of the best planned Georgian towns in Ireland, some of its streets are named after members of the King family, namely Robert, Edward, James and King. The other streets of the Georgian town are Church Street, Baldwin Street, Alley Lane, Chapel Hill, Convent Hill, King Square, New Square and Mulberry Lane. The layout established by the second and third Earls of Kingston between 1776 and 1830 utilised the natural features of the site to give views of the Galtee Mountains. Mitchelstown Castle was rebuilt between 1823 and 1825 by the third Earl of Kingston and his new house was the biggest in Ireland. During the Irish Civil War in 1922 the castle was occupied by the Republican Army, the ashlar limestone of the house stood as a ruin until about 1930 when it was bought by the monks of Mount Melleray Abbey who used it to build their new monastery in county Waterford. On 9 September 1887, a protest was held in New Square outside the premises in which Mandeville, the police shot into the crowd, killing two and injuring dozens of others, one of the injured died soon after.
The dead men were John Shinnick of Fermoy, John Casey of Kilbehenny and Michael Lonergan of Galbally, the incident generated considerable international attention and became known as the Mitchelstown Massacre. The phrase Remember Mitchelstown (first coined by William Gladstone, became a cry for Irishmen at home. The memorial to Mandeville that stands in Market Square was unveiled in 1906 by William OBrien MP and it commemorates the names of the three men killed in 1887. Up to 1989, Mitchelstown was the headquarters for Mitchelstown Co-Operative Agricultural Society Ltd, between 1919 and 1989, Mitchelstown Co-op Creameries became the largest and most important dairy processing business in the island of Ireland. In the 1930s the Co-Op promoted the introduction of intensive pig production in the Mitchelstown area as another source of farm income, as a result, several of Irelands largest industrial pig farms are based in the Mitchelstown area to this day
Munster is one of the provinces of Ireland situated in the south of Ireland. In early Ireland, it was one of the fifths ruled by a king of over-kings Irish, following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the ancient kingdoms were shired into counties for administrative and judicial purposes. In centuries, local government legislation has seen further sub-division of the historic counties, Munster has no official function for local government purposes. For the purposes of the ISO, the province is listed as one of the provincial sub-divisions of the State, Munster covers a total area of 24,675 km2 and has a population of 1,246,088 with the most populated city being Cork. Other significant urban centres in the province include Limerick and Waterford, in the early centuries AD, Munster was the domain of the Iverni peoples and the Clanna Dedad familial line, led by Cú Roí and to whom the king Conaire Mór belonged. In the 5th century, Saint Patrick spent several years in the area and founded Christian churches, during the Early Middle Ages, most of the area was part of the Kingdom of Munster, ruled by the Eóganachta dynasty.
Prior to this, the area was ruled by the Dáirine and Corcu Loígde overlords from the early 7th century onwards, rulers from the Eóganachta who would dominate a greater part of Ireland were Cathal mac Finguine and Feidlimid mac Cremthanin. Notable regional kingdoms and lordships of Early Medieval Munster were Iarmuman, Osraige, Uí Liatháin, Uí Fidgenti, Éile, Múscraige, Ciarraige Luachra, Corcu Duibne, Corcu Baiscinn, around this period Ossory broke away from Munster. The 10th century saw the rise of the Dalcassian clan, who had earlier annexed Thomond and their leaders were the ancestors of the OBrien dynasty and spawned Brian Boru, perhaps the most noted High King of Ireland, and several of whose descendants were High Kings. By 1118 Munster had fractured into the Kingdom of Thomond under the OBriens, the Kingdom of Desmond under the MacCarthy dynasty, the three crowns of the flag of Munster represent these three late kingdoms. The OBrien of Thomond and MacCarthy of Desmond surrendered and regranted sovereignty to the Tudors in 1543 and 1565, the impactful Desmond Rebellions, led by the FitzGeralds, soon followed.
By the mid-19th century much of the area was hit hard in the Great Famine, the province was affected by events in the Irish War of Independence in the early 20th century, and there was a brief Munster Republic during the Irish Civil War. The Irish leaders Michael Collins and earlier Daniel OConnell came from families of the old Gaelic Munster gentry, noted for its traditions in Irish folk music, and with many ancient castles and monasteries in the province, Munster is a tourist destination. During the fifth century, St. Patrick spent seven years founding churches and ordaining priests in Munster, but a fifth century bishop named Ailbe is the patron saint of Munster. In Irish mythology, a number of goddesses are associated with the province including Anann, Áine, Grian, Clíodhna, Aimend, Mór Muman, Bébinn, Aibell. Each is historically associated with certain septs of the nobility, the druid-god of Munster is Mug Ruith. The province has long had trading and cultural links with continental Europe, the tribe of Corcu Loígde had a trading fleet active along the French Atlantic coast, as far south as Gascony, importing wine to Munster.
The Eóganachta had ecclesiastical ties with Germany, which show in the architecture of their capital at the Rock of Cashel
Charleville, County Cork
Charleville is a town in north County Cork, Ireland. It lies in the Golden Vale, on a tributary of the River Maigue, Charleville is on the N20 road and is the second-largest town between Limerick and Cork. The Roman Catholic parish of Charleville is within the Diocese of Cloyne, significant industries in the town include Kerry Co-Op and the construction and services sectors. The old name for the place was Rathcogan, Rathgogan or Rathgoggan, the name means Cogans rath, after the family of Miles de Cogan, granted lands there after the 12th-century Norman invasion. The new town begun by Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery in 1661 was named Charleville after Charles II, Irish speakers referred to the town as An Ráth the rath, a short form of the older Irish name. The name Ráth Luirc was first attached to Charleville in an 1849 collection of 18th-century Irish-language poems with English translations, the translation of an aisling by Conchúbhar Máistir Ó Ríordáin interpreted Ráth Loirc as denoting the town of Charleville. T. F.
ORahilly felt that Ráth Loirc, like the more common Clár Loirc, was a name for Ireland. D. A. Binchy felt the term, used by Aogán Ó Rathaille, did refer to a specific place, after the 1920 local elections, Sinn Féin-dominated councils loyal to the self-proclaimed Irish Republic often sought to replace placenames having British monarchic allusions with older Gaelic names. Although Rathgoggan was mooted by Charleville Rural District Council, Risteárd Ó Foghladha advised that Ráth Luirc was the old name, Ó Foghladh claimed Lorc was an ancient king of Munster, in fact Lóegaire Lorc was a mythical High King of Ireland. Thus the town had the position that its English-language legal name was an Irish name different from its Irish-language legal name. The name Charleville remained in common use, in December 1989, a plebiscite of residents under the Local Government Act 1946 voted on four names, of 2200 electors,1500 voted, over 90% for Charleville. Official documents before and after 1989 have often used Rathluirc or similar formulations, Local sports teams have a rath or fort in their crest, reflecting the Irish name.
Charleville was founded in 1661 by Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery, Roger Boyle had been a supporter of Oliver Cromwell in the English Civil War. When King Charles II was restored in 1660, he had to prove his loyalty to the crown and he did this by naming Charleville after the English king. During the time of the Penal Laws, practising the Catholic faith was illegal, as a result, the parish of Charleville was amalgamated with the parishes Bruree and Colmanswell, both in the Diocese of Limerick. Daniel Mac Namara of Bruree was registered as the Catholic priest for this very large pastoral area, the fact that Catholics had to attend Mass secretly meant that the old chapel in Holy Cross cemetery was abandoned. The remains of this church – now overgrown with ivy – are still to be seen in the centre of the graveyard. Upon one such gravestone is a Latin epithaph to none other than Seán Clárach Mac Domhnaill, who was, in his time, Charleville is geographically located at the heart of Munster, within the Golden Vale region
Royal Geographical Society
The Royal Geographical Society is the UKs learned society and professional body for geography, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences. Today, it is the centre for geographers and geographical learning. The Society has over 16,500 members and its work reaches millions of people each year through publications, research groups, the Geographical Society of London was founded in 1830 under the name Geographical Society of London as an institution to promote the advancement of geographical science. It absorbed the older African Association, which had been founded by Sir Joseph Banks in 1788, as well as the Raleigh Club and the Palestine Association. Like many learned societies, it had started as a club in London. Founding members of the Society included Sir John Barrow, Sir John Franklin, under the patronage of King William IV it became known as The Royal Geographical Society and was granted its Royal Charter under Queen Victoria in 1859. From 1830 –1840 the RGS met in the rooms of the Horticultural Society in Regent Street and from 1854 -1870 at 15 Whitehall Place, London.
In 1870, the Society finally found a home when it moved to 1 Savile Row, London – an address that became associated with adventure. The Society used a lecture theatre in Burlington Gardens, London which was lent to it by the Civil Service Commission, the arrangements were thought to be rather cramped and squalid. A new impetus was given to the Societys affairs in 1911, with the election of Earl Curzon, the premises in Savile Row were sold and the present site, Lowther Lodge in Kensington Gore, was purchased for £100,000 and opened for use in April 1913. In the same year the Societys ban on women was lifted, Lowther Lodge was built in 1874 for the Hon William Lowther by Norman Shaw, one of the most outstanding domestic architects of his day. Extensions to the east wing were added in 1929, and included the New Map Room, the extension was formally opened by HRH the Duke of York at the Centenary Celebrations on 21 October 1930. The history of the Society was closely allied for many of its years with colonial exploration in Africa, the Indian subcontinent, the polar regions.
It has been a key associate and supporter of many explorers and expeditions, including those of Darwin, Stanley, Shackleton, Hunt. The early history of the Society is inter-linked with the history of British Geography, information, maps and knowledge gathered on expeditions was sent to the RGS, making up its now unique geographical collections. The Society published its first journal in 1831 and from 1855, accounts of meetings, in 1893, this was replaced by The Geographical Journal which is still published today. With the advent of a systematic study of geography, the Institute of British Geographers was formed in 1933, by some academic Society fellows. Its activities included organising conferences, field trips and specialist research groups and publishing the journal, the RGS and IBG co-existed for 60 years until 1992 when a merger was discussed
Republic of Ireland
Ireland, known as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the part of the island. The state shares its land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint Georges Channel to the south-east, and it is a unitary, parliamentary republic. The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948, Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, after joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by a financial crisis that began in 2008. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index and it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a member of the Council of Europe. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was styled, the Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland.
The 1948 Act does not name the state as Republic of Ireland, because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name Eire, from 1949, Republic of Ireland, for the state, as well as Ireland, Éire or the Republic of Ireland, the state is referred to as the Republic, Southern Ireland or the South. In an Irish republican context it is referred to as the Free State or the 26 Counties. From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, during the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the islands population of over 8 million fell by 30%
Kilmallock or Kilmalloc is a town in south County Limerick, near the border with County Cork. There is a Dominican Priory in the town and Kings Castle, the remains of medieval walls which encircled the settlement are still visible. The Dublin–Cork railway line passes by the town, but the station is now closed, the nearest train station is in Charleville, a few miles south west of Kilmallock. Saint Mocheallóg built a church in the area in 6th or 7th century, the town was of considerable importance in the late medieval period, ranking as one of the main urban areas in Ireland at the time. Kilmallock was located in a position of strategic importance. In 1571, the town was burned by the rebel Earl of Desmond during the Desmond Rebellions, seventy years later, during the Irish Confederate Wars, the Dominican Priory of Kilmallock was attacked and destroyed by a Parliamentary Army under Lord Inchiquin in 1648. Its ruins are the best known landmark of Kilmallock. The local cemetery is the place of the noted eighteenth-century poet Andrias Mac Craith.
Better known as An Mangaire Súgach, his best known poem is Slán le Máigh, the house where he died still stands at the bottom of Wolfe Tone Street near the River Loobagh. The house known as Tigh An Fhile has information panels about the poet at the doorway, the town has a small museum depicting the historic past of this once great Geraldine fortress town. It is located on the way to the Dominican Priory, as part of a brief but vicious sectarian campaign in July 1935, arsonists burnt the Church of Ireland building to the ground, causing damage costing thousands of pounds. Members of the local Kilmallock GAA club have represented Limerick in the Munster hurling, the club have won 11 senior county hurling titles, most recently in 2014. The club won the Limerick Minor Hurling Championship last in 2010, the area is home to the Kilmallock Cycling Club, Kilmallock Athletic Club and a centre for horse breeding - with several stallion farms located in the district. Kilmallock is twinned for socio-economic purposes with Croom in County Limerick, from The Annals of the Four Masters, M1571.4.
Arlene Hogan, Kilmallock Dominican Priory, An Architectural Perspective, 1291-1991, mainchín Seoighe, The story of Kilmallock. The Kilmallock Journal, published by the Kilmallock Historical Society Chun Gloire De, a guide to the very fine neo-Gothic Catholic Church List of towns and villages in Ireland
The Geographical Journal
The Geographical Journal is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of the Royal Geographical Society. It publishes papers covering research on all aspects of geography and it publishes shorter Commentary papers and Review Essays. Since 2001, The Geographical Journal has been published in collaboration with Wiley-Blackwell, the journal was established in 1831 as the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. Official website Some issues fulltext via HathiTrust
Glen of Aherlow
The Glen of Aherlow is a valley located between Slievenamuck and the Galtee Mountains in the western part of County Tipperary in Ireland. There is a hamlet at Rossadrehid, where Aherlow creamery was located before its closure in the late 20th century, other adjacent centres of population are the villages of Galbally and Bansha. Across the northern flank of Slievenamuck lies Tipperary Town, the tradition of Geoffrey Keating still lives on in the folklore of the Glen of Aherlow. Keating preached sermons there, receiving refuge and, according to tradition, lived in a cave for much of the time while on the run and compiling his magnum opus, a statue, titled Christ the King, overlooks the valley in which the Glen of Aherlow is situated. The statue, constructed in 1950, is situated on Slievenamuck on the road to Tipperary Town. The car park at Christ the King is sometimes busy during the summer, as it views of the glen. Sedna’s Well St. Berrihert’s Kyle, Moor Abbey Duntryleague Dolmen Galteemore Lake Muskry and Farbreaga, Mullinahone
The Blackwater or Munster Blackwater is a river which flows through counties Kerry and Waterford in Ireland. It rises in the Mullaghareirk Mountains in County Kerry and flows in a direction through County Cork, through Mallow. It enters County Waterford where it flows through Lismore, before turning south at Cappoquin. In total, the Blackwater is 169 km long, the total catchment area of the River Blackwater is 3,324 km2. The long term average flow rate of the River Blackwater is 89.1 Cubic Metres per second The Blackwater is notable for being one of the best salmon fishing rivers in the country. Like many Irish and British rivers, salmon stocks declined in recent years, tributaries of the Blackwater include, River Awbeg, River Dalua, River Bride, River Allow, River Araglin, River Finnow, River Funshion. Towns along the river are Youghal, Lismore, Mallow, the Blackwater Estuary was listed on the Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance on 11 June 1996. Special Area of Conservation Salmon fishing on the Munster Blackwater, from Salmon Ireland The Munster Blackwater and associated navigations The Lombardstown to Mallow Canal
Pasture is land used for grazing. Pasture lands in the narrow sense are enclosed tracts of farmland, grazed by domesticated livestock, such as horses, the vegetation of tended pasture, consists mainly of grasses, with an interspersion of legumes and other forbs. Pasture is typically grazed throughout the summer, in contrast to meadow which is ungrazed or used for grazing only after being mown to make hay for animal fodder. Pasture in a wider sense additionally includes rangelands, other unenclosed pastoral systems, soil type, minimum annual temperature, and rainfall are important factors in pasture management. Sheepwalk is an area of grassland where sheep can roam freely, the productivity of sheepwalk is measured by the number of sheep per area. This is dependent, among other things, on the underlying rock, sheepwalk is the name of townlands in County Roscommon and County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. Unless factory farming, which entails in its most intensive form entirely trough-feeding, in more humid regions, pasture grazing is managed across a large global area for free range and organic farming.
Grassland Heathland Machair Maquis Moorland Potrero Prairie Rangeland Rough pasture Savanna Steppe Wood pasture Veld Transhumance