The Wetterhorn is a mountain in the Swiss Alps towering above the village of Grindelwald. The Mittelhorn and Rosenhorn are mostly hidden from view from Grindelwald, the Grosse Scheidegg Pass crosses the col to the north, between the Wetterhorn and the Schwarzhorn. The Mittelhorn was first summitted on 9 July 1845 by the guides, this time accompanied by a third guide, Kaspar Abplanalp. The son of a Scottish physician, Speer lived in Interlaken, a September 1854 ascent by a party including Alfred Wills is much celebrated in Great Britain. In 1866, Lucy Walker was the first documented female ascendant of the peak, the 24-year-old English mountaineer William Penhall and his Meiringen guide Andreas Maurer were killed by an avalanche high up on the Wetterhorn on 3 August 1882. The famed guide and Grindelwald native Christian Almer climbed the many times in his life, including on his first of many trips with Meta Brevoort. His last ascent was in 1898 at the age of 72 together with his wife to celebrate their anniversary on the summit.
Winston Churchill climbed the Wetterhorn in 1894, the Wetterhorn summit was the intended terminal for the worlds first passenger carrying aerial tramway, but only the first quarter was built. It was in operation until the beginning of World War I, the Wetterhorn on Summitpost The Wetterhorn from Grindelwald First The Wetterhorn from the Eiger Trail
Lyskamm, known as Silberbast, is a mountain in the Pennine Alps lying on the border between Switzerland and Italy. It consists of a ridge with two distinct peaks. The mountain has gained a reputation for seriousness because of the many cornices lying on the ridge, because of its modest prominence, Liskamm is sometimes considered to be part of the extended Monte Rosa group. The northern side of the mountain is an impressive 1,100 metres ice-covered wall, the gentler southern side rises only a few hundred metres above the glacier of the same name, Lysgletscher. The eastern and higher of the two peaks is 4,527 m, and was first ascended in 1861 from the Lisjoch up the east ridge by a 14-man team led by J. F. Hardy, others in the party included A. C. Ramsey, F. Sibson, T. Rennison, J. A. Hudson, C. H. Pilkington, the guides were Franz Josef Lochmatter of St. Niklaus in the canton Valais, J. -P. Cachet, K. Kerr, S. Zumtaugwald, P. and J. -M, the ridge as a whole was first traversed three years by Leslie Stephen, Edward N.
Buxton, Jakob Anderegg and Franz Biener. The first attempt to climb the imposing north-east face was made in 1880 by the brothers Kalbermatten and they were carried down to the glacier by an avalanche but they survived the accident. On 9 August 1890, L. Norman-Neruda with guides Christian Klucker and J. Reinstadler were the first to reach the summit by the north face, the first winter ascent of this route was made on 11 March 1956 by C. In 1907, Geoffrey Winthrop Young and his guide traversed the whole ridge two times, Young wanted to traverse the ridge from the Nordend to the Breithorn. They started from Riffelalp at midnight and finished the traverse of the Monte Rosa massif at midday, but after the traverse of the Liskamm and Castor the guide was too tired. Young, who was disappointed, convinced him to go back by the Lisjoch before descending to Zermatt. Young even wanted to back to the Nordend but his guide refused to prolong the journey. The normal route starts from the Lisjoch, which can be accessed from the Gnifetti Hut or from the Monte Rosa Hut, the route follows the route taken by the first ascensionist.
The mountain is climbed as a traverse from the Feliksjoch. The traverse consists mostly of a narrow, snow-covered ridge, with some scrambling over rocks. W. E. Hall The fatal accident on the Lyskamm, Alpine Journal,5, 23–32 Liskamm on Peakbagger. com Liskamm on SummitPost Italian route account from south - Czech and English
Paul Grohmann was an Austrian mountaineer and writer. Grohmann was a pioneer in exploring technically challenging mountains and is thought to have made more first ascents of Eastern Alps summits than anyone else, among these are the four highest summits in the Dolomites. In 1862, Grohman, de, Friedrich Simony and Edmund von Mojsvár founded the Austrian Alpine Club and this was the second mountaineering club in the world, following the founding of the British Alpine Club in 1857. In 1875 he published a map of the Dolomites and, in 1877, the travel book Wanderungen in den Dolomiten. In his honor, the as yet unclimbed Sasso di Levante in the Langkofel Dolomites was renamed Grohmannspitze in 1875, the west peak of the Kellerspitzen in the Carnic Alps, which he first-ascended in 1868, is known as Grohmannspitze. Already in 1898,10 years before his death, the town of Urtijëi erected a monument to honor his many first ascents in the Dolomites, since 1984 there is a Grohmann street in Viennas Donaustadt district
The Aletschhorn is a mountain in the Alps in Switzerland, lying within the Jungfrau-Aletsch region, which has been designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The mountain shares part of its name with the Aletsch Glacier lying at its foot, the Aletschhorn, the second highest mountain of the Bernese Alps after the Finsteraarhorn, is the only one of the higher peaks that lies completely in Valais. It is the point of a chain running parallel with the dividing ridge. The Aletschhorn is often thought to command the finest of all the views from Alpine summits. On its northern flank lies the Aletschfirn, which is part of the Aletsch Glacier, on the southwest lies the Oberaletsch Glacier and, on the southeast, lies the Mittelaletsch Glacier. Both are in the catchment area of the Massa river, which originates in the Aletsch Glacier, the Aletschhorn was first climbed almost 50 years after the first ascent of the Jungfrau. When the Jungfrau was first climbed, the climbers used base camps on the Aletschfirn, the Aletschhorn was climbed first in 1859 by Francis Fox Tuckett, J. J.
Bennen, V. Tairraz and P. Bohren. But the summit could be reached without too much difficulty, like many other climbers, Tuckett took with him a barometer and made scientific observations. He noted the icy temperature and the strong wind, blowing the snow. After they reached the summit, Tuckett separated from Bennen and descended via the face with Bohren. He wanted to directly to the Lötschental, but soon after they began the descent. They cautiously went back and descended on the Mittelaletsch, Aletschhorn on Summitpost Photo Aletschhorn from Lötschenlücke Photo Aletschhorn from Mischabelhuts
The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc, Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, and at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps. The Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4000 metres, the altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe, in the mountains precipitation levels vary greatly and climatic conditions consist of distinct zones. Wildlife such as live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era, a mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established, Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, and the Romans had settlements in the region.
In 1800 Napoleon crossed one of the passes with an army of 40,000. The 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists, writers, in World War II, Adolf Hitler kept a base of operation in the Bavarian Alps throughout the war. The Alpine region has a cultural identity. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, French, at present, the region is home to 14 million people and has 120 million annual visitors. The English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes, maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp and this may be consistent with the theory that in Greek Alpes is a name of non-Indo-European origin. According to the Old English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might possibly derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb hill, Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe.
In Roman times, Albania was a name for the eastern Caucasus, in modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width, the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the border of Bavaria in Germany
The Grand Combin is a mountain in the western Pennine Alps in Switzerland. With its 4,314 metres high summit it is one of the highest peaks in the Alps, the Grand Combin is a large glaciated massif consisting of several summits, among which three are above 4000 metres. The normal route starts from the Panossière Hut, which lies on the side in the Corbassière valley. Despite the fact that no major difficulties exist, a dangerous passage has to be traversed on the north flank. It is a couloir dominated by seracs continuously falling on it, the massif of the Grand Combin lies south of Verbier between the Val dEntremont and Val de Bagnes. The north-western facing side of Grand Combin is entirely covered by eternal snows, the southern and eastern walls are more steep and thus exempt of snow. The topography of the Grand Combin is intricate, between the Val dEntremont and the Val de Bagnes are two high ridges, nearly parallel to each other and to those valleys, which both diverge from a short transverse ridge of great height.
The glacier is surrounded by the peaks of Petit Combin, Combin de Corbassière and Combin de Boveire on the west, Grand Tavé, smaller glaciers lie on the external flanks such as Boveire and Mont Durand Glacier. Two other minor summits over 4,000 metres are located on the ridge, the Grand Combin de Valsorey on the west, all the waters flowing on the region end up in the Dranse river and the Rhone. After Dom, Weisshorn, it is the highest massif of the Alps situated out of the main chain. South of the Grand Combin, the ridge separating the glaciers of Mont Durand and Sonadon reaches the Grande Tête de By a few kilometres away, which is located on the main watershed. The ridge diverges to the south-west and appears to be continuous with the range of the Aiguilles Vertes, or Aiguilles de Valsorey, and that of Mont Vélan. From this branches the lower range, which divides the channel of the Glacier du Mont Durand from the Val dOllomont in the Aosta Valley, the Grand Combin, which yields in height to only a few European mountains, was long one of the least known of Alpine summits.
He was followed in that ascent five years by W. and C. E. Mathews, the first four expeditions on Grand Combin reached only the minor summit east of Grand Combin. The first one was made by mountain guides from the valley on July 20,1857, the first complete ascent of Grand Combin was finally made on July 30,1859 by Charles Sainte-Claire Deville with Daniel and Gaspard Balleys, and Basile Dorsaz. The Grand Combin de Valsoray on the west was reached for the first time on 16 September 1872 by J. H. Isler and they climbed the south south face above the Plateau du Couloir. The itinerary on the south-east ridge was opened on 10 September 1891 by O. Glynne Jones, A. Bovier, Panossière Hut, north side Valsorey Hut, south-west side Bivouac Biaggio Musso, south side Grand Combin. Grand Combin on Hikr Grand Combin on Peakware
Sir Leslie Stephen KCB was an English author, historian and mountaineer, and father of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell. Stephen was born at Kensington Gore in London, and son of Sir James Stephen and his father was Colonial Undersecretary of State and a noted abolitionist. He was the fourth of five children, his siblings including James Fitzjames Stephen and his family had belonged to the Clapham Sect, the early 19th century group of mainly evangelical Christian social reformers. At his fathers house he saw a deal of the Macaulays, James Spedding, Sir Henry Taylor. He recounted some of his experiences in a chapter in his Life of Fawcett as well as in less formal Sketches from Cambridge. These sketches were reprinted from the Pall Mall Gazette, to the proprietor of which, George Murray Smith, the family connections included that of William Makepeace Thackeray. His brother, Fitzjames had been a friend of Thackerays and assisted in the disposition of his estate when he died in 1863 and his sister Caroline met Thackerays daughters and Minny when they were mutual guests of Julia Margaret Cameron.
This led to an invitation to visit from Leslie Stephens mother, Lady Stephen and they met at George Murray Smiths house at Hampstead. Minny and Leslie became engaged on December 4,1866 and married on June 19,1867. After the wedding they travelled to the Swiss Alps and northern Italy, and on return to England lived at the Thackeray sisters home at 16 Onslow Gardens with Anny, in the spring of 1868 Minny miscarried but recovered sufficiently for the couple to tour the eastern United States. Minny miscarried again in 1869, but became pregnant again in 1870 and on December 7 gave birth to their daughter, Laura was premature, weighing three pounds. In March 1873 Thackeray and the Stephens moved to 8 Southwell Gardens, the couple travelled extensively, and by 1875 Minny was pregnant again, but this time was in poor health. On November 27 she developed convulsions, and died the day of eclampsia. After Minnys death, Leslie Stephen continued to live with Anny, Leslie Stephen and his daughter were cared for by his sister, the writer Caroline Emelia Stephen, although Leslie described her as Silly Milly and her books as little works.
Meanwhile, Anny was falling in love with her younger cousin Richmond Ritchie, Ritchie became a constant visitor and they became engaged in May 1877, and were married on August 2. At the same time Leslie Stephen was seeing more and more of Julia Duckworth and his second marriage was to Julia Prinsep Duckworth. Julia had been born in India and after returning to England she became a model for Pre-Raphaelite painters such as Edward Burne-Jones, in 1867 she had married Herbert Duckworth by whom she had three children prior to his death in 1870. Leslie Stephen and Julia Duckworth were married on March 26,1878 and they had four children, Vanessa married Clive Bell Thoby Virginia married Leonard Woolf Adrian In May 1895, Julia died of influenza, leaving her husband with four young children aged 11 to 15
The Wildstrubel is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the border between the Swiss cantons of Bern and Valais. It forms a large glaciated massif, about 15 km wide, along with the Muverans, the Diablerets and the Wildhorn, the Wildstrubel is one the four distinct mountain massifs of the Bernese Alps that lie west of the Gemmi Pass. The massif of the Wildstrubel is at the centre between the valleys of Simmental and the Rhone, the location of the tripoint being the summit of the Schneehorn. It comprises several distinct summits, including the Wetzsteinhorn, the Rohrbachstein, the Weisshorn, the Pointe de la Plaine Morte, Mont Bonvin, the Trubelstock and the Schneehorn. The main crest with the almost equally high summits of the Mittelgipfel and the Grossstrubel forms an amphitheatre oriented eastward which ends at the Steghorn and this area encloses the Wildstrubel Glacier. To the southwest, the Wildstrubel overlooks the high plateau of the Plaine Morte. The Wildstrubel lies approximately halfway between Lenk and Adelboden, its summit being in the municipalities of Lenk and Leukerbad, the nearest settlement is the Oberried section of Lenk, at the head of the Simmental.
Other notable towns and resorts around the massif are Crans-Montana, Leukerbad, the highest place that can be reached without effort is the Pointe de la Plaine Morte station, which is connected to Cran-Montana and within 5 km from the summit. Forests are found up to 1,900 metres on the north side, glaciers reach lower locations on the north side. Although not a technical climb, the ascent of the Wildstrubel involves either long ascents or glacier crossings, the shortest access is from the Pointe de la Plaine Morte station, but before the 500 metre-scramble to the top, nearly all the Plaine Morte glacier must be crossed. Another access is from the Gemmi Pass, via the Lämmeren Hut, the only glacier-free path is from Lenk, but it is the longest ascent as the end of the paved road lies at 1,105 metres, or 2,139 metres below the summit. The mountain has three summits, all of similar height and located on the border, although within the Rhine basin. These three summits, strung out along a 3. 5-km ridge, make a convenient traverse, the western summit The central summit The eastern summit The third or fourth recorded ascent was by Leslie Stephen and Thomas W.
Hinchliff with guide Melchior Anderegg on 11 September 1858. The Wildstrubel on SummitPost The Wildstrubel on Hikr
The Eiger is a 3, 970-metre mountain of the Bernese Alps, overlooking Grindelwald and Lauterbrunnen in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland, just north of the main watershed and border with Valais. It is the easternmost peak of a ridge crest that extends across the Mönch to the Jungfrau at 4,158 m, constituting one of the most emblematic sights of the Swiss Alps. The most notable feature of the Eiger is its 1, 800-metre-high north face of rock and ice, named Eigerwand or Nordwand and this huge face towers over the resort of Kleine Scheidegg at its base, on the homonymous pass connecting the two valleys. The first ascent of the Eiger was made by Swiss guides Christian Almer and Peter Bohren and Irishman Charles Barrington, the north face, considered amongst the most challenging and dangerous ascents, was first climbed in 1938 by an Austrian-German expedition. The Eiger has been publicized for the many tragedies involving climbing expeditions. Since 1935, at least sixty-four climbers have died attempting the face, earning it the German nickname Mordwand.
They are both part of the Jungfrau Railway line, running from Kleine Scheidegg to the Jungfraujoch, between the Mönch and the Jungfrau, at the highest railway station in Europe, the two stations within the Eiger are Eigerwand and Eismeer, at around 3,000 metres. The Eiger is mentioned in records dating back to the 13th century, the three mountains of the ridge are commonly referred to as the Virgin, the Monk, and the Ogre. The name has been linked to the Latin term acer, meaning sharp or pointed, the Eiger is located within the Bernese Oberland region of the canton of Bern, between the valleys and municipalities of Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald. It is located 2.2 km northeast of the Mönch and 5.6 km northeast of the Jungfrau, the nearest settlements are Grindelwald and Wengen. The Eiger has three faces, north and southeast, the east ridge from the summit to the Ostegg, named Mittellegi, is the longest on the Eiger. The north face overlooks the pass and resort of Kleine Scheidegg, or more precisely the region east of it, the latter mountain pass lies between the valleys of Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald and connects the lower Männlichen-Tschuggen range to the Eiger.
All the aforementioned localities are connected to Interlaken via mountain railways, all sides of the mountain feed the same river, the Lütschine, through the Weisse Lütschine on the west side and through the Schwarze Lütschine on the east side. Although the north face of the Eiger is almost free of ice, on the east side, the Eismeer flows from the Mönch down to 1,300 m through the Lower Grindelwald Glacier system, which feeds the Schwarze Lütschine. The massive wall of the Jungfrau, Mönch and Eiger itself constitutes an emblematic sight of the Swiss Alps and is visible from many places on the Swiss Plateau. The higher Finsteraarhorn and Aletschhorn, which are located about 10 km to the south, are less visible. The whole area, the Jungfrau-Aletsch, comprising the highest summits, in July 2006, a piece of the Eiger amounting to approximately 700,000 cubic metres of rock fell from the east face. As it had been noticeably cleaving for several weeks and fell into an area, there were no injuries
John Tyndall FRS was a prominent Irish 19th-century physicist. His initial scientific fame arose in the 1850s from his study of diamagnetism, he made discoveries in the realms of infrared radiation and the physical properties of air. Tyndall published more than a dozen science books which brought state-of-the-art 19th century experimental physics to a wide audience, from 1853 to 1887 he was professor of physics at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in London. Tyndall was born in Leighlinbridge, County Carlow and his father was a local police constable, descended from Gloucestershire emigrants who settled in southeast Ireland around 1670. Tyndall attended the schools in County Carlow until his late teens. Subjects learned at school notably included technical drawing and mathematics with some applications of those subjects to land surveying. He was hired as a draftsman by the Ordnance Survey of Ireland in his teens in 1839. In the decade of the 1840s, a boom was in progress. Between 1844 and 1847, he was employed in railway construction planning.
In 1847 Tyndall opted to become a mathematics and surveying teacher at a school in Hampshire. Recalling this decision later, he wrote, the desire to grow intellectually did not forsake me, another recently arrived young teacher at Queenwood was Edward Frankland, who had previously worked as a chemical laboratory assistant for the British Geological Survey. Frankland and Tyndall became good friends, on the strength of Franklands prior knowledge, they decided to go to Germany to further their education in science. Among other things, Frankland knew that certain German universities were ahead of any in Britain in experimental chemistry, the pair moved to Germany in summer 1848 and enrolled at the University of Marburg, where Robert Bunsen was an influential teacher. Tyndall studied under Bunsen for two years, perhaps more influential for Tyndall at Marburg was Professor Hermann Knoblauch, with whom Tyndall maintained communications by letter for many years afterwards. Tyndalls Marburg dissertation was an analysis of screw surfaces in 1850.
He stayed at Marburg for a year doing research on magnetism with Knoblauch, including some months visit at the Berlin laboratory of Knoblauchs main teacher. It is clear today that Bunsen and Magnus were among the very best experimental science instructors of the era, when Tyndall returned to live in England in summer 1851, he probably had as good an education in experimental science as anyone in England. Tyndalls early original work in physics was his experiments on magnetism and diamagnetic polarity and his two most influential reports were the first two, co-authored with Knoblauch