The golden jackal is a wolf-like canid, native to Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia, South Asia, regions of Southeast Asia. Compared with the Arabian wolf, the smallest of the gray wolves, the jackal is smaller and possesses shorter legs, a shorter tail, a more elongated torso, a less-prominent forehead, a narrower and more pointed muzzle; the golden jackal's coat can vary in color from a pale creamy yellow in summer to a dark tawny beige in winter. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List due to its widespread distribution and high density in areas with plenty of available food and optimum shelter; the ancestor of the golden jackal is believed to be the extinct Arno river dog that lived in Mediterranean Europe 1.9 million years ago. It is described as having been a jackal-like canine. Genetic studies indicate that the golden jackal expanded from India around 20,000 years ago towards the end of the last ice age; the oldest golden jackal fossil, found at the Ksar Akil rock shelter near Beirut, Lebanon, is 7,600 years old.
The oldest golden jackal fossils in Europe are 7,000 years old. There are seven subspecies of the golden jackal; the golden jackal is more related to the gray wolf, African golden wolf, Ethiopian wolf than it is to the African black-backed jackal or side-striped jackal. It is capable of producing fertile hybrids with both the African golden wolf. Jackal–dog hybrids called Sulimov dogs are in service at the Sheremetyevo Airport near Moscow where they are deployed by the Russian airline Aeroflot for scent-detection. Golden jackals are abundant in valleys and beside rivers and their tributaries, canals and seashores, they are rare in low mountains. The golden jackal is a social species, the basic social unit of which consists of a breeding pair and any young offspring, it is adaptable, with the ability to exploit food ranging from fruit and insects to small ungulates. They will attack domestic fowl and domestic mammals up to the size of domestic water buffalo calves; the jackal's competitors are the red fox, jungle cat, wildcat, in the Caucasus the raccoon, in Central Asia the Asiatic wildcat.
The jackal is expanding beyond its native grounds in Southeast Europe into Central and Northeast Europe, occupying areas where there are few or no wolves. The biological family Canidae is composed of the South American canids, the fox-like canids, the wolf-like canids. All species within the wolf-like canids share a similar morphology and possess 78 chromosomes, allowing them to interbreed. Within the wolf-like canids is the jackal group, which includes the three jackals: the black-backed jackal, the side-striped jackal, the golden jackal; these three species are the same size, possess similar dental and skeletal morphology, are identified from each other by their coat color. They were once thought to have different distributions across Africa with their ranges overlapping in East Africa. Although the jackal group has traditionally been considered as homogenous, genetic studies show that jackals are not monophyletic, they are only distantly related; the accuracy of the colloquial name "jackal" to describe all jackals is therefore questionable.
Mitochondrial DNA can date back thousands of years. Thus, phylogenetic analysis of mDNA sequences within a species provides a history of maternal lineages that can be represented as a phylogenetic tree. A 2005 genetic study of the canids found that the gray wolf and dog are the most related on this tree; the next most related are the coyote, golden jackal, Ethiopian wolf, which have all been shown to hybridize with the dog in the wild. The next closest are the African wild dog, which are not members of genus Canis; these are followed by the black-backed and side-striped jackals, members of genus Canis and the most basal members of this clade. Results from two recent studies of mDNA from golden jackals indicate that the specimens from Africa are genetically closer to the gray wolf than are the specimens from Eurasia. In 2015 a major DNA study of golden jackals concluded that the six C. aureus subspecies found in Africa should be reclassified under the new species C. anthus, reducing the number of golden jackal subspecies to seven.
The phylogenetic tree generated from this study shows the golden jackal diverging from the wolf/coyote lineage 1.9 million years ago and the African golden wolf diverging 1.3 million years ago. The study found that the golden jackal and the African golden wolf shared a similar skull and body morphology and that this had confused taxonomists into regarding these as one species; the study proposes that the similar skull and body morphology is due to both species having originated from a larger common ancestor. The Arno river dog is an extinct species of canine, endemic to Mediterranean Europe during the Early Pleistocene around 1.9 million years ago. It is described as a small jackal-like dog and the ancestor of modern jackals, its anatomy and morphology relate it more to the modern golden jackal than to the two African jackal species, the black-backed jackal and the side-striped jackal. The oldest golden jackal fossil was found at the Ksar Akil rock shelter located 10 km northeast of Beirut, Lebanon.
Yuki Hayashi is a Japanese composer and arranger best known for his work on the soundtracks for television dramas and films. His most famous works include Triangle, Zettai Reido, Diabolik Lovers, Asa ga Kita, Haikyū!! and My Hero Academia. He was born in Kyoto, is represented by Legendoor, a music recording company. Hayashi used to be an athlete for Men's Rhythmic Gymnastics and he became fascinated by background score when selecting gymnastics floor music. Although he had no experience in producing music before, he started learning to compose himself during college years, he sold one of his pieces for 5000 yen to junior players as their gymnastics background music, progressively more orders came after other teams heard his works. After graduation, he became an apprentice of Hideo Kobayashi to learn beatmaking and meanwhile, he began making background music for dancesport. Hayashi Seisakusho~Oto No Tsumeawase Bin 1 Triangle BOSS Jyouou Left-Eye Detective EYE Zettai Reido Tumbling Perfect Report Strawberry Night seriesSP Strawberry Night TV Drama Strawberry Night Strawberry Midnight SP Strawberry Night: After the Invisible Rain Zettai Reido 2 Taisetsu na Koto wa Subete Kimi ga Oshiete Kureta BOSS 2nd Season Asuko March!~Kenritsu Asuka Kougyou Koukou Koushinkyoku~ Last Money: Ai no Nedan DOCTORS: Saikyo no Mei seriesDOCTORS: Saikyo no Mei SP DOCTORS: Saikyo no Mei DOCTORS2: Saikyo no Mei DOCTORS3: Saikyo no Mei Legal High seriesLegal High SP Legal High Legal High 2nd Season Rich Man, Poor Woman seriesRich Man, Poor Woman Rich Man, Poor Woman in New York Emergency Interrogation Room seriesEmergency Interrogation Room Emergency Interrogation Room Second Season Kazoku Ikari Yoshiwarauradonshin Genkai Shyuraku Kabushiki Gaisha -The Angel and the Demon- The God of Risk Asa ga Kita Fragile Good Partner: Muteki no Bengoshi War of Lie I'm Your Destiny My Lover's Secret Hitoshi Ueki and His Pupil May I Blackmail You?
Oh My Jump! -Shōnen Jump Saves the World- Signal: Chōki Mikaiketsu Jiken Sōsahan Fuhatsu-dan -Burakku Manei o Ayatsuru Otoko- Sakanoue Animal Clinic Story Ieyasu Builds the City of Edo Banjo no Arufa ~Yakusoku no Shogi~ Zekkyo Mirror Twins Anata no Ban desu Yuganda Hamon 10 no Himitsu Strawberry Night Kamisama no Karute 2 Blue Spring Ride April Fools Erased Aozora Yell One Piece Film: Gold PreCure movie seriesPretty Cure Dream Stars! KiraKira☆PreCure à la Mode: Crisply! The Memory of Mille-feuille! Pretty Cure Super Stars! Hugtto! PreCure Futari wa Pretty Cure: All Stars Memories PreCure Miracle Universe My Little Monster My Hero Academia movie seriesMy Hero Academia: Two Heroes My Hero Academia: The Movie Fortuna's Eye Bannou Yasai Ninninman ROBOTICS. Series Haikyū!! Haikyū!! Second Season Haikyū!! Karasuno High School vs Shiratorizawa Academy Haikyū!! Fourth Season Soul Eater Not! DRAMAtical Murder Death Parade Classroom☆Crisis Kiznaiver My Hero Academia seriesMy Hero Academia My Hero Academia 2nd Season My Hero Academia 3rd Season My Hero Academia 4th Season Trickster PreCure seriesKirakira PreCure a la Mode Hugtto!
PreCure Star Twinkle PreCure Dive!! Welcome to the Ballroom Junji Ito Collection Double Decker! Doug & Kirill Karakuri Circus Run with the Wind Pocket Monster Mr. Sunday Close-up Tohoku Tsuiseki! Shinsou No File Athlete No Tamashi Sports Plus World Sport MLB 66th NHK Kōhaku Uta Gassen Opening Theme "Zattsu Oomisoka" Alice Order Super Mecha Champions Re:Legend Gundam Battle: Gunpla Warfare Unknown Future 2013 National Inter-High School Championships Men's Rhythmic Gymnastics- Aomoriyamada Music 2015 MISS POLEDANCE JAPAN Ayaka Sakai Music Kyoto Animation "Ajisai" CM（2011） Social Game Dragon Tactics Winter CM Official website Official Legendoor page Yuki Hayashi at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Yuki Hayashi discography at VGMdb Yuki Hayashi on IMDb
A reticle, or reticule known as a graticule, is a pattern of fine lines or markings built into the eyepiece of a sighting device, such as a telescopic sight in a telescope, a microscope, or the screen of an oscilloscope, to provide measurement references during visual examination. Today, engraved lines or embedded fibers may be replaced by a computer-generated image superimposed on a screen or eyepiece. Both terms may be used to describe any set of lines used for optical measurement, but in modern use reticle is most used for gunsights and such, while graticule is more used for the oscilloscope display, microscope slides, similar roles. There are many variations of reticles. Crosshairs are most represented as intersecting lines in the shape of a cross, "+", though many variations exist, including dots, circles, chevrons, or a combination of these. Most associated with telescopic sights for aiming firearms, crosshairs are common in optical instruments used for astronomy and surveying, are popular in graphical user interfaces as a precision pointer.
The reticle is said to have been invented by Robert Hooke, dates to the 17th century. Another candidate as inventor is the amateur astronomer William Gascoigne. Telescopic sights for firearms just called scopes, are the device most associated with crosshairs. Motion pictures and the media use a view through crosshairs as a dramatic device, which has given crosshairs wide cultural exposure. While the traditional thin crossing lines are the original and still the most familiar cross-hair shape, they are best suited for precision aiming at high contrast targets, as the thin lines are lost in complex backgrounds, such as those encountered while hunting. Thicker bars are much easier to discern against a complex background, but lack the precision of thin bars; the most popular types of cross-hair in modern scopes are variants on the duplex cross-hair, with bars that are thick on the perimeter and thin out in the middle. The thick bars allow the eye to locate the center of the reticle, the thin lines in the center allow for precision aiming.
The thin bars in a duplex reticle may be designed to be used as a measure. Called a 30/30 reticle, the thin bars on such a reticle span 30 minutes of arc, equal to 30 inches at 100 yards; this enables an experienced shooter to deduce, on the basis of the known size of an object in view, the range within an acceptable error limit. Crosshairs were constructed out of hair or spiderweb, these materials being sufficiently thin and strong. Many modern scopes use wire crosshairs, which can be flattened to various degrees to change the width; these wires are silver in color, but appear black when backlit by the image passing through the scope's optics. Wire reticles are by nature simple, as they require lines that pass all the way across the reticle, the shapes are limited to the variations in thickness allowed by flattening the wire; the advantage of wire crosshairs is that they are tough and durable, provide no obstruction to light passing through the scope. The first suggestion for etched glass reticles was made by Philippe de La Hire in 1700.
His method was based on engraving the lines on a glass plate with a diamond point. Many modern crosshairs are etched onto a thin plate of glass, which allows a far greater latitude in shapes. Etched glass reticles can have floating elements. A potential disadvantage of glass reticles is that they are less durable than wire crosshairs, the surface of the glass reflects some light lessening transmission through the scope, although this light loss is near zero if the glass is multicoated. Reticles may be illuminated, either by a plastic or fiber optic light pipe collecting ambient light or, in low light conditions, by a battery powered LED; some sights use the radioactive decay of tritium for illumination that can work for 11 years without using a battery, used in the British SUSAT sight for the SA80 assault rifle and in the American ACOG. Red is the most common color used, as it is the least destructive to the shooter's night vision, but some products use green or yellow illumination, either as a single colour or changeable via user selection.
A graticule is another term for reticle encountered in British and British military technical manuals, came into common use during World War One. The reticle may be located at rear focal plane of the telescopic sight. On fixed power telescopic sights there is no significant difference, but on variable power telescopic sights the front plane reticle remains at a constant size compared to the target, while rear plane reticles remain a constant size to the user as the target image grows and shrinks. Front focal plane reticles are more durable, but most American users prefer that the reticle remains constant as the image changes size, so nearly all modern American variable power telescopic sights are rear focal plane designs. American and European hig