Refugio County, Texas
Refugio County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,383, its county seat is Refugio. The county was created as a municipality of Mexico in 1834 and organized as a county in 1837. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 818 square miles, of which 770 square miles is land and 48 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 77 Interstate 69E is under construction and will follow the current route of U. S. 77 in most places. U. S. Highway 77 Alternate/U. S. Highway 183 State Highway 35 State Highway 239 Farm to Market Road 136 Farm to Market Road 774 Farm to Market Road 2441 Farm to Market Road 2678 Victoria County Calhoun County Aransas County San Patricio County Bee County Goliad County Aransas National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 7,828 people, 2,985 households, 2,176 families residing in the county; the population density was 10 people per square mile. There were 3,669 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 80.22% White, 6.77% Black or African American, 0.56% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 10.42% from other races, 1.67% from two or more races. 44.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,985 households out of which 31.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 12.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.10% were non-families. 24.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 16.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 95.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,986, the median income for a family was $36,162.
Males had a median income of $29,667 versus $16,565 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,481. About 14.30% of families and 17.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.20% of those under age 18 and 16.30% of those age 65 or over. The Tom O'Connor field was discovered in 1934 with the Quintana No. 1-A well, the location of, based on a gravity survey and a trend of other fields to the southwest and northeast between the Vicksburg Fault Zone and the Frio Fault Zone. The field is a structural trap formed by an anticline on the downthrown side of the Vicksburg Fault Zone; the faulting is due to "large-scale gravity slumping", these types of faults are referred to as growth faults, which are normal faults that occur with sedimentation. Most of the oil and half the gas is produced at depths between 4500–6000 feet, from 15 oil reservoirs and 4 gas reservoirs in the Oligocene Frio Formation sandstones deposited during Marine regression, notably the "5900 foot sand", the "5800 foot sand", the "5500 foot sand" and the "5200 foot sand".
Gas with some oil is found above these sandstones in the Oligocene Anahuac Formation, deposited in a Marine transgression, notably the "4400 foot Greta sand". Dry gas is found in the Miocene-Pliocene Fleming sandstones deposited during marine regression, notably the "L-4 sand, overlain by 1400 feet of Pleistocene Lissie sandstones. Medical care is provided to the citizens of Refugio County through a county hospital, several rural health clinics, a wellness clinic and a specialty clinic. Refugio County Medical Center opened in 1940 and underwent expansions in 1962 and 2009; the hospital was run by religious orders until the 1970s. A hospital district was established in 1977. Austwell Bayside Refugio Woodsboro Tivoli Copano St. Mary's of Aransas Structural evolution of the Louisiana gulf coast List of museums in the Texas Gulf Coast National Register of Historic Places listings in Refugio County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Refugio County Refugio County from the Handbook of Texas Online Refugio County government "Refugio County Profile" from the Texas Association of Counties Exxon wins, again, in oil field sabotage case At Tom O'Connor Ranch, Field Production High
The Goliad Campaign was the 1836 Mexican offensive to retake the Texas Gulf Coast during the Texas Revolution. Mexican troops under the command of General José de Urrea defeated rebellious immigrants to the Mexican province of Texas, known as Texians, in a series of clashes in February and March; when Mexico transitioned to a centralized government in 1835, supporters of federalism took up arms. Colonists in Texas immigrants from the United States, revolted in October 1835 and by the end of the year had expelled all Mexican troops from their province. With hostilities temporarily suspended, Frank W. Johnson and James Grant gathered volunteers for a planned invasion of the Mexican port town of Matamoros. James Fannin commanded troops stationed at Fort Defiance in Goliad. Unbeknownst to the Texians, on February 18 Urrea led a large contingent of troops from Matamoros into Texas to neutralize the rebels gathered along the coast, his troops defeated Johnson's small force at the Battle of San Patricio on February 26.
Several days informants revealed Grant's location, on the morning of March 2, 150 Mexican troops ambushed Grant's men at the Battle of Agua Dulce. The Mexican army turned northward, headed towards Goliad. On March 12, they encountered a group of Texian soldiers, under the command of William Ward at Refugio; the Texians repulsed Mexican attacks for several days. On March 15, as their ammunition ran short, Texians retreated from Refugio. Many were captured. Fannin ordered the bulk of his army to retreat from Goliad on March 19, in the hopes of joining the forces of General Sam Houston; that afternoon, Urrea's troops surrounded the Texians on an open prairie. The Battle of Coleto ended with a Texian surrender on March 20. Urrea marched the Texians back to Fort Defiance. One week under the orders of Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Texians were marched outside the fort and shot. News of the Goliad Massacre spread outrage and fear among the population of the fledgling Republic of Texas and abroad.
Under President Antonio López de Santa Anna, the Mexican government began to shift away from a federalist model to a more centralized government. His dictatorial policies, including the revocation of the Constitution of 1824 in early 1835, incited federalists throughout the nation to revolt; the Mexican army put down revolts in the Mexican interior, including a brutal suppression of militias in Oaxaca and Zacatecas. Unrest continued in the Mexican state Coahuila y Tejas; the area that bordered the United States, known as Texas, was populated by English-speaking settlers, known as Texians. In October, the Texians took up arms in; the following month, Texians declared themselves part of a state independent from Coahuila and created a provisional state government based on the principles of the Constitution of 1824. By the end of the year, all Mexican troops had been expelled from Texas. Determined to quash the rebellion, Santa Anna began assembling a large force to restore order. In late December, at his behest, the Mexican Congress passed the Tornel Decree, declaring that any foreigners fighting against Mexican troops "will be deemed pirates and dealt with as such, being citizens of no nation presently at war with the Republic and fighting under no recognized flag".
In the early nineteenth century, captured pirates were executed immediately. The resolution thus gave the Mexican Army permission to take no prisoners in the war against the Texians. Santa Anna led the bulk of his troops inland to San Antonio de Béxar and ordered General José de Urrea to lead 550 troops along the Atascocita Road toward Goliad. In Goliad, Colonel James Fannin commanded the Texan force of nearly 500 trained soldiers and militia. Fannin had chosen to keep his troops at Goliad because it had a fort, from which he believed it would be easier to fight than out in the open. Fannin believed that by occupying Goliad, he could prevent Mexican commander Antonio López de Santa Anna from drawing supplies from the Gulf of Mexico, but Fannin was called to assist Colonel William Travis at the Alamo. On February 26, 1836, he attempted to march to San Antonio but turned back at the San Antonio River because of the inability to travel with the artillery and arms. Meanwhile, Mexican forces under General José de Urrea were reaching Goliad, they defeated three Texan forces at the Battle of San Patricio on February 27, the Battle of Agua Dulce on March 2, the Battle of Refugio on March 12.
Fannin sent Captain Amon B. King on a mission to Refugio on March 11, to remove several noncombatant families out of the path of Urrea's army. On March 13, King was surrounded by elements of the Mexican army and sent out a plea for help to Fannin, who sent Lieutenant-Colonel William Ward and the Georgia Battalion to reinforce him. Urrea, heard of their presence and marched a flying column of 300 Mexican troops to Refugio, hoping to overtake the Texians. On March 14, Ward defended his position at the Refugio Mission, while King's men fought from a stand of trees; the two sides clashed and fought until dark with Urrea's soldiers suffering heavy casualties, when Colonel Ward received word from Fannin to rendezvous at Victoria. That night, King led his men in an independent escape attempt, they were surrendered for lack of munitions. Captain King and all but one man were executed in short order. Ward and the Georgia Battalion attempted to escape to Victoria, where they expected to link up with the balance of Fannin's command.
After wandering on the coastal prairie for several days, the Georgia Battalion reached Victoria, only
Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo is an annual celebration held on May 5. The date is observed to commemorate the Mexican Army's victory over the French Empire at the Battle of Puebla, on May 5, 1862, under the leadership of General Ignacio Zaragoza. In the United States, Cinco de Mayo has taken on a significance beyond that in Mexico. More popularly celebrated in the United States than Mexico, the date has become associated with the celebration of Mexican-American culture. In Mexico, the commemoration of the battle continues to be ceremonial, such as through military parades or battle reenactments. Cinco de Mayo is sometimes mistaken for Mexico's Independence Day—the most important national holiday in Mexico—which is celebrated on September 16, commemorating the Cry of Dolores that initiated the war of Mexican independence from Spain. Cinco de Mayo has its roots in the Second French intervention in Mexico, which took place in the aftermath of the 1846–48 Mexican–American War and the 1858–61 Reform War; the Reform War was a civil war.
These wars nearly bankrupted the Mexican Treasury. On July 17, 1861, Mexican President Benito Juárez issued a moratorium in which all foreign debt payments would be suspended for two years. In response, Britain and Spain sent naval forces to Veracruz to demand reimbursement. Britain and Spain negotiated with Mexico and withdrew, but France, at the time ruled by Napoleon III, decided to use the opportunity to establish an empire in Mexico that would favor French interests, the Second Mexican Empire; the empire was part of an envisioned "Latin America" that would rebuild French influence in the American continent and exclude Anglophone American territories. Late in 1861, a well-armed French fleet attacked Veracruz, landing a large French force and driving President Juárez and his government into retreat. Moving on from Veracruz towards Mexico City, the French army encountered heavy resistance from the Mexicans close to Puebla, at the Mexican forts of Loreto and Guadalupe; the French army of 8,000 attacked the poorly equipped Mexican army of 4,000.
On May 5, 1862, the Mexicans decisively defeated the French army. The victory represented a significant morale boost to the Mexican army and the Mexican people at large and helped establish a sense of national unity and patriotism; the Mexican victory, was short-lived. A year with 30,000 troops, the French were able to defeat the Mexican army, capture Mexico City, install Emperor Maximilian I as ruler of Mexico; the French victory was itself short-lived, lasting only three years, from 1864 to 1867. By 1865, "with the American Civil War now over, the U. S. began to provide more political and military assistance to Mexico to expel the French". Upon the conclusion of the American Civil War, Napoleon III, facing a persistent Mexican guerilla resistance, the threat of war with Prussia, "the prospect of a serious scrap with the United States", retreated from Mexico starting in 1866; the Mexicans recaptured Mexico City, Maximilian I was apprehended and executed, along with his Mexican generals Miguel Miramón and Tomás Mejía Camacho in Cerro de las Campanas, Querétaro.
"On June 5, 1867, Benito Juárez entered Mexico City where he installed a new government and reorganized his administration." The Battle of Puebla was nationally and internationally, for several reasons. First, although outnumbered, the Mexicans defeated a much-better-equipped French army. "This battle was significant in that the 4,000 Mexican soldiers were outnumbered by the well-equipped French army of 8,000 that had not been defeated for 50 years." Second, since the Battle of Puebla, some have argued that no country in the Americas has subsequently been invaded by any other European military force. Historian Justo Sierra has written in his Political Evolution of the Mexican People that, had Mexico not defeated the French in Puebla on May 5, 1862, France would have gone to the aid of the Confederacy in the U. S. Civil War and the United States' destiny would have been different. According to a paper published by the UCLA Center for the Study of Latino Health and Culture about the origin of the observance of Cinco de Mayo in the United States, the modern American focus on that day first started in California in 1863 in response to the resistance to French rule in Mexico.
"Far up in the gold country town of Columbia Mexican miners were so overjoyed at the news that they spontaneously fired off rifle shots and fireworks, sang patriotic songs and made impromptu speeches."A 2007 UCLA Newsroom article notes that, "the holiday, celebrated in California continuously since 1863, is ignored in Mexico." TIME magazine reports that "Cinco de Mayo started to come into vogue in 1940s America during the rise of the Chicano Movement." The holiday crossed over from California into the rest of the United States in the 1950s and 1960s but did not gain popularity until the 1980s when marketers beer companies, capitalized on the celebratory nature of the day and began to promote it. It grew in popularity and evolved into a celebration of Mexican culture and heritage, first in areas with large Mexican-American populations, like Los Angeles, Chicago and San Jose. In a 1998 study in the Journal of American Culture it was reported that there were more than 120 official US celebrations of Cinco de Mayo in 21 different states.
An update in 2006 found that the number of official Cinco de Mayo events w
DeWitt County, Texas
DeWitt County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 20,097; the county seat is Cuero. The county is named for Green DeWitt, who founded an early colony in Texas. Archeological digs indicate early habitation from the Paleo-Indians Hunter-gatherers period. Tonkawa, Tamiques, Karankawa. Tawakoni, Lipan Apache and Comanche hunted in the county; the first European visitors to the county are thought to have been Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Alonso del Castillo Maldonado, Andrés Dorantes de Carranza, his slave Estevanico of the ill-fated 1528 Narváez expedition. French explorer René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle is believed to have crossed the county on his way westward from Victoria County. In 1825, empresario Green DeWitt received a grant from the Coahuila y Tejas legislature to settle 400 families. Between 1826 and 1831 settlers arrived from Tennessee, Kentucky and other Southern states. A temporary county government was set up in 1846, with the county seat being Daniel Boone Friar's store at the junction of the La Bahía Road and the Gonzales-Victoria road.
On November 28, 1850, Clinton became the county seat until Cuero became county seat in 1876. Dewitt County voted in favor of secession from the Union, sent several military units to serve. During Reconstruction, the county was occupied by the Fourth Corps, based at Victoria. From April 1866 until December 1868 a subassistant commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau served at Clinton; the community of Hopkinsville was established in 1872 by Henry Hopkins, freedman former slave of Judge Henry Clay Pleasants, the judge credited for ending the Sutton-Taylor Feud. Residents began a school, active until 1956, established the Antioch Baptist Church; the notorious Sutton–Taylor feud began as a Reconstruction era county law enforcement issue between the Taylor family and lawman William E. Sutton, it involved both the Taylor and Sutton families, the Texas State Police, the Texas Rangers and John Wesley Hardin. The feud, which lasted a decade and cost 35 lives, has been called the longest and bloodiest in Texas history.
April 1, 1866 marked the first cattle drive on the Chisholm Trail, which originated at Cardwell's Flat, near the present Cuero. The coming of the railroads eliminated the need for the Chisholm Trail. Dewitt's first rail line, the Gulf, Western Texas and Pacific, extended to San Antonio; the San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railway, was the second line in the county. In 1907 the Galveston and San Antonio Railway came through Dewitt. In 1925, the three lines came under the control of the Southern Pacific lines and operated as the Texas and New Orleans Railroad. Passenger service continued until November 1950; the United States Army Air Corps opened Cuero Field, serving 290 cadets, at Cuero Municipal Airport as a pilot flight school in 1941. The school was deactivated in 1944. Cuero and its large turkey growing industry bills itself as the "Turkey Capital of the World"; the turkey industry in Cuero began large scale operations in 1908. Much like ranchers had cattle drives, Cuero poultry growers drove their turkeys down Main Street to the local packing plant.
Each year the crowds grew to watch the sight and sound of upwards of 20,000 turkeys going through town. The first annual Cuero Turkey Trot celebration began in 1912, complete with the "Turkey Trot" dance music of the era. By the 1970s, the event had become a 3-day typical Texas celebration with parades, live entertainment, food booths and street dances. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 910 square miles, of which 909 square miles is land and 1.5 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 87 U. S. Highway 77 Alternate/U. S. Highway 183 State Highway 72 State Highway 119 Lavaca County Victoria County Goliad County Karnes County Gonzales County As of the census of 2000, there were 20,013 people, 7,207 households, 5,131 families residing in the county; the population density was 22 people per square mile. There were 8,756 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.4% White, 11.0% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 10.0% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races.
27.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 28.0% were of German and 6.1% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 77.2% spoke English, 20.5% Spanish and 1.6% German as their first language. There were 7,207 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.80% were non-families. 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.8% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 105.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.2 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,714, the median income for a family was $33,513.
Males had a median income of $27,134 versus $18,370 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,780. About 15.3% of families and 19.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.5% of those under age 18 and 16.5% of those a
Washington-on-the-Brazos is an unincorporated area along the Brazos River in Washington County, United States. Founded when Texas was still a part of Mexico, the settlement was the site of the Convention of 1836 and the signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence; the name "Washington-on-the-Brazos" was used to distinguish the settlement from "Washington-on-the-Potomac"—i.e. Washington, D. C. Founded by immigrants from the southern United States, Washington-on-the-Brazos is known as "the birthplace of Texas" because here, on March 1, 1836, Texas delegates met to formally announce Texas' intention to separate from Mexico and to draft the constitution of the new Republic of Texas, they organized an interim government to serve until a government could be inaugurated. The delegates declared independence on March 2, 1836, they adopted their constitution on March 16. The delegates worked until March 17, when they had to flee with the residents of Washington, to escape the advancing Mexican Army.
The townspeople returned after the Mexican Army was defeated at San Jacinto on April 21. Town leaders lobbied for Washington’s designation as the permanent capital of the Republic of Texas, but leaders of the Republic favored Waterloo, renamed Austin. Washington County was established by the legislature of the Republic of Texas in 1836 and organized in 1837, when Washington-on-the-Brazos was designated as the county seat. Although the county seat moved to Brenham in 1844, the town continued to thrive as a center for the cotton trade until the mid-1850s, as it was located on the Brazos River to use for shipping out the crop; the construction of railroads pulled off its business. The strife of the Civil War took another toll on the town, by the turn of the 20th century, it was abandoned; the State of Texas purchased 50 acres of the old townsite in 1916 and built a replica of the building where the delegates met. The state acquired more of the site in 1976 and 1996. Located between Brenham and Navasota off State Highway 105, the site is now known as Washington-on-the-Brazos State Historic Site.
It covers 293 acres, features three main attractions: Independence Hall, Barrington Living History Farm, the Star of the Republic Museum, administered by Blinn College. The site's visitor center is free and includes interactive exhibits about the Texas Revolution and the park's attractions, a gift shop, a conference center and an education center; the Barrington Living History Farm is a living museum homestead that represents the mid-19th-century farm founded by Dr. Anson Jones, the last President of the Republic of Texas. Costumed interpreters raise cotton, corn and hogs using period techniques; the 1844 Anson Jones Home was moved to the site in 1936 as part of the Texas Centennial Celebration. The reconstructed outbuildings include two slave cabins, a kitchen building, a smokehouse, a cotton house and a barn; the farmstead opened in 2000, is operated by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. In Houston, Washington Avenue was named after Washington-on-the-Brazos, it was the western route to Washington County.
Following the present-day road: Washington Avenue. Any students residing in the area are within the Brenham Independent School District. List of museums in East Texas Open-air museum Washington-on-the-Brazos, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved Apr. 12, 2005. Washington-on-the-Brazos State Historical Park from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved Apr. 12, 2005. Washington-on-the-Brazos web site Washington-on-the-Brazos State Historic Site Star of the Republic Museum Barrington Living History Farm - Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Visitor information for Washington County, Texas
Texas's 34th congressional district
Texas's 34th Congressional District is a district, created as a result of the 2010 Census. The first candidates ran in the 2012 House elections, were seated for the 113th United States Congress. Filemon Vela, Jr. won the general election, was seated in the new district. Texas's 34th Congressional District is composed of the area on the Gulf Coast between Brownsville and Corpus Christi
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti