The parang is a type of machete or cleaver used across the Malay archipelago. Typical vegetation in South East Asia is more woody than in South America and the parang is therefore optimized for a stronger chopping action with a heavier blade and a "sweet spot" further forward of the handle; this is the same rationale and the same design as the Indonesian golok and similar to the Filipino bolo. The parang blade ranges from 10 to 36 inches in length; the parang has a weight of up to 2 lb and the edge uses a convex grind. The parang has three different edges: the front is sharp and used for skinning, the middle is wider and used for chopping, the back end is fine and used for carving. A parang handle is made out of wood or horn, with a wide end to prevent slips in wet conditions; the tang of the parang is of hidden tang design, but full tang designs are available. Like the machete, the parang is used in the jungle as well as being a tool for making housing and tools; the parang has been noted in John "Lofty" Wiseman.
Parang are recorded being used in attacks against the Japanese. They are carried as weapons by gang members and robbers in Malaysia, Singapore and Sri Lanka, due to these countries having strict gun laws. Parangs were used by Chinese forces against the Japanese in the Jesselton Revolt during the Japanese occupation of British Borneo. Golok Kukri
The badik or badek is a knife or dagger developed by the Bugis and Makassar people of southern Sulawesi, Indonesia. The badik scabbard, it comes in a great variety of sizes. The badik can have a straight, bulbous or wavy, single- or double-edged blade; the blade is smooth or with hollow sections. The point of the blade can be either rounded. Like the kris, the shape of the blade is asymmetric and shows patterns typical of pamor. However, it differs from the kris; some versions from Sulawesi are decorated with inlaid gold figure on the blade called jeko. The handle is made of wood, horn or ivory in a shape of a pistol grip at a 45° to 90° angle or similar in a bent shape decorated with carvings. From its native Sulawesi, the badik soon spread to neighbouring islands like Java, Sumatra and as far as the Malay Peninsula, creating a wide variety of badik styles according to each region and ethnic group. There are many versions used throughout the Indonesian archipelago alone; as with other blades in the Malay Archipelago, traditionally-made badik are believed to be imbued with a supernatural force during the time of their forging.
The pamor in particular is said to affect its owner, bringing either well-being and prosperity or misfortune and poverty. Aside from being used as a weapon and hunting tool, the badik is a symbol of cultural identity in Sulawesi; as as the 1960s, the badik was worn as part of daily attire and badik crimes were reported regularly. In the colonial era, it was considered a pity; the Bugis and Makassar people still carry badik on ceremonial occasions today. The badik is worn on butt end of the handle pointing to the rear; when the weapon is shifted from the right to the left side, or when worn at the left, handle reversed facing forward, it is signatory of impending combat. The traditional form of duelling among the Bugis-Makassar community was called sigajang laleng lipa, sitobo lalang lipa or sibajji lalang lipa in which the duellists fight in a sarong; the challenger stands with a loosened sarong around him and respectfully invites the other man to step into the sarong. The sarong itself is kept taut around both their waists.
When both men are inside, an agreement to fight til death and thereafter shall be no hereditary grudge nor will any party be allowed to question the duel, shall be made. If both fighters agree, they engage each other with badik within the confined space of a single sarong; because avoiding injury is near-impossible for the victor, this type of duel was considered a sign of extraordinary bravery and the warrior mentality. Although true sitobo lalang lipa are no longer practiced, enactments of these duels are still performed at cultural shows today; the badik is the main weapon in Mangkasara styles of pencak silat. It is drawn by slashing from left to right, again from right to left if the first attack fails; the badik is a thrusting weapon. The Bugis and sometimes the Makassar use a pinch-grip when holding the badik, with the fingers just below the point where the handle is attached to the blade; the Mangkasara badik has a broader blade compared to the thinner Bugis counterpart. As a result, Mangkasara fighting systems use flat-blade techniques so that the weapon can penetrate between the ribs.
Donn F. Draeger. Weapons & Fighting Arts of Indonesia. Tuttle Publishing. Pp. 9, 201, 202. ISBN 1-4629-0509-9. Robert Cato. Moro Swords. Graham Brash. P. 34. ISBN 978-981-218-059-9
Mandau is the traditional weapon of the Dayak people of Borneo. Sometimes it is known as Parang Ilang among the Bidayuh and Penan people, Malat by the Kayan people or Baieng by the Kenyah people or Bandau by Lun Bawang or Pelepet/Felepet by Lundayeh. Mandau is ceremonial. However, a less elaborate version called. Associated with the Headhunting Ceremony, where people would gather to attack other tribes, gather heads to be used in various festivities, Mandau is both a work of art in itself and a weapon. Characteristics for the Mandau is that the blade is shaped convexly on one side and somewhat concavely on the other side; the blade is made of tempered metals, with exquisite vine-works and inlaid brass. The hilt is made from animal horns, such as deer's horns, although some variations with human bones and fragrant wood have been found. Both the hilt and scabbard are elaborately plumed. Details of carvings vary from tribe to tribe, but depict creatures or, if human bones were used, anthropomorphic deities.
A Mandau is accompanied with a whittling knife referred to as Pisau raut. Ambang is a term used for Mandau, made from common steel, it is made as souvenir. For the untrained eye and those who are not familiar with the Mandau, will not be able to distinguish the difference between a Mandau and an Ambang because of the outlook appearance that looks similar; however the two are very different. If one examines in detail, the differences are obvious that the engravings can be found on the blade and it is embedded with gold, copper or silver; the Mandau holds a stronger edge and with flexibility, as it is said that the Mandau is made from iron ore obtained from rocky mountains forged by skilled blacksmiths. Whereas the Ambang is made from ordinary steel. Jimpul Langgai Tinggang Niabor Parang Ilang, Malat/Mandau or Baieng
West Java is a province of Indonesia. It is located in the western part of the island of Java and its capital and largest urban center is Bandung, although much of its population in the northwest corner of the province live in areas suburban to the larger urban area of Jakarta, though that city itself lies outside the administrative province. With a population of 46.3 million West Java is the most populous of Indonesia's provinces. The city proper of Bandung, largest city in West Java, has one of the highest population density worldwide, while Bekasi and Depok are the 7th and 10th most populated suburbs in the world. All these cities are suburban to Jakarta; the oldest human inhabitant archaeological findings in the region were unearthed in Anyer with evidence of bronze and iron metallurgical culture dating to the first millennium AD. The prehistoric Buni culture clay pottery were developed with evidence found in Anyer to Cirebon. Artefacts, such as food and drink containers, were found as burial gifts.
There is archaeological evidence in Batujaya Archaeological Site dating from the 2nd century and, according to Dr Tony Djubiantono, the head of Bandung Archaeology Agency, Jiwa Temple in Batujaya, West Java was built around this time. One of the earliest known recorded history in Indonesia is from the former Tarumanagara kingdom, where seven fourth century stones are inscribed in Wengi letters and in Sanskrit describing the kings of the kingdom Tarumanagara. Records of Tarumanegara's administration lasted until the sixth century, which coincides with the attack of Srivijaya, as stated in the Kota Kapur inscription; the Sunda Kingdom subsequently became the ruling power of the region, as recorded on the Kebon Kopi II inscription. An Ulama, Sunan Gunung Jati, settled in Cirebon, with the intention of spreading the word of Islam in the pagan town. In the meantime, the Sultanate of Demak in central Java grew to an immediate threat against the Sunda kingdom. To defend against the threat, Prabu Surawisesa Jayaperkosa signed a treaty with the Portuguese in 1512.
In return, the Portuguese were granted an accession to build fortresses and warehouses in the area, as well as form trading agreements with the kingdom. This first international treaty of West Java with the Europeans was commemorated by the placement of the Padrao stone monument at the bank of the Ciliwung River in 1522. Although the treaty with the Portuguese had been established, it could not come to realization. Sunda Kalapa harbour fell under the alliance of the Sultanate of Demak and the Sultanate of Cirebon in 1524, after their troops under Paletehan alias Fadillah Khan had conquered the city. In 1524/1525, their troops under Sunan Gunung Jati seized the port of Banten and established the Sultanate of Banten, affiliating with the Sultanate of Demak; the war between the Sunda kingdom with Demak and Cirebon sultanates continued for five years until a peace treaty was made in 1531 between King Surawisesa and Sunan Gunung Jati. From 1567 to 1579, under the last king Raja Mulya, alias Prabu Surya Kencana, the Sunda kingdom declined under the pressure from Sultanate of Banten.
After 1576, the kingdom could not maintain its capital at Pakuan Pajajaran and the Sultanate of Banten took over the former Sunda kingdom's region. The Mataram Sultanate from central Java seized the Priangan region, the southeastern part of the kingdom. In the sixteenth century, the Dutch and the British trading companies established their trading ships in West Java after the falldown of Sultanate of Banten. For the next three hundred years, West Java fell under the Dutch East Indies' administration. West Java was declared as a province of Indonesia in 1950, referring to a statement from Staatblad number 378. On October 17, 2000, as part of nationwide political decentralization, Banten was separated from West Java and made into a new province. There have been recent proposals to rename the province Pasundan after the historical name for West Java. Since the creation of West Bandung Regency in 2008, the Province of West Java has been subdivided into 9 cities and 17 regencies; these 26 cities and regencies are divided into 620 districts, which comprise 1,576 urban villages and 4,301 rural villages.
An 18th regency was formed in October 2012 - Pangandaran Regency - from the southern half of Ciamis Regency. Notes* - the 2005 population is included in the total for Bandung Regency, of which West Bandung Regency was part. ** - the figures for Ciamis Regency include those for the new Pangandaran Regency, created in 2012. West Java borders Jakarta and Banten province to the west, Central Java to the east. To the north is the Java Sea. To the south is the Indian Ocean. Unlike most other provinces in Indonesia which have their capitals in coastal areas, the provincial capital, Bandung, is loc
Balato is a sword that originates from Nias, an island off the west coast of North Sumatra, Indonesia. Balato is a sword with large variety of blades and scabbards. Three types of blades can be distinguished, all broadening at the point: with an straight blade back and straight edge; the cutting edge is rounded from place to back. With an straight back and a straight or concave cutting edge, while the back S-shape runs to the cutting edge at the site. With a convex back, a concave edge and a strong concave section at the location; the hilts are varied, but all can be reduced to an animal's head or mouth, most of the time the lasara, made in a plain stylized way or in a complex, richly decorated form. Most of this hilts are made from wood. Wooden hilts have brass ferrule broadening towards the blade; the scabbard is made of wood with rattan bindings along the scabbard. A round rattan basket is attached to the scabbard to keep various amulets in; the southern Balatos have more decorated baskets on their scabbards compared to the northern region.
In South Nias, the locals practice a war dance called Faluaya dance. In this dance, the dancers wore colorful clothing consists of black and red, fitted with a crown on the head. Like a knight in battle, dancers carry Baluse and spears as a means of defense from enemy attack; the Baluse that were used are made of wood shaped like banana leaves and are held on the left hand which serves to deflect enemy attacks, while the sword or spear in the right hand serves to counter enemy attacks. Both of these weapons are the main weapons used for fighting by a Nias knight. In those days, young men in the village were required to leap over the rock of 2 meters in height during the Fahombo ceremony in order to attain adulthood; this would signify that those men are able to protect and to defend their village once achieving adulthood. Therefore, the Si'ulu would recruit these men. In the past, the Nias people were feared for their headhunting practices, it is believed. Today, headhunting are no longer practiced as majority of the Nias population are Protestant Christians.
Volkenkundig Museum Nusantara. Nias. Delft, Netherlands: Volkenkundig Museum Nusantara. ISBN 90-71423-05-0. Balato Sword - Yale Art Gallery
The hilt of a sword is its handle, consisting of a guard and pommel. The guard may contain quillons. A ricasso may be present, but this is the case. A tassel or sword knot may be attached to the pommel; the pommel is an enlarged fitting at the top of the handle. They were developed to prevent the sword slipping from the hand. From around the 11th century in Europe they became heavy enough to be a counterweight to the blade; this gave the sword a point of balance not too far from the hilt allowing a more fluid fighting style. Depending on sword design and swordsmanship style, the pommel may be used to strike the opponent. Pommels have appeared in a wide variety of shapes, including oblate spheroids, disks and animal or bird heads, they are engraved or inlayed with various designs and gilt and mounted with jewels. Ewart Oakeshott introduced a system of classification of medieval pommel forms in his The Sword in the Age of Chivalry to stand alongside his blade typology. Oakeshott pommel types are enumerated with capital letters A–Z, with subtypes indicated by numerals.
The grip is the handle of the sword. It was of wood or metal, covered with shagreen. Shark skin proved to be the most durable in temperate climates but deteriorated in hot climates, rubber became popular in the latter half of the 19th century. Alternatively, many sword types opt for ray skin instead, referred to in katana construction as the "same". Whatever material covered the grip, it was both glued on and held on with wire wrapped around it in a helix, it is a common misconception that the cross-guard protects the user's entire hand from the opponent's sword. Only with the abandonment of the shield and the armoured gauntlet did a full hand guard become necessary; the crossguard still protected the user from a blade, deliberately slid down the length of the blade to cut off or injure the hand. Early swords do not have true guards but a form of stop to prevent the hand slipping up the blade when thrusting as they were invariably used in conjunction with a shield. From the 11th century, European sword guards took the form of a straight crossbar perpendicular to the blade.
Beginning in the 16th century in Europe, guards became more and more elaborate, with additional loops and curved bars or branches to protect the hand. A single curved piece alongside the fingers was referred to as a knuckle-bow; the bars could be supplemented or replaced with metal plates that could be ornamentally pierced. The term "basket hilt" came into vogue to describe such designs, there are a variety of basket-hilted swords. Emphasis upon the thrust attack with rapiers and smallswords revealed a vulnerability to thrusting. By the 17th century, guards were developed that incorporated a solid shield that surrounded the blade out to a diameter of up to two inches or more. Older forms of this guard retained the quillons or a single quillon, but forms eliminated the quillons, altogether being referred to as a cup-hilt; this latter form is the basis of the guards of modern épées. The ricasso is a blunt section of blade just below the guard. On developed hilts it is protected by an extension of the guard.
On two-handed swords, the ricasso provided a third hand position, permitting the user's hands to be further apart for better leverage. The sword knot or sword strap, sometimes called a tassel, is a lanyard—usually of leather but sometimes of woven gold or silver bullion, or more metallic lace—looped around the hand to prevent the sword being lost if it is dropped. Although they have a practical function, sword knots had a decorative design. For example, the British Army adopted a white leather strap with a large acorn knot made out of gold wire for infantry officers at the end of the 19th century; such acorn forms of tassels were called'boxed', the way of securing the fringe of the tassel along its bottom line such that the strands could not separate and become entangled or lost. Many sword knots were made of silk with a fine, ornamental alloy gold or silver metal wire woven into it in a specified pattern; the art and history of tassels are known by its French name, passementerie, or Posamenten as it was called in German.
The military output of the artisans called passementiers is evident in catalogs of various military uniform and regalia makers of centuries past. The broader art form of passementerie, with its divisions of Decor and Nobility, Upholstery and Livery, Military, is covered in a few books on that subject, none of which are in English. Indian swords had the tassel attached through an eyelet at the end of the pommel. Chinese swords, both jian and dao have lanyards or tassels attached; as with Western sword knots, these serve both decorative and practical functions, the manipulation of the tassel is a part of some jian performances. The hilt ring is an optional item used for decoration
A bolo is a large cutting tool of Filipino origin similar to the machete. It is used in the Philippines, the jungles of Indonesia, in the sugar fields of Cuba; the primary use for the bolo is clearing vegetation, whether for agriculture or during trail blazing. The bolo is used in Filipino martial arts or Arnis as part of training; the bolo knife is common in the countryside due to its use. As such, it was used extensively during Spanish colonial rule as a manual alternative to ploughing with a carabao. Used for cutting coconuts, it was a common harvesting tool for narrow row crops found on terraces such as rice, mungbeans and peanuts; because of its availability, the bolo became a common choice of improvised weaponry to the everyday peasant. Bolos are characterized by having a native hardwood or animal horn handle, a full tang, by a steel blade that both curves and widens considerably so, at its tip; this moves the centre of gravity as far forward as possible, giving the knife extra momentum for chopping.
So-called "jungle bolos", intended for combat rather than agricultural work, tend to be longer and less wide at the tip. Bolos for gardening have rounded tips. Various types of bolos are employed for different purposes: The all-purpose bolo: Used for all sorts of odd jobs, such as breaking open coconuts; the haras: Similar to a small scythe, it is used for cutting tall grass. It is called "Lampas" by people from Mindanao; the kutsilyo: The term comes from the Spanish word cuchillo. Used to kill and bleed pigs during slaughter. A smaller bolo; the bolo-guna: A bolo shaped for digging out roots and weeding. The garab: Used to harvest rice. A large pinuti: Traditionally it is tipped in snake, spider, or scorpion venom and used for self-defence; the sundang: Supposedly used to open coconuts, the sundang was a popular weapon of choice in the Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire and during the subsequent Philippine–American War. The bolo was the primary weapon used by the Katipunan during the Philippine Revolution.
It was used by the Filipino guerrillas and bolomen during the Philippine-American War. During World War I, United States Army soldier Henry Johnson gained international fame repelling a German raid in hand-to-hand combat using a Bolo knife. During World War II, the 1st Filipino Regiment was called the Bolo Battalion and used bolos for close quarters combat. On 7 December 1972, would-be assassin Carlito Dimahilig used a bolo to attack former First Lady Imelda Marcos as she appeared onstage at a live televised awards ceremony. Dimahilig stabbed Marcos in the abdomen several times, she parried the blows with her arms, he was shot dead by security forces. The bolo serves as a symbol for the Katipunan and the Philippine Revolution the Cry of Pugad Lawin. Several monuments of Andres Bonifacio, as with other notable Katipuneros, depict him holding a bolo in one hand and the Katipunan flag in the other. In the United States Military, the slang term "to bolo" – to fail a test, exam or evaluation, originated from the combined Philippine-American military forces including recognized guerrillas during the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War.
During the Vietnam War, 8th Tactical Fighter Wing commander Col Robin Olds, USAF devised "Operation: BOLO" to lure North Vietnamese MiG-21 Fishbed fighters into the air against US Air Force F-4 Phantom II fighters. It was a deception-based plan that had the F-4s behave like the inagile F-105 Thunderchief fighter-bombers; the operations name came from the bolo. To date, Operation Bolo is considered one of the most successful ruses in aerial combat