Gomphotheres are any members of the diverse, extinct taxonomic family Gomphotheriidae. Gomphotheres were elephant-like proboscideans, they were widespread in North America during the Miocene and Pliocene epochs, 12–1.6 million years ago. Some lived in parts of Eurasia, in South America following the Great American Interchange. While most famous forms like Gomphotherium had long lower jaws with tusks, the ancestral condition for the group, after these forms became extinct the surviving gomphotheres had short jaws with either vestigal or no lower tusks, looking similar to modern elephants, an example of parallel evolution. Beginning after 5 million years ago, they were replaced by mammoths and mastodons in most of North America, with the last two genera Cuvieronius persisting in Mexico and Notiomastodon having a wide range over most of South America until the end of the Pleistocene; the name "gomphothere" comes from "peg, pin. Gomphotheres differed from elephants in their tooth structure the chewing surfaces on the molar teeth.
The earlier species had four tusks, their retracted facial and nasal bones prompted paleontologists to believe that gomphotheres had elephant-like trunks. Both the genus Gomphotherium and family Gomphotheriidae were erected by the German zoologist Karl Hermann Konrad Burmeister in 1837; the term Gomphothere as used is paraphyletic, containing all proboscideans more derived than mammutids but less derived than elephantids. The term gomphothere senu stricto refers to trilophodont gomphotheres; the genera Anancus, Paratetralophodon, Tetralophodon, but the families Choerolophodontidae and Amebelodontidae were classified as gomphotheres sensu lato. Tetralophodont gompotheres are more related to Elephantidae and amebelodonts and choerolophodonts more primitive than trilophodont gomphotheres. In 2019 a study using collagen sequencing found Notiomastodon to form a clade with the American Mastodon, rather than closer to Elephantidae as had been supposed. Phylogeny of trilophodont gomphotheres according to Mothé et al. 2016: Isotopic analyses of South American gomphotheres suggest a wide diet for Notiomastodon platensis, except for the fossils unearthed at the localities in Santiago del Estero and La Carolina in Ecuador.
Isotope analyses suggested an exclusive C4 diet, whereas every other South American locality indicates an exclusive C3 or mixed C3 and C4 diet. The results support the latitudinal gradient of C3 and C4 grasses; the stereomicrowear analyses for N. platensis exhibited average scratch and pit values, which place it within the extant mixed-feeder morphospace and the higher frequency of fine scratches indicated the ingestion of C3 grasses. Alternatively, the presence of coarse and hypercoarse scratches along with gouges and large pits suggests the ingestion of foliage and lignified portions; the plant microfossil analysis recovered fragments of conifer tracheid and vessel elements with a ray of parenchyma cells, which corroborates the consumption of wood plants, pollen grains and fibers. The Aguas de Araxa gomphotheres were generalist feeders and consumed wood elements, C3 grasses. Cuvieronius specimens from Chile were C3 plant eaters, whereas specimens from Bolivia and Ecuador are classified as having a mixed C3 and C4 diet.
Notiomastodon showed a wider range of dietary adaptations. Specimens from Quequen Salado in Buenos Aires Province were C3 feeders, whereas the diet of specimens from La Carolina Peninsula in Ecuador was C4; the results confirm that ancient diets cannot always be interpreted from dental morphology or extrapolated from present relatives. The data from Middle and Late Pleistocene periods indicate that over time, there was a shift in dietary patterns away from predominantly mixed feeders to more specialized feeders; this dietary evolution may have been one of the factors that contributed to the disappearance of South American gomphotheres at the end of the Pleistocene. Climatic change and human predation have been discussed as possible causes of the extinction. Gomphothere remains are common at South American Paleo-indian sites. Examples include the early human settlement at Monte Verde, dating to 14,000 years ago, the Altiplano Cundiboyacense and the Valle del Magdalena of Colombia. In 2011, remains dating between 10,600 and 11,600 years ago were found in the El Fin del Mundo site in Sonora, Mexico's Clovis location – the first time such an association was found in a northern part of the continent where gomphotheres had been thought to have gone extinct 30,000 years ago.
In July 2014, it was announced that the "position and proximity of Clovis weapon fragments relative to the gomphothere bones at the site suggest that humans did in fact kill the two animals there. Of the seven Clovis points found at the site, four were in place among the bones, including one with bone and teeth fragments above and below; the other three points had eroded away from the bone bed and were found scattered nearby." "Buried Treasure in the Sierra Nevada Foothills". Sierra College. "Gomphothere description including images". Sierra College. ""King Tusk" Gomphothere Excavation". Sierra College. "The Gomphotheriidae". University of California Museum of Paleontology
Moeljatno was an Indonesian prosecutor and professor. He served as Minister of Justice from 24 March 1956 to 9 January 1957. Moeljatno was born in Surakarta, Dutch East Indies on 10 May 1909; the eldest son of Wiryo Kartojo and his wife, he showed himself to be a hard worker and dedicated to his family. He finished his primary education at the Europese Lagere School in Boyolali, Central Java, graduating in 1918, he returned to Surakarta, where he studied at a Middelbaar Uitgebreid Lager Ondewijs. He graduated from the city's Algemene Middlebaar School in 1927. Aside from his formal education, Moeljatno studied Islam under his uncle, Soekiman Wirjosandjojo. After finishing his secondary education, Moejanto moved to Batavia to attend the Rechts Hoge School there. After graduating in 1936, he took a job working for its sultanate. In 1939 he took a job at the High Islamic Court, serving until 1942. After the Japanese invaded the Indies, he moved to Jakarta to work at the prosecutor's office. After Indonesia's independence in 1945, Moeljatno began working as high prosecutor.
In 1946 he joined Minister of Justice Soepomo and several other Ministry of Justice employees in formulating Law Number 1 of 1946, which applied the criminal code throughout the United States of Indonesia. In 1947, he was promoted to Deputy Chief Prosecutor under Tirtawinata, he was stationed in Yogyakarta, where he was invited to teach at the newly established faculty of law at Gadjah Mada University. When he quit his job as prosecutor in 1952, he dedicated himself to teaching. On 24 March 1956, Moeljatno was selected to be Minister of Justice during the Second Ali Sastroamidjojo Cabinet. However, he came into conflict with Prosecutor General Soeprapto over their differing viewpoints on the role of the prosecutor general's office. At the time it was a branch of the Ministry of Justice, having inherited the arrangement from the Dutch colonial system; as Moeljatno was held responsible for the actions of the prosecution, he pushed to keep the status quo by drafting legislation which explicitly made the prosecutor general subservient to the Minister of Justice.
After it was passed by the cabinet in October 1956, Moeljatno received heavy opposition from the police and prosecutor's office. Moeljatno resigned as Minister of Justice on 9 January 1957, when the cabinet fell in mid-March, the bill was dropped. Moeljatno returned to teaching, serving as dean of the faculty of law at Gadjah Mada University from 1957 to 1958. Moeljatno was buried in Gadjah Mada Cemetery in Yogyakarta. Professors Haryono of Gadjah Mada University and Prabuningrat, rector of the Islamic University of Indonesia, delivered eulogies at the funeral. Moeljatno's outline of the fundamentals of Indonesian criminal law continues to be used by legal students and practitioners. Moeljatno was married to a fellow lecturer at Gadjah Mada University. Footnotes Bibliography
Chibuikem Kenneth Okoro is an American football cornerback, a free agent. He played college football at Wake Forest University and attended James B. Dudley High School in Greensboro, North Carolina, he has been a member of San Jose SaberCats and Washington Redskins. His name Chibuikem means ``" in Igbo Okoro's parents are both Nigerian immigrants, he played high school football for the James B. Dudley High School Panthers, he was the Greensboro News and Record All-Area Player of the Year as a senior and a member of the NCPreps.com 3A All-State team. Okoro was an honor roll student all four years of high school. Okoro played for the Wake Forest Demon Deacons from 2009 to 2012, he was redshirted in 2008. He started 37 games for the Demon Deacons. Okoro was signed by the San Diego Chargers on April 27, 2013 after going undrafted in the 2013 NFL Draft, he was waived-injured by the Chargers on July 30, 2013. Okoro spent the 2014 Arena Football League season with the San Jose SaberCats, he recorded an interception in 11 games with the SaberCats.
He was placed on Other League Exempt on December 2, 2014. Okoro was signed to the Washington Redskins' practice squad on November 26, 2014, he was promoted to the active roster on December 6. He made his NFL debut on December 2014 against the St. Louis Rams. On May 4, 2015, he was waived by the Redskins. Okoro was activated from Other League Exempt on May 6, 2015; the Sabercats won ArenaBowl XXVIII against the Jacksonville Sharks on August 29, 2015. He became a free agent after the 2015 season. Wake Forest Demon Deacons bio Just Sports Stats College stats NFL Draft Scout San Jose SaberCats bio