Grand Canal (Venice)
The Grand Canal is a canal in Venice, Italy. It forms one of the major corridors in the city. Public transport is provided by buses and private water taxis. It is 3.8 km long, and 30 to 90 m wide, with an average depth of five meters. The banks of the Grand Canal are lined with more than 170 buildings, most of which date from the 13th to the 18th century, and demonstrate the welfare and art created by the Republic of Venice. The noble Venetian families faced huge expenses to show off their richness in suitable palazzos, this contest reveals the citizens’ pride and the deep bond with the lagoon. Amongst the many are the Palazzi Barbaro, Ca Rezzonico, Ca dOro, Palazzo Dario, Ca Foscari, Palazzo Barbarigo and to Palazzo Venier dei Leoni, the churches along the canal include the basilica of Santa Maria della Salute. Centuries-old traditions, such as the Historical Regatta, are perpetuated every year along the Canal, because most of the citys traffic goes along the Canal rather than across it, only one bridge crossed the canal until the 19th century, the Rialto Bridge.
Most of the palaces emerge from water without pavement, one can only tour past the fronts of the buildings on the grand canal by boat. The Grand Canal probably follows the course of an ancient river flowing into the lagoon, adriatic Veneti groups already lived beside the formerly-named Rio Businiacus before the Roman age. They lived in houses and on fishing and commerce. Increasing trade followed the doge and found in the deep Grand Canal a safe, drainage reveals that the city became more compact over time, at that time the Canal was wider and flowed between small, tide-subjected islands connected by wooden bridges. Along the Canal, the number of houses increased, buildings combining the warehouse. A portico covers the bank and facilitates the ships unloading, from the portico a corridor flanked by storerooms reaches a posterior courtyard. Similarly, on the first floor a loggia as large as the portico illuminates the hall into which open the merchants rooms, the façade is thereby divided into an airy central part and two more solid sides.
A low mezzanine with offices divides the two floors, the fondaco house often had lateral defensive towers, as in the Fondaco dei Turchi. More public buildings were built along the Canal at Rialto, palaces for commercial and financial Benches, in 1181 Nicolò Barattieri constructed a pontoon bridge connecting Rialto to Mercerie area, which was replaced by a wooden bridge with shops on it. Warehouses for flour and salt were more peripheral, from the Byzantine empire, goods arrived together with sculptures, friezes and capitals to decorate the fondaco houses of patrician families
Michele Marieschi or Michele Giovanni Marieschi, known as Michiel, was an Italian painter and engraver. He is mainly known for his landscapes and cityscapes, or views and he created architectural paintings, which reveal his interest in stage design. Marieschi was born in Venice in 1710 as the son of a woodcarver, according to his biography in Pellegrino Antonio Orlandis Abecedario Pittorico, published in Venice in 1753, he spent some time in Germany, where he may have worked as a stage designer. He returned to Venice in about 1735, under the influence of Marco Ricci and Luca Carlevarijs and encouraged by the success of Canaletto in the genre, he started to create capricci and vedute. Between 1735 and 1741 he was registered in the Venetian Fraglia de Pittori, one of Marieschis sponsors at his wedding in 1737 was Gaspare Diziani. Although he initially produced capricci, he painted more topographically accurate vedute. One of his patrons was the noted collector Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg, michael Levey contrasts Marieschis style with Canalettos, noting that Marieschis use of paint is livelier and fresher.
Links, J. G. Canaletto and his Patrons, Michiel Marieschi with Catalogue of the Etchings. Media related to Michele Marieschi at Wikimedia Commons www. artistarchive. com A catalogue of the 21 plates from Magnificentiores Selectioresque Urbis Venetiarum Prospectus, Canaletto, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Marieschi
Rowing is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water, displacing water, and propelling the boat forward. The difference between paddling and rowing is that rowing requires oars to have a connection with the boat. In some localities, rear-facing systems prevail, in other localities, forward-facing systems prevail, especially in crowded areas such as in Venice, Italy and in Asian and Indonesian rivers and harbors. This is not strictly an either-or, because in different situations its useful to be able to row a boat facing either way. The current emphasis on the aspects of rowing has resulted in some new mechanical systems being developed. Rearward-facing systems, This is probably the oldest system used in Europe, a seated rower pulls on one or two oars, which lever the boat through the water. The pivot point of the oars is the fulcrum, the motive force is applied through the rowers feet. In traditional rowing craft, the point of the oars is generally located on the boats gunwale.
The actual fitting that holds the oar may be as simple as one or two pegs or a metal oarlock, in performance rowing craft, the rowlock is usually extended outboard on a rigger to allow the use of a longer oar for increased power. Sculling involves a seated rower who pulls on two oars or sculls, attached to the boat, thereby moving the boat in the direction opposite that which the rower faces, in some multiple-seat boats seated rowers each pull on a single sweep oar, usually with both hands. Boats in which the rowers are coordinated by a coxswain are referred to as a coxed pair/four/eight, sometimes sliding seats are used to enable the rower to use the leg muscles, substantially increasing the power available. An alternative to the seat, called a sliding rigger, uses a stationary seat. On a craft used in Italy, the catamaran moscone, the rower stands and this is a convenient method of manoeuvring in a narrow waterway or through a busy harbour. The Rantilla system of frontrowing oars uses inboard mounted oarlocks rather than a reversing transmission to achieve forward motion of the boat with a motion on the oars.
In ancient times, rowing vessels, especially galleys, were used in naval warfare and trade. Galleys had advantages over sailing ships, they were easier to maneuver, capable of bursts of speed. Galleys continued in use in the Mediterranean until the advent of steam propulsion and their use in northern Atlantic waters was less successful, finishing with their poor performance with the Spanish Armada. The Classical trireme used 170 rowers, galleys included even larger crews, trireme oarsmen used leather cushions to slide over the seats, which allowed them to use their leg strength as a modern oarsman does with a sliding seat
Alexandra Hai, known as Alex Hai, is a 40-year-old woman of German and Algerian descent who is regarded as is the first female to paid for her services as a gondolier in Venice. Commonly called la gondoliera or the prima gondoliera, she has operated as a private gondolier for hotels, in December 2015, the highest court in Rome recognized Hai as the first female gondolier to operate in Venice. In 1996, Hai began as an apprentice working on the “traghetto”. She attempted and failed the test to apply for one of the coveted and limited public gondolier licenses several times, in 1997, she failed to pass the written exam to become substitute gondolier. Subsequently, she failed the rowing test in 1999, though the result was nullified on the grounds that the commission had been composed exclusively by men, 29/1993 citing equal opportunity between men and women. Hai undertook the test again, but was granted a score than her previous attempt. Public attention to Hais failures resulted in controversy, in recognition of reviving the tradition, Hai dresses the reproduction of an eighteenth-century gondolier uniform from the private collection of the Venetian Count Girolamo Marcello.
She is currently the gondolier de casada in Venice, the previous, the “ferro” is a reproduction from an ancient one, characterized by a patrician family badge and a sea serpent on its tip. Hai chose the Venetian language verse as the theme for her gondola, in October 2006, the city of Venice enacted a law that forbade the circulation of gondoliers without public licence. The ordinance was considered by the local press “ad personam”, as it only affected Hai, the law was repealed in 2007 TAR. The news was reported by the press as the crucial moment of a story of sexism. In August 2010, Giorgia Boscolo became Venices first female gondolier, before becoming a gondolier, Hai had aspired to be a filmmaker. She resumed her art education in Hamburg and San Francisco and performed in her gondola during the Regata Storica in 1999 and she has co-authored an art exhibition in a private gallery in Venice in 2014
The Innocents Abroad
It was the best-selling of Twains works during his lifetime, as well as one of the best-selling travel books of all time. Innocents Abroad presents itself as a travel book based on an actual voyage in a retired Civil War ship. In particular, he lampooned William Cowper Primes Tent Life in the Holy Land for its overly sentimental prose, Twain made light of his fellow travelers and the natives of the countries and regions that he visited, as well as his own expectations and reactions. One example can be found in the sequence during which the boat has stopped at Gibraltar, the narrator reacts here, not only to the exploitation of the past and the unreasoning adherence to old ways, but to the profanation of religious history. This equivocal reaction to the history the narrator encounters may be magnified by the prejudices of the time. The Catholic Church, in particular, receives an amount of attention from the narrator. In many of the chapters, a uniquely Twainian sentence or word stands out, ch.4 Ship Routine outlines the passengers daily routines and their affectation of sailor language.
And lo. in Tangier we have found it, ch.11 The Prado and other Marseille tourist sites. We were troubled a little at dinner to-day, by the conduct of an American and he ordered wine with a royal flourish. Drove the Prado avenue, visited Chateau Borely, the Zoological Gardens, discussed prisoner drawings created during the years Château dIf was used as a prison. Ch.12 Marseilles to Paris by Train Old Travelers, Lyon, Saône, Sens, Melun and scores of other cities, shopping. The Making of The Innocents Abroad, 1867–1872, the Innocents Abroad, or the New Pilgrims Progress, The Atlantic Monthly, December 1869. Etext. virginia. edu -- Innocents Abroad Homepage Mark Twain Project at the University of California The Innocents Abroad Map Image of Mark Twain, on ship in 1897. For comparison, see 1871 image and 1875 image Fulton, Joen B, the Reverend Mark Twain, Theological Burlesque and Content. Mark Twain, travel books, and tourism, the tide of a popular movement. American Palestine, Mark Twain and the Touristic Commodification of the Holy Land, American Palestine, Melville and the Holy Land mania.
American Protestant Pilgrimage, Nineteenth-Century Impressions of Palestine, irreverent Pilgrims, Melville and Mark Twain in the Holy Land. Seattle and London, University of Washington Press, etext. virginia. edu -- Innocents Abroad Homepage Mark Twain Project at the University of California The Innocents Abroad at Project Gutenberg The Innocents Abroad, from Internet Archive
Societies have used sumptuary laws for a variety of purposes. They were used as an attempt to regulate the balance of trade by limiting the market for imported goods. They made it easy to identify social rank and privilege, the laws frequently prevented commoners from imitating the appearance of aristocrats and could be used to stigmatize disfavored groups. In the Late Middle Ages, sumptuary laws in cities were instituted as a way for the nobility to cap or limit the conspicuous consumption of the prosperous bourgeoisie. If bourgeois subjects appeared to be as wealthy or wealthier than the nobility, it could undermine the nobilitys presentation of themselves as powerful. This could call into question their ability to control and defend their fief, such laws continued to be used for these purposes well into the 17th century. It banned the drinking of undiluted wine except for medical purposes, the Sumptuariae Leges of ancient Rome were various laws passed to prevent inordinate expense in banquets and dress, such as the use of expensive Tyrian purple dye.
In the early years of the Empire, men were forbidden to wear silk and it was considered the duty of government to put a check upon extravagance in personal expenditure, and such restrictions are found in laws attributed to the kings of Rome and in the Twelve Tables. The Roman censors, who were entrusted with the disciplina or cura morum, in it were listed the names of everyone found guilty of a luxurious mode of living, a great many instances of this kind are recorded. As the Roman Republic wore on, further laws were passed, towards the end of the Republic. Any such laws which may have existed were ignored during the period of profligate luxury characterizing the height of the Roman Empire. During the height of the Empire, such vast quantities of silk were imported from Sinica along the Silk Road that Imperial advisers warned that Roman silver reserves were becoming exhausted, Sumptuary laws existed in China in one form or another from the Qin dynasty onwards. The Confucian virtue of restraint was embodied in the scholarly system central to Chinas bureaucracy, some laws concerned the size and decoration of graves and mausoleums.
The location of graves, and the number of attendant statues depended on rank, after circa 1550, sumptuary law in China was reformed. According to Britannica Online, In feudal Japan sumptuary laws were passed with a frequency, during the Tokugawa period in Japan, people of every class were subject to strict sumptuary laws that included regulation of the types of clothing that could be worn. Islamic sumptuary laws are based upon teachings found in the Quran, males are exhorted not to wear silk clothes, nor have jewelry made of gold. Likewise, wearing clothes or robes that drag on the ground, seen as a sign of vanity and these rules do not apply to women, who are allowed all this. Prohibition of depictions of human and animal figures in general are similar to those of the Quranic prohibition on graven images, hadiths do allow the depiction of animals on clothing items
John Singer Sargent
John Singer Sargent was an American artist, considered the leading portrait painter of his generation for his evocations of Edwardian era luxury. During his career, he created roughly 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors, as well as countless sketches and his oeuvre documents worldwide travel, from Venice to the Tyrol, the Middle East, Montana and Florida. His parents were American, but he was trained in Paris prior to moving to London and his commissioned works were consistent with the grand manner of portraiture, while his informal studies and landscape paintings displayed a familiarity with Impressionism. In life Sargent expressed ambivalence about the restrictions of formal portrait work and he lived most of his life in Europe. Art historians generally ignored the society such as Sargent until the late 20th century. Before Sargents birth, his father, FitzWilliam, was an eye surgeon at the Wills Eye Hospital in Philadelphia 1844–1854, after Johns older sister died at the age of two, his mother, suffered a breakdown, and the couple decided to go abroad to recover.
They remained nomadic expatriates for the rest of their lives, although based in Paris, Sargents parents moved regularly with the seasons to the sea and the mountain resorts in France, Germany and Switzerland. While Mary was pregnant, they stopped in Florence, Sargent was born there in 1856. A year later, his sister Mary was born, after her birth, FitzWilliam reluctantly resigned his post in Philadelphia and accepted his wifes entreaties to remain abroad. They lived modestly on an inheritance and savings, living a quiet life with their children. They generally avoided society and other Americans except for friends in the art world, four more children were born abroad, of whom only two lived past childhood. Although his father was a patient teacher of basic subjects, young Sargent was a rambunctious child, as his father wrote home, He is quite a close observer of animated nature. His mother was convinced that traveling around Europe, and visiting museums and churches. Several attempts to have him formally schooled failed, owing mostly to their itinerant life, Sargents mother was a fine amateur artist and his father was a skilled medical illustrator.
Early on, she gave him sketchbooks and encouraged drawing excursions, young Sargent worked with care on his drawings, and he enthusiastically copied images from The Illustrated London News of ships and made detailed sketches of landscapes. FitzWilliam had hoped that his sons interest in ships and the sea might lead him toward a naval career, at thirteen, his mother reported that John sketches quite nicely, & has a remarkably quick and correct eye. If we could afford to give him really good lessons, he would soon be quite a little artist, at the age of thirteen, he received some watercolor lessons from Carl Welsch, a German landscape painter. Although his education was far from complete, Sargent grew up to be a literate and cosmopolitan young man, accomplished in art, music
The Gondoliers, or, The King of Barataria is a Savoy Opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert. It premiered at the Savoy Theatre on 7 December 1889 and ran for a very successful 554 performances and this was the twelfth comic opera collaboration of fourteen between Gilbert and Sullivan. The story of the concerns the young bride of the heir to the throne of the fictional kingdom of Barataria who arrives in Venice to join her husband. It turns out, that he cannot be identified, to complicate matters, the King of Barataria has just been killed. The two young gondoliers must now jointly rule the kingdom until the nurse of the prince can be brought in to determine which of them is the rightful king. Moreover, when the queen arrives to claim her husband. A last complicating factor is that she, herself, is in love with another man, the Gondoliers was Gilbert and Sullivans last great success. In this opera, Gilbert returns to the satire of class distinctions figuring in many of his earlier librettos, the Gondoliers was preceded by the most serious of the Gilbert and Sullivan collaborations, The Yeomen of the Guard.
Moreover, to speak from my own point of view. Anybody — Hersee, Reece — can write a libretto for such a purpose, personally. Again, the success of the Yeoman — which is a step in the direction of serious opera — has not been so convincing as to warrant us in assuming that the public want something more earnest still. On 12 March, Sullivan responded, I have lost the liking for writing comic opera and you say that in a serious opera, you must more or less sacrifice yourself. I say that this is just what I have been doing in all our joint pieces, Gilbert tried to encourage his collaborator, You say that our operas are Gilberts pieces with music added by you. Sullivans acceptance came with the proviso that we are agreed upon the subject. Can you not develop this with something we can go into with warmth and enthusiasm and thus give me a subject in which we can both be interested. The long opening number was the idea, and it gave Sullivan the opportunity to establish the mood of the work through music.
The costumes were designed by Percy Anderson and sets were by Hawes Craven and they worked all summer and autumn, with a successful opening on 7 December 1889. Press accounts were almost entirely favourable, and the opera enjoyed a run longer than any of their joint works except for H. M. S
A water taxi or a water bus, known as a sightseeing boat, is a watercraft used to provide public or private transport, but not always, in an urban environment. Service may be scheduled with stops, operating in a similar manner to a bus, or on demand to many locations. A boat service shuttling between two points would normally be described as a rather than a water bus or taxi. The term water taxi is usually confined to a boat operating on demand, in North American usage, the terms are roughly synonymous. The earliest water taxi service was recorded as operating around the area that became Manchester, on March 6,2004, a water taxi on the Seaport Taxi service operated by the Living Classrooms Foundation capsized during a storm on the Patapsco River, near Baltimores Inner Harbor. The company no longer operates water taxi vessels in Baltimore harbor
Jacopo de' Barbari
He moved from Venice to Germany in 1500, thus becoming the first Italian Renaissance artist of stature to work in Northern Europe. His few surviving paintings include the first known example of trompe loeil since antiquity and his twenty-nine engravings and three very large woodcuts were highly influential. Since the earlier part of the range would have him achieve sudden prominence at the age of nearly fifty, there have been suggestions he was of German extraction, but it now seems clear he was Italian, there are surviving documents of his in Italian addressed to Germans. He signed most of his engravings with a caduceus, the sign of Mercury, and he was probably not of the important Venetian Barbaro family as he was never listed in that familys genealogy. Nothing is known about his first decades, although Alvise Vivarini has been suggested as his master and he left Venice for Germany in 1500, and thereafter is better documented. In Germany he was known as Jacop Walch, probably from Wälsch meaning foreigner.
He may have returned to Venice with Philip the Handsome of Burgundy, by March 1510 he was working for Philips successor Archduchess Margaret in Brussels and Mechelen. In January 1511 he fell ill and made a will, and in March the Archduchess gave him a pension for life, on account of his age and weakness. His earliest documented work is his huge and impressive aerial view Map of Venice, for which a privilege was granted to its publisher in 1500. This clearly drew on the work of many surveyors, but was a spectacular feat nonetheless and it was updated by others to reflect major new building projects in a second state of the print. These may have produced before 1500, they are clearly strongly influenced by Mantegna. He showed me a man and a woman which he had according to measure. Jacobus did not want to show his principles to me clearly, de Barberi spent a year in Nuremberg, where Dürer lived, in 1500–1, and influences flowed in both directions between him and Dürer for a number of years. None of his engravings are dated, so much of the dating of them depends on resemblances to dated prints by Dürer, five of his engravings were in an album of Hartmann Schedels, which was bound up in December 1504, which gives further evidence as to dating.
De Barberi had probably made some engravings before leaving Italy, some of his paintings are dated as,1500,1503,1504,1508. Documents relating to his employment by Maximilian suggest his work was to include illuminating manuscripts and his only generally accepted drawing is a Cleopatra in the British Museum, apparently done as a study for an engraving which has not survived. His style is related to his master, Alvise Vivarini and to Giovanni Bellini. Apart from Dürer, the influence of Mantegnas technique appears in what are probably the earlier engravings, done around the turn of the century and his engravings are mostly small, showing just a few figures
Gilbert and Sullivan
Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the librettist W. S. Gilbert and the composer Arthur Sullivan and to the works they jointly created. The two men collaborated on fourteen comic operas between 1871 and 1896, of which H. M. S, The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado are among the best known. Sullivan, six years Gilberts junior, composed the music, contributing memorable melodies that could convey both humour and pathos and their operas have enjoyed broad and enduring international success and are still performed frequently throughout the English-speaking world. Gilbert and Sullivan introduced innovations in content and form that influenced the development of musical theatre through the 20th century. The operas have influenced political discourse, film. Producer Richard DOyly Carte brought Gilbert and Sullivan together and nurtured their collaboration and he built the Savoy Theatre in 1881 to present their joint works and founded the DOyly Carte Opera Company, which performed and promoted Gilbert and Sullivans works for over a century.
Gilbert was born in London on 18 November 1836 and his father, was a naval surgeon who wrote novels and short stories, some of which included illustrations by his son. Director and playwright Mike Leigh described the Gilbertian style as follows, With great fluidity and freedom, within the framework of the story, he makes bizarre things happen, and turns the world on its head. Thus the Learned Judge marries the Plaintiff, the soldiers metamorphose into aesthetes, and so on and his genius is to fuse opposites with an imperceptible sleight of hand, to blend the surreal with the real, and the caricature with the natural. In other words, to tell a perfectly outrageous story in a deadpan way. Gilbert developed his theories on the art of stage direction. At the time Gilbert began writing, theatre in Britain was in disrepute, Gilbert helped to reform and elevate the respectability of the theatre, especially beginning with his six short family-friendly comic operas, or entertainments, for Thomas German Reed.
At a rehearsal for one of these entertainments, Ages Ago, the composer Frederic Clay introduced Gilbert to his friend, two years later and Sullivan would write their first work together. Those two intervening years continued to shape Gilberts theatrical style, Sullivan was born in London on 13 May 1842. His father was a bandmaster, and by the time Arthur had reached the age of eight. In school he began to compose anthems and songs, in 1856, he received the first Mendelssohn Scholarship and studied at the Royal Academy of Music and at Leipzig, where he took up conducting. His graduation piece, completed in 1861, was a suite of music to Shakespeares The Tempest. Revised and expanded, it was performed at the Crystal Palace in 1862 and was an immediate sensation and he began building a reputation as Englands most promising young composer, composing a symphony, a concerto, and several overtures, among them the Overture di Ballo, in 1870