Gonville & Caius College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. The college is the fourth-oldest college at one of the wealthiest; the college has been attended by many students who have gone on to significant accomplishment, including fifteen Nobel Prize winners, the second-most of any Oxbridge college. The college has long historical associations with medical teaching due to its alumni physicians: John Caius and William Harvey. Other famous alumni in the sciences include James Chadwick and Howard Florey. Stephen Hawking Cambridge's Lucasian Chair of Mathematics Emeritus, was a fellow of the college until his death in 2018; the college maintains reputable academic programmes in many other disciplines, including law, English literature and history. Several streets in the city, such as Harvey Road, Glisson Road and Gresham Road, are named after alumni of the College; the college and its masters have been influential in the development of the university, founding other colleges like Trinity Hall and Darwin College and providing land on the Sidgwick Site, e.g. for the Squire Law Library.
The college was first founded, as Gonville Hall, by Edmund Gonville, Rector of Terrington St Clement in Norfolk in 1348, making it the fourth-oldest surviving college. When Gonville died three years he left a struggling institution with no money; the executor of his will, William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich, stepped in, transferring the college to its current location. He leased himself the land close to the river to set up his own college, Trinity Hall, renamed Gonville Hall The Hall of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Bateman appointed as the first Master of the new college his former chaplain John Colton Archbishop of Armagh. By the sixteenth century, the college had fallen into disrepair, in 1557 it was refounded by Royal Charter as Gonville & Caius College by the physician John Caius. John Caius was master of the college from 1559 until shortly before his death in 1573, he provided the college with significant funds and extended the buildings. During his time as Master, Caius insisted on several unusual rules.
He insisted that the college admit no scholar who "is deformed, blind, maimed, mutilated, a Welshman, or suffering from any grave or contagious illness, or an invalid, sick in a serious measure". Caius built a three-sided court, Caius Court, "lest the air from being confined within a narrow space should become foul". Caius did, found the college as a strong centre for the study of medicine, a tradition that it aims to keep to this day. By 1630, the college had expanded having around 25 fellows and 150 students, but numbers fell over the next century, only returning to the 1630 level in the early nineteenth century. Since the college has grown and now has one of the largest undergraduate populations in the university; the college first admitted women as fellows and students in 1979. It now has over 110 Fellows, over about 200 staff. Gonville & Caius is one of the wealthiest of all Cambridge colleges with net assets of £180 million in 2014; the college's present Master, the 43rd, is Pippa Rogerson.
The first buildings to be erected on the college's current site date from 1353 when Bateman built Gonville Court. The college chapel was added in 1393 with the Old Hall and Master's Lodge following in the next half century. Most of the stone used to build the college came from Ramsey Abbey near Cambridgeshire. Gonville and Caius has the oldest purpose-built college chapel in either Oxford or Cambridge, in continuous use as such; the chapel is situated centrally within the college, reflecting the college's religious foundation. On the re-foundation by Caius, the college was updated. In 1565 the building of Caius Court began, Caius planted an avenue of trees in what is now known as Tree Court, he was responsible for the building of the college's three gates, symbolising the path of academic life. On matriculation, one arrives at the Gate of Humility. In the centre of the college one passes through the Gate of Virtue regularly, and graduating students pass through the Gate of Honour on their way to the neighbouring Senate House to receive their degrees.
The Gate of Honour, at the south side of Caius Court, though the most direct way from the Old Courts to the College Library, is only used for special occasions such as graduation. The students of Gonville and Caius refer to the fourth gate in the college, between Tree Court and Gonville Court, which gives access to some lavatories, as the Gate of Necessity; the buildings of Gonville Court were given classical facades in the 1750s, the Old Library and the Hall were designed by Anthony Salvin in 1854. On the wall of the Hall hangs a college flag which in 1912 was flown at the South Pole by Cambridge's Edward Adrian Wilson during the famous Terra Nova Expedition of 1910–1913. Gonville Court, though remodelled in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, is the oldest part of the college. New lecture rooms were designed by Alfred Waterhouse and completed by Rattee and Kett in 1884. Tree Court is the largest of the Old Courts, it is so named. Although none of the original trees survive, the court retains a number of trees and the tree-lined avenu
Jonas Juozas Žukas was a Lithuanian basketball and tennis player. He won a gold medal with Lithuania national basketball team during EuroBasket 1937. Žukas lived in northern Chicago, near Ogden Park, was known as Joseph "Joe" Zukas. His first visit to Lithuania was in 1930, where he worked as a sports instructor in the physical culture department in Kaunas, he would be part of a delegation of Lithuanian American athletes from Chicago that went to the 1935 World Lithuanian Congress in Kaunas, stayed there teaching tennis and being a part of the national basketball team. He played basketball for CJSO Kaunas. Footnotes BibliographyVidas Mačiulis, Vytautas Gudelis. Halė, kurioje žaidė Lubinas ir Sabonis. 1939–1989 – Respublikinis sporto kombinatas, Kaunas, 1989
Caladenia denticulata subsp. Denticulata known as the yellow spider orchid, is a plant in the orchid family Orchidaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia, it has a single erect, hairy leaf and one or two yellowish flowers which have a white labellum with pale red markings. Caladenia denticulata subsp. Denticulata is a terrestrial, deciduous, herb with an underground tuber and a single erect, hairy leaf 6–18 cm long and 2–4 mm wide. One or two flowers are borne on a stem 15–35 cm high and each flower is 7–10 cm long and 5–9 cm wide; the dorsal sepal is erect, 4–7 cm long and 1.5–3 mm wide at the base, linear to lance-shaped, pale to greenish-yellow and has a drooping, dark brown, thread-like glandular tip. The arching lateral sepals and petals are similar in size and colour to the dorsal sepal although the petals are narrower and shorter; the labellum is white with pale red markings, curves forward with white to pale red teeth along its margins, the teeth decreasing in size towards the tip.
There are up to 13 pairs of anvil-shaped, cream-coloured calli in two rows along about half the length of the labellum and decreasing in size towards the tip. Flowering occurs between August and early October. Caladenia denticulata was first formally described by John Lindley in 1840 and the description was published in A Sketch of the Vegetation of the Swan River Colony. In 2015, Andrew Brown and Garry Brockman described three subspecies, including subspecies denticulata and the descriptions were published in Nuytsia; the specific epithet is a Latin word meaning "with small teeth", referring to the small teeth on the labellum. Yellow spider orchid occurs in the south-west corner of Western Australia between Waroona and Eneabba in the Avon Wheatbelt, Geraldton Sandplains, Jarrah Forest, Swan Coastal Plain biogeographic regions where it grows in wandoo and York gum woodland. Caladenia denticulata subsp. Denticulata is classified as "not threatened" by the Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife
The Story of Maths is a four-part British television series outlining aspects of the history of mathematics. It was a co-production between the Open University and the BBC and aired in October 2008 on BBC Four; the material was presented by University of Oxford professor Marcus du Sautoy. The consultants were the Open University academics Robin Wilson, professor Jeremy Gray and June Barrow-Green. Kim Duke is credited as series producer; the series comprised four programmes titled: The Language of the Universe. Du Sautoy documents the development of mathematics covering subjects such as the invention of zero and the unproven Riemann hypothesis, a 150-year-old problem for whose solution the Clay Mathematics Institute has offered a $1,000,000 prize, he escorts viewers through the subject's geography. He examines the development of key mathematical ideas and shows how mathematical ideas underpin the world's science and culture, he finishes it by looking at current mathematics. Between he travels through Babylon, India and the medieval Middle East.
He looks at mathematics in Europe and in America and takes the viewers inside the lives of many of the greatest mathematicians. In this opening programme Marcus du Sautoy looks at how important and fundamental mathematics is to our lives before looking at the mathematics of ancient Egypt and Greece. Du Sautoy commences in Egypt where recording the patterns of the seasons and in particular the flooding of the Nile was essential to their economy. There was a need to solve practical problems such as land area for taxation purposes. Du Sautoy discovers the use of a decimal system based on the fingers on the hands, the unusual method for multiplication and division, he examines the Rhind Papyrus, the Moscow Papyrus and explores their understanding of binary numbers and solid shapes. He travels to Babylon and discovered that the way we tell the time today is based on the Babylonian 60 base number system. So because of the Babylonians we have 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, he shows how the Babylonians used quadratic equations to measure their land.
He deals with Plimpton 322. In Greece, the home of ancient Greek mathematics, he looks at the contributions of some of its greatest and well known mathematicians including Pythagoras, Plato and Archimedes, who are some of the people who are credited with beginning the transformation of mathematics from a tool for counting into the analytical subject we know today. A controversial figure, Pythagoras’ teachings were considered suspect and his followers seen as social outcasts and a little be strange and not in the norm. There is a legend going around that one of his followers, was drowned when he announced his discovery of irrational numbers; as well as his work on the properties of right angled triangles, Pythagoras developed another important theory after observing musical instruments. He discovered that the intervals between harmonious musical notes are always in whole number intervals, it deals with Hypatia of Alexandria. With the decline of ancient Greece, the development of maths stagnated in Europe.
However the progress of mathematics continued in the East. Du Sautoy describes both the Chinese use of maths in engineering projects and their belief in the mystical powers of numbers, he mentions Qin Jiushao. He describes Indian mathematicians’ invention of trigonometry, it shows Gwalior Fort. It mentions the work of Bhāskara II on the subject of zero, he mentions Madhava of Sangamagrama and Aryabhata and illustrates the - first exact - formula for calculating the π. Du Sautoy considers the Middle East: the invention of the new language of algebra and the evolution of a solution to cubic equations, he talks about the House of Wisdom with Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī and he visits University of Al-Karaouine. He mentions Omar Khayyám, he examines the spread of Eastern knowledge to the West through mathematicians such as Leonardo Fibonacci, famous for the Fibonacci sequence. He mentions Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia. From the seventeenth century, Europe replaced the Middle East as the engine house of mathematical ideas.
Du Sautoy visits Urbino to introduce perspective using mathematician and artist, Piero della Francesca's The Flagellation of Christ. Du Sautoy proceeds to describes René Descartes realisation that it was possible to describe curved lines as equations and thus link algebra and geometry, he talks with Henk J. M. Bos about Descartes, he shows how one of Pierre de Fermat’s theorems is now the basis for the codes that protect credit card transactions on the internet. He describes Isaac Newton’s development of math and physics crucial to understanding the behaviour of moving objects in engineering, he covers the Newton calculus controversy and the Bernoulli family. He further covers Leonhard Euler, the father of topology, Gauss' invention of a new way of handling equations, modular arithmetic, he mentions János Bolyai. The further contribution of Gauss to our understanding of how prime numbers are distributed is covered thus providing the platform for Bernhard Riemann's theories on prime numbers. In addition Riemann worked on the properties of objects, which he saw as manifolds that could exist in multi-dimensional space.
The final episode considers the great unsolved problems that confronted mathematicians in the 20th century. On 8 August 1900 David Hilbert gave a historic talk at the International Congre
A digital locker or cyberlocker is an online file or digital media storage service. Files stored include music, movies and other media; the term was used by Microsoft as a part of its Windows Marketplace in 2004. By storing files in a digital locker, users are able to access them anywhere they can find internet connections. Most digital locker services require a user to register. Prices range from free to divided according to the complications and strength of the lock. Digital lockers, as opposed to simple file storage services, are associated with digital distribution — a commercial store where you can buy content such as Steam, Google Play, iTunes. Download / Play / Watch Digital locker services come with integrated client software that allows users to play the movies or games or songs. Upload Many digital locker services enable users to upload their own content or provide synchronization software that will scan a user's computer and upload the appropriate media for them. Matching Some services like Google Play and iTunes will match songs users have to a digital signature, allowing them to skip the sometimes slow process of uploading the media file.
Rather, once the song is matched, it will just be added to a user's library. Digital lockers are used as a way of controlling access to media via Digital Rights Management. Services such as Steam, Blizzard and others offer to users the convenience of a digital locker in exchange for the control of DRM; some digital locker services such as Hotfile and MegaUpload have been accused of being large contributors towards copyright infringement. The MPAA alleged that Hotfile and similar services promote copyright infringement by paying users referral fees, thus encouraging them to upload popular copyrighted content. File hosting service Cloud storage Comparison of file hosting services Comparison of file synchronization software Comparison of online backup services Comparison of online music lockers File sharing Digital distribution
The Regulating Act of 1773 created the office with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William, or Governor-General of Bengal to be appointed by the Court of Directors of the East India Company. The Court of Directors assigned a Council of Four to assist the Governor General, decision of council was binding on the Governor General during 1773-1784; the Saint Helena Act 1833 re-designated the office with the title of Governor-General of India. After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the company rule was brought to an end, but the British India along with princely states came under the direct rule of the British Crown; the Government of India Act 1858 created the office of Secretary of State for India in 1858 to oversee the affairs of India, advised by a new Council of India with 15 members. The existing Council of Four was formally renamed as the Council of Governor General of India or Executive Council of India; the Council of India was abolished by Government of India Act 1935.
Following the adoption of the Government of India Act of 1858, the Governor-General as representing the Crown became known as the Viceroy. The designation'Viceroy', although it was most used in ordinary parlance, had no statutory authority, was never employed by Parliament. Although the Proclamation of 1858 announcing the assumption of the government of India by the Crown referred to Lord Canning as "first Viceroy and Governor-General", none of the Warrants appointing his successors referred to them as'Viceroys', the title, used in Warrants dealing with precedence and in public notifications, was one of ceremony used in connection with the state and social functions of the Sovereign's representative; the Governor-General continued to be the sole representative of the Crown, the Government of India continued to be vee appointments of Governor-General of India were made by the British Crown upon the advice of Secretary of State for India. The office of Governor-General continued to exist as a ceremonial post in each of the new dominions until they adopted republican constitutions in 1950 and 1957 respectively.
Notes List of governors of Bengal Council of India Secretary of State for India List of Presidents of India