Golf is a club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games and does not utilize a standardized playing area, the game is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, there are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, sand traps, and hazards but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Stroke play is the most commonly seen format at all levels, while the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the games ancient origins are unclear and much debated. Some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, one theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, and eventually evolved into the modern game. Others cite chuiwan as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and 14th centuries, the game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages.
Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as cambuca in England, the Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven was played annually in Loenen, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier. The modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James IIs banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery. James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503-1504, to many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, which is certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records. The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers, renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, Andrews Golf Club in Yonkers, New York.
The levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green, while many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right. This is commonly called a dogleg, in reference to a dogs knee, the hole is called a dogleg left if the hole angles leftwards and dogleg right if it bends right. Sometimes, a holes direction may bend twice, this is called a double dogleg, a regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes. Early Scottish golf courses were laid out on links land. This gave rise to the golf links, particularly applied to seaside courses
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, in 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.4 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.6 million live in the Republic of Ireland, the islands geography comprises relatively low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland. The island has lush vegetation, a product of its mild, thick woodlands covered the island until the Middle Ages. As of 2013, the amount of land that is wooded in Ireland is about 11% of the total, there are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is moderate and classified as oceanic.
As a result, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, summers are cooler than those in Continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant, the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century CE, the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, with the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s and this subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature.
Alongside mainstream Western culture, an indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music. The culture of the island shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, horse racing. The name Ireland derives from Old Irish Eriu and this in turn derives from Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, which is the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning fat, during the last glacial period, and up until about 9000 years ago, most of Ireland was covered with ice, most of the time
Saint Aloysius de Gonzaga, S. J. was an Italian aristocrat who became a member of the Society of Jesus. While still a student at the Roman College, he died as a result of caring for the victims of an epidemic and he was beatified in 1605 and canonized in 1726. Aloysius is the Latin form of Aloysius de Gonzagas given name in Italian and he was the son of Ferrante de Gonzaga, Marquis of Castiglione, and Marta Tana di Santena, daughter of a baron of the Piedmontese Della Rovere family. His mother was a lady-in-waiting to Isabel, the wife of Philip II of Spain, as the first-born son, he was in line to inherit his fathers title and status of Marquis. His father assumed that Aloysius would become a soldier, as that was the norm for sons of the aristocracy and his military training started at an early age, but he received an education in languages and the arts. As early as age four, Luigi was given a set of guns and accompanied his father on training expeditions so that the boy might learn “the art of arms.
”At age five. His father was pleased to see his son marching around camp at the head of a platoon of soldiers and his mother and his tutor were less pleased with the vocabulary he picked up there. He grew up amid the violence and brutality of Renaissance Italy, in 1576, at age 8, he was sent to Florence along with his younger brother, Rodolfo, to serve at the court of the Grand Duke Francesco I de Medici and to receive further education. While there, he fell ill with a disease of the kidneys, while he was ill, he took the opportunity to read about the saints and to spend much of his time in prayer. He is said to have taken a vow of chastity at age 9. In November 1579, the brothers were sent to the Duke of Mantua, Aloysius was shocked by the violent and frivolous lifestyle he encountered there. Aloysius returned to Castiglione where he met Cardinal Charles Borromeo, after reading a book about Jesuit missionaries in India, Aloysius felt strongly that he wanted to become a missionary. He started practicing by teaching classes to young boys in Castiglione in the summers.
He repeatedly visited the houses of the Capuchin friars and the Barnabites located in Casale Monferrato and he adopted an ascetic lifestyle. The family was called to Spain in 1581 to assist the Holy Roman Empress Maria of Austria and they arrived in Madrid in March 1582, where Aloysius and Rodolfo became pages for the young Infante Diego. Aloysius started thinking in earnest about joining a religious order and he had considered joining the Capuchins, but he had a Jesuit confessor in Madrid and decided instead to join that order. His mother agreed to his request, but his father was furious, in July 1584, a year and a half after the Infantes death, the family returned to Italy. Aloysius still wanted to become a priest, but several members of his family worked hard to persuade him to change his mind
They define the area within which the batsmen and bowlers operate. The term crease may refer to any of the lines themselves, particularly the popping crease, four creases are drawn at each end of the pitch, around the two sets of stumps. The batsmen generally play in and run between the areas defined by the creases at each end of the pitch, the bowling creases lie 22 yards away, and marks the other end of the pitch. In addition, historically part of the back foot in the delivery stride was required to fall behind the bowling crease to avoid a delivery being a no ball. This rule was replaced by a requirement that part of the front foot in the delivery stride must fall behind the popping crease. In the course of time, the scratches became cuts which were an inch deep, the cut was in use until the second half of the 19th century. Sometime during the career of Alfred Shaw, he suggested that the creases should be made by lines of whitewash. The origin of the popping crease is unknown. One popping crease is drawn at each end of the pitch in front of each set of stumps, the popping crease is 4 feet in front of and parallel to the bowling crease.
Although it is considered to have unlimited length the popping crease must be marked to at least 6 feet perpendicular to the pitch, for the fielding team the popping crease is used as one test of whether the bowler has bowled a no ball. To avoid a no ball, some part of the front foot in the delivery stride must be behind the popping crease. The foot may be on the line as long as part of his/her foot is behind the line. This has given rise to the term the line belongs to the umpire, for a batsman the popping crease – which can be referred to as the batting crease in the context of batting – determines whether they have been stumped or run out. This is described in Laws 29,38, and 39 of the laws of cricket, both involve the wicket being put down before a batsman can touch his body or bat to the ground behind the popping crease and make his ground and return safely from his run. If the batsman facing the steps out of his ground to play the ball but misses. If a fielder puts down either wicket whilst the batsmen are running between the wickets, the batsman nearest the downed wicket is out run out, there is no limit of how far a bowler may bowl behind the crease.
Four return creases are drawn, one on side of each set of stumps. The return creases lie perpendicular to the crease and the bowling crease,4 feet 4 inches either side of
British and Irish Lions
The British and Irish Lions is a rugby union team selected from players eligible for any of the Home Nations – the national sides of England, Ireland and Wales. The Lions are a Test side, and generally select international players, the side tours every four years, with these rotating among Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. The 2009 Test series was lost 2–1 to South Africa, while the 2013 Test series was won 2–1 over Australia, from 1888 onwards combined rugby sides from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland toured the Southern Hemisphere. The first tour was a venture, and was undertaken without official backing. The six subsequent visits enjoyed a degree of support from the authorities, before the 1910 South Africa tour. In 1949 the four Home Unions formally created a Tours Committee and for the first time, the 1950s tours saw high win rates in provincial games, but the Test series were typically lost or drawn. The winning series in 1971 and 1974 changed this pattern, the last tour of the amateur age took place in 1993.
The multi-nation team that is named the British and Irish Lions first came into existence in 1888 as the Shaw & Shrewsbury Team. It was primarily English in composition but contained players from Scotland, the name British Isles became associated with the team. When the team first emerged in the century, it represented the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The team continued to exist after the Irish war of independence and civil war, from the 2001 tour of Australia, the official name British and Irish Lions has been used. The team is referred to simply as the Lions. As the Lions represent two states, they do not have a national anthem. For more than half a century, the Lions have been synonymous with the red jersey that sports the amalgamated crests of the four unions, prior to 1950 the strip went through a number of significantly different formats. In 1888, the promoter of the first expedition to Australia and New Zealand, Arthur Shrewsbury, demanded something that would be good material, the result was a jersey in thick red and blue hoops, worn above white shorts and dark socks.
The tours to South Africa in 1891 and 1896 retained the red and blue theme but this time as red and white hooped jerseys and dark blue shorts and socks. The 1899 trip to Australia saw a reversion to red and blue jerseys, but with the used in thick hoops. The shorts remained blue, as did the socks although a white flash was added to the latter, in 1903, the South Africa tour followed on from the 1896 tour, with red and white hooped jerseys
University College Dublin
University College Dublin is a research university in Dublin, Ireland. It has over 1,482 faculty and 32,000 students, the university originates in a body founded in 1854 with John Henry Newman as the first rector known as the Catholic University of Ireland, re-formed in 1880 and chartered in its own right in 1908. Originally located in locations across Dublin city, all of the faculties have since been relocated to a 133-hectare campus at Belfield. University College Dublin is frequently ranked among the top universities in Europe, there are five Nobel Laureates amongst University College Dublins alumni and current and former staff. The 2016 QS World University Rankings ranks UCD #176 worldwide, and puts it in the 151-200 bracket, a report published in May 2015 showed that the total economic output generated by UCD and its students in Ireland amounted to €1.3 billion annually. In the 19th century, the question of education in Ireland was a contentious one. It had divided Daniel OConnell and the Young Ireland Movement for many years, the Catholic Hierarchy wanted to counteract the Godless Colleges established in Galway and Cork and to provide a Catholic alternative to Trinity College, Dublin.
In 1850 at the Synod of Thurles it was decided to open a Catholic University, as a result of these efforts a new Catholic University of Ireland was opened in 1854 and John Henry Newman was appointed as its first rector. Newman had been a figure in the Oxford Movement in the 19th Century. The Catholic University opened its doors on the feast of St Malachy,3 November 1854, to prepare students for entry to the new University, the Catholic University School was established as a feeder school under the guidance of Bartholomew Woodlock and Cardinal Newman. Among the first students enrolled were the grandson of Daniel O’Connell, OShea clashed with Newman and left to go to Trinity, after one year. Of the eight students in Newmans own home, two were Irish, two English, two Scottish and two French. Among them were a French viscount, and Irish baronet Sir Reginald Barnewall, the son of a French countess, the grandson of a Scottish marquis, were added to his care two Belgian princes and a Polish count.
Many were attracted to the University on the basis of the reputation of Newman, as a private university, the Catholic University was never given a royal charter, and so was unable to award recognized degrees and suffered from chronic financial difficulties. Newman left the university in 1857, after which the school went into a serious decline, Bartholomew Woodlock was appointed Rector and served until he became Bishop of Ardagh and Clonmacnoise in 1879. In this period he attempted to secure a site of 34 acres at Clonliffe West and he turned his attention to expanding along St Stephens Green and over these years bought from No.82 to 87. The decline was halted in 1880 with the establishment of the Royal University of Ireland, the Royal Universities charter entitled all Irish students to sit the Universities examinations and receive its degrees. In order to avail of the benefits of the Royal University of Ireland arrangement, the college rapidly attracted many of the best students and academics in Ireland including Fr
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often divided into the Archaic period, Classical period. It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine. Koine is regarded as a historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects, Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers. It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language, Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects. The main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Arcadocypriot, some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions.
There are several historical forms, homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the Iliad and Odyssey, and in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic, the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period and they have the same general outline, but differ in some of the detail. The invasion would not be Dorian unless the invaders had some relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects.
Often non-west is called East Greek, Arcadocypriot apparently descended more closely from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age. Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, and can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect, thessalian likewise had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions, generally equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, and Northern Peloponnesus Doric. The Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek and this dialect slowly replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, which is spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek, by about the 6th century AD, the Koine had slowly metamorphosized into Medieval Greek
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch with a wicket at each end. One team bats, attempting to score as many runs as possible, each phase of play is called an innings. After either ten batsmen have been dismissed or a number of overs have been completed, the innings ends. The winning team is the one that scores the most runs, including any extras gained, at the start of each game, two batsmen and eleven fielders enter the field of play. The striker takes guard on a crease drawn on the four feet in front of the wicket. His role is to prevent the ball hitting the stumps by use of his bat. The other batsman, known as the non-striker, waits at the end of the pitch near the bowler. A dismissed batsman must leave the field, and a teammate replaces him, the bowlers objectives are to prevent the scoring of runs and to dismiss the batsman. An over is a set of six deliveries bowled by the same bowler, the next over is bowled from the other end of the pitch by a different bowler.
If a fielder retrieves the ball enough to put down the wicket with a batsman not having reached the crease at that end of the pitch. Adjudication is performed on the field by two umpires, the laws of cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council and the Marylebone Cricket Club. Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball. Although crickets origins are uncertain, it is first recorded in south-east England in the 16th century and it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the mid-19th century. ICC, the governing body, has over 100 members. The sport is followed primarily in Australasia, the Indian subcontinent, southern Africa, womens cricket, which is organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. A number of words have been suggested as sources for the term cricket, in the earliest definite reference to the sport in 1598 it is called creckett.
One possible source for the name is the Old English cricc or cryce meaning a crutch or staff, in Samuel Johnsons Dictionary, he derived cricket from cryce, Saxon, a stick
Sport of athletics
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping and walking. The most common types of competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running. The results of racing events are decided by finishing position, while the jumps, the simplicity of the competitions, and the lack of a need for expensive equipment, makes athletics one of the most commonly competed sports in the world. Athletics is mostly an individual sport, with the exception of relay races and competitions which combine athletes performances for a team score, organized athletics are traced back to the Ancient Olympic Games from 776 BCE. The rules and format of the events in athletics were defined in Western Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th century. Most modern top level meetings are conducted by the International Association of Athletics Federations, the athletics meeting forms the backbone of the Summer Olympics. The foremost international athletics meeting is the IAAF World Championships in Athletics, other top level competitions in athletics include the IAAF World Cross Country Championships and the IAAF World Half Marathon Championships.
Athletes with a disability compete at the Summer Paralympics and the IPC Athletics World Championships. The word athletics is derived from the Ancient Greek ἀθλητής from ἆθλον or ἆθλος, the term was used to describe athletic contests in general – i. e. sporting competition based primarily on human physical feats. In the 19th century, the term acquired a more narrow definition in Europe. This definition continues to be the most prominent one in the United Kingdom, foreign words in many German and Roman languages which are related to the term athletics have a similar meaning. In much of North America, athletics is synonymous with sports in general, the word athletics is rarely used to refer to the sport of athletics in this region. Track and field is preferred, and is used in the United States and Canada to refer to most athletics events, including racewalking, Athletic contests in running, walking and throwing are among the oldest of all sports and their roots are prehistoric. Athletics events were depicted in the Ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara, with illustrations of running at the Heb Sed festival, the Tailteann Games were an ancient Celtic festival in Ireland, founded around 1800 BCE, and the thirty-day meeting included running and stone-throwing among its sporting events.
The original and only event at the first Olympics in 776 BCE was a running event known as the stadion. This expanded to include throwing and jumping events within the ancient pentathlon, Athletics competitions took place at other Panhellenic Games, which were founded around 500 BCE. The Cotswold Olimpick Games, a festival which emerged in 17th century England. Annually, from 1796 to 1798, LOlympiade de la République was held in revolutionary France, the premier event of this competition was a running event, but various ancient Greek disciplines were on display
Ranelagh is a residential area and urban village on the south side of Dublin, Ireland. It is in the district of Dublin 6. The district was originally a village just outside Dublin, surrounded by landed estates, in the early years of the Irish Confederate Wars the area was the scene of skirmishes culminating in the Battle of Rathmines in August 1649. After the Irish united with the Royalists against the Parliamentarians, an attempt was made to take Dublin and their army under Ormonde was defeated, many of them killed, and the place where they fell was known for a long time as the Bloody Fields. In 1785, only two years after the first manned flight, Richard Crosbie successfully flew in a hot air balloon from Ranelagh Gardens to Clontarf. The 225th anniversary of his flight was commemorated with a flight from the same gardens on 23 January 2010 although due to adverse weather the balloon did not take off. The area was incorporated into the city in the 19th century. In March 2013, Lenny Abrahamson, Irish film and television director, filmed part of his movie Frank on Cowper Gardens and Park Drive of Ranelagh.
The park in London, Ranelagh Gardens, was named after Ranelagh House, home of the Cole family, the name Ranelagh applies to many geographical features. The stretch of road joining Sandford Road to Ranelagh Road is known as Ranelagh or Ranelagh Village, at the centre of Ranelagh is Ranelagh Triangle, semi-officially the Angle, which is the junction of Ranelagh Village and Charleston Road. Nearby restaurant Tribeca references these geographical features, to the North of the Triangle is the Hill Area of Ranelagh, which was the scene of Lee Dunnes novel, Goodbye to the Hill. Ranelagh contains many fine Victorian streets such as those surrounding Mount Pleasant Square, the townlands of Ranelagh North and Ranelagh South are in the civil parish of St. Peters and in the barony of Uppercross. The area popularly known today as Ranelagh includes parts of the townlands of Cullenswood, Sallymount. Ranelagh is in the local government electoral area of Pembroke/Rathmines, which is to be reconfigured as Rathgar-Rathmines Local Electoral Area with effect from May 2014 and it is located in the Dáil Constituency of Dublin South-East, which is renamed Dublin Bay South with effect from the 2016 General Election.
There are several primary and secondary schools in the area, scoil Bhríde, founded in 1917, was the first gaelscoil in Ireland. Lios na nÓg, another gaelscoil, is located in Cullenswood House on Oakley Road and this was the first school in Ireland where pupils were taught in both Irish and English. St. Endas school moved to Rathfarnham in 1912 leaving the building, Cullenswood House. In 1998, Lios na nÓg moved in and the school went under a major refurbishment over the period 2008-09, the Ranelagh Multi-Denominational School, is another primary school established in September 1988, which is located on the main Ranelagh road close to the luas stop
Rugby is a type of football developed at Rugby School in Rugby, one of many versions of football played at English public schools in the 19th century. The two main types of rugby are rugby league and rugby union, although rugby league initially used rugby union rules, they are now wholly separate sports. Following the 1895 split in rugby football, the two rugby league and rugby union differed in administration only. Soon the rules of rugby league were modified, resulting in two different forms of rugby. After 100 years, in 1995 rugby union joined rugby league, the Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet. These games appear to have resembled rugby football, the Roman politician Cicero describes the case of a man who was killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barbers shop. Roman ball games already knew the air-filled ball, the follis, episkyros is recognised as an early form of football by FIFA. In 1871, English clubs met to form the Rugby Football Union, in 1892, after charges of professionalism were made against some clubs for paying players for missing work, the Northern Rugby Football Union, usually called the Northern Union, was formed.
The existing rugby union authorities responded by issuing sanctions against the clubs, after the schism, the separate clubs were named rugby league and rugby union. Rugby union is both a professional and amateur game, and is dominated by the first tier unions, Australia, France, Italy, New Zealand, South Africa and Wales. Rugby Union is administered by World Rugby, whose headquarters are located in Dublin and it is the national sport in New Zealand, Fiji, Samoa and Madagascar, and is the most popular form of rugby globally. The Olympic Games have admitted the seven-a-side version of the game, known as Rugby sevens, there was a possibility sevens would be a demonstration sport at the 2012 London Olympics but many sports including sevens were dropped. In Canada and the United States, rugby union evolved into gridiron football, during the late 1800s, the two forms of the game were very similar, but numerous rule changes have differentiated the gridiron-based game from its rugby counterpart. Rugby league is both a professional and amateur game, administered on a level by the Rugby League International Federation.
International Rugby League is dominated by Australia and New Zealand, in Papua New Guinea it is the national sport. Other nations from the South Pacific and Europe play in the Pacific Cup, distinctive features common to both rugby codes include the oval ball and throwing the ball forward is not allowed, so that players can gain ground only by running with the ball or by kicking it. As the sport of rugby league moved further away from its counterpart, rule changes were implemented with the aim of making a faster-paced. League players may not contest possession after making a tackle, play is continued with a play-the-ball, in league, if the team in possession fails to score before a set of six tackles, it surrenders possession