Dustin Neil Diamond is an American actor, musician and stand-up comedian known for his role as Samuel "Screech" Powers in the television shows Saved by the Bell. Diamond was born to a Jewish family on January 7, 1977, in California, his father taught digital electronics for a computer-processing firm and his mother was a computer operator for Pacific Bell. He attended Zion Lutheran School. Diamond began acting as a child, he became known for playing the nerdy and lovable Samuel "Screech" Powers on the television show Saved by the Bell, a role he played for close to thirteen years from its beginning as Good Morning, Miss Bliss through its final incarnation, Saved by the Bell: The New Class. Continuing the series into college, Saved by the Bell: The College Years shows most of the cast transplanted into not only the same college, but the same college dormitory, where Screech continued his typical misadventures; the College Years was canceled after one season. Diamond returned to Bayside High as Principal Belding's assistant in The New Class episodes, remaining with the show until its cancellation.
In 2006, Diamond released his own sex tape, Screeched -- Saved by the Smell. However, Diamond stated in an interview on "Where Are They Now?" of the Oprah Winfrey Network that he was not in the sex tape. Diamond began doing stand up comedy after the end of Saved by the Bell, has toured on and off since, he has been featured on a number of game and reality shows including The Weakest Link, Celebrity Boxing 2. Diamond has made several cameo appearances in films, including appearances in Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star in 2003 and in Made in 2001. In 2009, he played the part of "Alumnus Guy #1" in American Pie Presents: The Book of Love. In 2010, he had a supporting role in the sports comedy Tetherball: The Movie. In it, Diamond plays the Foul Mouths' down-on-his-luck coach. In 2014 Diamond played Bernardo, the castle guard, in the animated science fiction comedy Hamlet A. D. D.. In 2007 Diamond was a cast member of the fifth season of Celebrity Fit Club. During his run on the show, he came into conflict with former American Idol finalist Kimberley Locke, country singer Cledus T. Judd, rapper Da Brat, the program's host and the program's trainer, former USMC sergeant Harvey Walden IV.
Tensions between Diamond and the rest of the celebrities culminated in an open confrontation during which Diamond challenged Ant to "physical combat" and subsequently issued the challenge to Harvey Walden after Walden defended Ant. Diamond appeared as a contestant on Hulk Hogan's Celebrity Championship Wrestling, broadcast on CMT. A huge fan and supporter of professional wrestling, Diamond was involved with Memphis Championship Wrestling in March and April 2000, he has had many wrestling involvements since as a referee, manager and a tag team partner. In 2009, Diamond published an inside story of the show's cast and crew, from his point of view, titled Behind the Bell; the book paints an unflattering portrait of many of Diamond's colleagues and their alleged, sordid backstage behavior. Diamond alleges, in the book, that he has had sex with 2,000 women, one of them NBC's VP of children's programming, Linda Mancuso, 18 years his senior. Diamond's former co-stars were critical of the book and Mark-Paul Gosselaar stated that his own experiences with the show were positive and did not see where any of the book's negative claims occurred on set.
Diamond commented on the book's content in a December 2013 appearance on a "Where Are They Now" segment on the OWN Network in which he stated that the book was ghost written by an author who interviewed him and compiled the book from his answers. He claimed that many parts of the book, such as allegations of teen sex and drug use, were fabricated from minor statements he made during the interviews, such as his remark, "Yeah, there were a bunch of kids on set with hormones so...what do you think?" He is a musician and formed an alternative metal band called Salty The Pocketknife. Diamond wrote much of the music as well. Shortly after recording their first album, the band split up due to internal disagreements. Diamond has appeared on truTV's The Smoking Gun Presents: World's Dumbest... as a commentator. He appeared as a host at the 12th annual Gathering of the Juggalos. In August 2013, Diamond became a housemate on the twelfth series of Celebrity Big Brother, he became the fourth housemate to be evicted on Day 16.
Diamond resides in Port Washington, Wisconsin. He married longtime girlfriend Jennifer Misner in 2009. On December 26, 2014, Diamond was arrested in Ozaukee County, for possession of a switchblade knife, which he was alleged to have pulled during a bar altercation in which a man was stabbed. Amanda Schutz, his fiancée faced a charge of disorderly conduct in relation to the incident, was found guilty and fined $500. On May 29, 2015, Diamond was convicted of two misdemeanors, carrying a concealed weapon and disorderly conduct, he was cleared of the most serious charge. On June 25, 2015, Diamond was sentenced to four months in prison, he was released on probation. Diamond's probation agent determined that he had violated the terms of his probation, he was arrested in May 2016. Dustin Diamond on IMDb Planta, Joseph. "Dustin Diamond". Interview; the Comme
Saved by the Bell
Saved by the Bell is an American television sitcom that aired on NBC from 1989 to 1993. A retooling of the Disney Channel series Good Morning, Miss Bliss, the show follows a group of high school friends and their principal. Focusing on lighthearted comedic situations, it touches on serious social issues, such as drug use, driving under the influence, remarriage, women's rights, environmental issues; the series starred Mark-Paul Gosselaar, Dustin Diamond, Lark Voorhies, Dennis Haskins, Tiffani-Amber Thiessen, Elizabeth Berkley, Mario Lopez. The show spawned two spin-off series: Saved by the Bell: The College Years, a primetime series that follows several of the characters to college, Saved by the Bell: The New Class, a Saturday morning series that follows a new group of students at Bayside High School; the series spawned two TV movies, Saved by the Bell: Hawaiian Style in 1992 and Saved by the Bell: Wedding in Las Vegas in 1994. In recent years, Saved by the Bell has been classified as informational.
The show was named one of the "20 Best School Shows of all Time" by AOL TV. In casting Good Morning, Miss Bliss, Peter Engel knew the success of the show would not hinge on Miss Bliss herself, but on her students. Engel envisioned one character, Zack Morris, who "would be that incorrigible kid who could lie to your face, letting you know well that he's lying, make you love him for it all the same." Engel insisted that the show could not go on without Zack Morris, but he turned out to be one of the most difficult characters to cast. Engel's casting director, Shana Landsburg happened across fourteen-year old Mark-Paul Gosselaar and was struck by the teen's charisma and good looks. After a quick read-through, Gosselaar was given the role. After casting Zack Morris, the next character sought after was Morris's nerdy friend, Samuel "Screech" Powers. Gosselaar was asked to read through the script with a number of kids, a second audition was scheduled for finalists, it was Gosselaar himself who insisted that Dustin Diamond was right for the part as he believed Diamond was Screech in real life.
After reading through the script, Diamond was given the part, although Engel found out that he had misread his head shot and Diamond was younger than the rest of the cast—a fact that, had he been aware, might have prevented Engel from casting him. Lisa Turtle was conceived as a rich Jewish princess from Long Island, spoiled and obsessed with shopping. While still casting from the role, African-American actress Lark Voorhies was brought into Engel's office, he knew she was perfect for the role despite the fact that it meant rewriting the character; the school principal, Mr. Gerald Belding, as conceived on Good Morning, Miss Bliss, was an older, humorless man, was played in the 1987 pilot by character actor Oliver Clark. After the show was retooled for Disney Channel, the character's first name was changed to Richard and he was recast, with Dennis Haskins winning the role. Mr. Belding was rewritten to be younger and to have a much different sense of humorWhen Good Morning, Miss Bliss was retooled as Saved by the Bell, four actors and their respective characters from the original series were brought over to the new series: Gosselaar, Diamond and Haskins.
The rest of the cast was fired, Engel sought to replace them with new characters who would complement the old ones. The first of the new characters, A. C. Slater, was conceived as a young John Travolta type who would be an army brat and wear a leather jacket, he was conceived of as Italian-American. However, when all efforts to cast the character were unsuccessful, Engel asked that the part be opened up to other ethnicities. Two days Mario Lopez, a dancer and drummer of Latino descent from Kids Incorporated auditioned for the role. Lopez was, by far, the best actor who auditioned, was cast. For Kelly Kapowski, the love interest of both Zack and Slater, producers were able to narrow the field down to three actresses: Tiffani-Amber Thiessen, Elizabeth Berkley, Jennie Garth. Engel had met Thiessen in 1988 while casting for Good Morning, Miss Bliss and was impressed with how much her acting had improved, he wanted her for the role, believing she had the perfect all-American girl appeal for the role, while others felt that Berkley, as the more experienced actress, would be a more reliable choice.
Engel convinced the others after a read-through with Lopez, Thiessen received the role. Engel and the other producers did not want to lose Berkley, however, as she was the strongest actress they'd seen during casting. Berkley auditioned for the role of Karen, a love-interest of Zack's on Good Morning, Miss Bliss, but lost the role because she was so much taller than Gosselaar at the time. Engel believed that, now that her height was more with the rest of the cast, she could be perfect, they were not having much luck in casting the third new character, Jessie Spano, conceived as a strong, feminist activist and a straight-A student, so Engel suggested offering the role to Berkley, who gladly accepted it. Rounding out the new cast was real-life magician Ed Alonzo as Max, the owner of the gang's frequent cafe hangout, The Max, who performed magic tricks. Alonzo's role, would only last through the end of the first season, he left after a single guest appearance during season two. In 1992, Saved by the Bell unexpectedly received an order for an additional eleven episodes to be shot after the graduation episode.
However and Berkley had decided to leave the show. Though producers knew
Peter Bonerz is an American actor and director, best known for his role as Dr. Jerry Robinson on The Bob Newhart Show. Bonerz was born in New Hampshire to Elfrieda and Christopher Bonerz, he grew up in Wisconsin where he attended Marquette University High School. Here, performing with the Prep Players, he gained his first theatrical experience. At Marquette University, he participated in the Marquette University Players under the Reverend John J. Walsh, S. J. After graduating with a bachelor of science degree in 1960, he decided to seek a career in theater, starting in New York City in improv with a troupe called The Premise. After compulsory service as a draftee in the United States Army, he worked with an improv troupe in San Francisco, California known as The Committee, whose members included Rob Reiner, David Ogden Stiers, Howard Hesseman and Hamilton Camp. Bonerz's first network television appearance was in 1965 on The Addams Family in the season-two episode "Morticia, The Writer", he had several more TV appearances in the late 1960s and had roles in several films, including Funnyman, What Ever Happened to Aunt Alice?, Medium Cool, Catch-22, which included his future co-star Bob Newhart, Jennifer on My Mind and Fuzz.
In 1971, Bonerz was part of an ensemble cast in the short-lived improvisational television show Story Theatre, which included Alan Alda and Valerie Harper. In 1972, he landed the popular supporting role of Dr. Jerry Robinson, the eccentric orthodontist on The Bob Newhart Show, whose most frequent comic foil was Marcia Wallace as Carol, the sharp-tongued receptionist. Bonerz would reprise this role in a cameo appearance in the final, unaired episode of Bob Newhart's third series, Bob, he directed 29 episodes. The show ran with ratings among the top 20 in the first three seasons, his acting roles included the TV miniseries The Bastard and as a psychiatrist in the movie Serial. In 1986, Bonerz co-starred alongside Tuesday Weld and River Phoenix in the CBS television movie Circle of Violence: A Family Drama. In 1999, he played Ed. Weinberger in the movie Man on the Moon, he voiced Sal in the Aaahh!!! Real Monsters episode "Internal Affairs". In 2014, he played Doug Demarco in the "Anniversaries" episode of Recreation.
He directed a number of situation comedy episodes for series such as Paul Sand in Friends and Lovers, Foley Square, My Sister Sam, Murphy Brown, NewsRadio, Home Improvement, It's Your Move, ALF. He directed a few films, such as Nobody's Perfekt and Police Academy 6: City Under Siege. Peter Bonerz on IMDb Peter Bonerz at AllMovie Peter Bonerz at The Interviews: An Oral History of Television
The National Broadcasting Company is an American English-language commercial terrestrial television network, a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, with additional major offices near Los Angeles and Philadelphia; the network is one of the Big Three television networks. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network", in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting, it became the network's official emblem in 1979. Founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. At that time the parent company of RCA was General Electric. In 1930, GE was forced to sell the companies as a result of antitrust charges. In 1986, control of NBC passed back to General Electric through its $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as chief executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007, when he was succeeded by Jeff Zucker.
In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, forming NBC Universal. Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, acquired General Electric's remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBCUniversal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke. NBC has thirteen owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates throughout the United States and its territories, some of which are available in Canada and/or Mexico via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. During a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had a competing outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ, which served as the flagship for a loosely structured network; this station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, moved to New York City. WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas.
The Bell System, AT&T's telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, using both wireless and wired methods. The 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a regular schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs, was an immediate success. In an early example of "chain" or "networking" broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island. C. WCAP. New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing programming, after getting a license for radio station WRC in Washington, D. C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines. AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines; the early effort fared poorly, since the uninsulated telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric and other electrical interference. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its embryonic network were incompatible with the company's primary goal of providing a telephone service.
AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&T's phone lines for network transmission. RCA spent $1 million to purchase WEAF and Washington sister station WCAP, shut down the latter station, merged its facilities with surviving station WRC; the division's ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse. NBC started broadcasting on November 15, 1926. WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided their respective marketing strategies: the "Red Network" offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music programming. Various histories of NBC suggest the color designations for the two networks came from the color of the pushpins NBC engineers used to designate affiliate stations of WEAF and WJZ, or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. On April 5, 1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network known as the Pacific Coast Network.
This was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18, 1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network; the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. In 1936, the Orange Network affiliate stations became part of the Red Network, at the same time the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, called the NBC White Network. In 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building de
Hayley Catherine Rose Vivien Mills is an English actress. The daughter of Sir John Mills and Mary Hayley Bell, younger sister of actress Juliet Mills, Mills began her acting career as a child and was hailed as a promising newcomer, winning the BAFTA Award for Most Promising Newcomer for her performance in the British crime drama film Tiger Bay, the Academy Juvenile Award for Disney's Pollyanna and Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year – Actress in 1961. During her early career, she appeared in six films for Walt Disney, including her dual role as twins Susan and Sharon in the Disney film The Parent Trap, her performance in Whistle Down the Wind saw Mills nominated for BAFTA Award for Best British Actress. During the late 1960s Mills began performing in theatrical plays, played in more mature roles; the age of contracts with studios soon passed. For her success with Disney she received the Disney Legend Award. Although she has not maintained the box office success or the Hollywood A-list she experienced as a child actress, she has continued to make films and TV appearances, including a starring role in the UK television mini-series The Flame Trees of Thika in 1981, the title role in Disney's television series Good Morning, Miss Bliss in 1988, as Caroline, a main character in Wild at Heart on ITV in the UK.
Mills was born in London. She was 12 when she was discovered by J. Lee Thompson, looking for a boy to play the lead role in Tiger Bay, which co-starred her father, veteran British actor Sir John Mills; the movie was popular at the box office in Britain. Bill Anderson, one of Walt Disney's producers, saw Tiger Bay and suggested that Mills be given the lead role in Pollyanna; the role of the orphaned "glad girl" who moves in with her aunt catapulted Mills to stardom in the United States and earned her a special Academy Award. Because Mills could not be present to receive the trophy, Annette Funicello accepted it for her. Disney subsequently cast Mills as twins Sharon and Susan who reunite their divorced parents in The Parent Trap. In the film, Mills sings "Let's Get Together" as a duet with herself; the film was a hit around the world, reaching number 8 on a US TOP TEN list. Mills received an offer to make a film in Britain for Bryan Forbes, Whistle Down the Wind, about some children who believe an escaped convict is Jesus.
It was a hit at the British box office and Mills was voted the biggest star in Britain for 1961. Mills returned to Disney for an adventure film, In Search of the Castaways based on a novel by Jules Verne, it was another popular success and Mills would be voted the fifth biggest star in the country for the next two years. In 1963 Disney announced plans to film I Capture the Castle, from the novel by Dodie Smith, with Hayley Mills in the role of Cassandra. However, Disney never produced the film, her fourth movie for Disney did less well though was still successful, Summer Magic, a musical adaptation of the novel Mother Carey's Chickens. Ross Hunter hired her for a British-American production, The Chalk Garden, playing a girl who torments governess Deborah Kerr. Back at Disney she was in a film about jewel thieves, The Moon-Spinners, getting her first on screen kiss from Peter McEnery. Mills had a change of pace with Sky West and Crooked, set in the world of gypsies, written by her mother and directed by her father.
It was not popular. In contrast, her last film with Disney, the comedy That Darn Cat!, did well at the box office. During her six-year run at Disney, Mills was arguably the most popular child actress of the era. Critics noted that America's favourite child star was, in fact, quite British and ladylike; the success of "Let's Get Together" led to the release of a record album on Disney's Buena Vista label, Let's Get Together with Hayley Mills, which included her only other hit song, "Johnny Jingo". In 1962 British exhibitors voted her the most popular film actress in the country. For Universal, Mills made another movie with her father, The Truth About Spring, co-starring Disney regular James MacArthur as her love interest, it was mildly popular. However The Trouble with Angels, was a huge hit, she provided a voice for The Daydreamer. Shortly thereafter, Mills appeared alongside her father and Hywel Bennett in director Roy Boulting's critically acclaimed film The Family Way, a comedy about a couple having difficulty consummating their marriage, featuring a score by Paul McCartney and arrangements by Beatles producer George Martin.
She began a romantic relationship with Roy Boulting, they married in 1971. She starred as the protagonist of Pretty Polly, opposite famous Indian film actor Shashi Kapoor in Singapore. Mills made another movie for Boulting, the controversial horror thriller Twisted Nerve in 1968, along with her Family Way co-star Hywel Bennett, she made a comedy, Take a Girl Like You with Oliver Reed, made her West End debut in The Wild Duck in 1970. She worked for Boulting again on the Penguins, replacing the original female lead. In 1972 Mills again acted opposite Hywel Bennett in Endless Night along with Britt Ekland, Per Oscarsson and George Sanders, it is based on the novel Endless Night by Agatha Christie. She made two films for Sidney Hayers, What Changed Charley Farthing? and De
The multiple-camera setup, multiple-camera mode of production, multi-camera or multicam is a method of filmmaking and video production. Several cameras—either film or professional video cameras—are employed on the set and record or broadcast a scene, it is contrasted with single-camera setup, which uses one camera. The two outer cameras shoot close-up shots or "crosses" of the two most active characters on the set at any given time, while the central camera or cameras shoot a wider master shot to capture the overall action and establish the geography of the room. In this way, multiple shots are obtained in a single take without having to start and stop the action; this is more efficient for programs that are to be shown a short time after being shot as it reduces the time spent in film or video editing. It is a virtual necessity for regular, high-output shows like daily soap operas. Apart from saving editing time, scenes may be shot far more as there is no need for re-lighting and the set-up of alternative camera angles for the scene to be shot again from the different angle.
It reduces the complexity of tracking continuity issues that crop up when the scene is reshot from the different angles. It is an essential part of live television. Drawbacks include a less optimized lighting which needs to provide a compromise for all camera angles and less flexibility in putting the necessary equipment on scene, such as microphone booms and lighting rigs; these can be efficiently hidden from just one camera but can be more complicated to set up and their placement may be inferior in a multiple-camera setup. Another drawback is in film usage—a four-camera setup may use up to four times as much film per take, compared with a single-camera setup. While shooting, the director and assistant director create a line cut by instructing the technical director to switch between the feeds from the individual cameras. In the case of sitcoms with studio audiences, this line cut is displayed to them on studio monitors; the line cut might be refined in editing, as the output from all cameras is recorded, both separately and as a combined reference display called the q split.
The camera being recorded to the line cut is indicated by a tally light controlled by a camera control unit on the camera as a reference both for the actors and the camera operators. The use of multiple film cameras dates back to the development of narrative silent films, with the earliest example being the first Russian feature film Defence of Sevastopol and directed by Vasily Goncharov and Aleksandr Khanzhonkov; when sound came into the picture multiple cameras were used to film multiple sets at a single time. Early sound was recorded onto wax discs; the use of multiple video cameras to cover a scene goes back to the earliest days of television. The BBC used multiple cameras for their live television shows from 1936 onward. Although it is claimed that the multiple-camera setup was pioneered for television by Desi Arnaz and cinematographer Karl Freund on I Love Lucy in 1951, other filmed television shows had used it, including the CBS comedy The Amos'n Andy Show, filmed at the Hal Roach Studios and was on the air four months earlier.
The technique was developed for television by Hollywood short-subject veteran Jerry Fairbanks, assisted by producer-director Frank Telford, first seen on the anthology series The Silver Theater, another CBS program, in February 1950. Desilu's innovation was to use 35mm film instead of 16mm and to film with a multiple-camera setup before a live studio audience. In the late 1970s, Garry Marshall was credited with adding the fourth camera to the multi-camera set-up for his series Mork & Mindy. Actor Robin Williams could not stay on his marks due to his physically active improvisations during shooting, so Marshall had them add the fourth camera just to stay on Williams so they would have more than just the master shot of the actor. Soon after, many productions followed suit and now having four cameras is the norm for multi-camera situation comedies; the multiple-camera method gives the director less control over each shot but is faster and less expensive than a single-camera setup. In television, multiple-camera is used for sports programs, news programs, soap operas, talk shows, game shows, some sitcoms.
Before the pre-filmed continuing series became the dominant dramatic form on American television, the earliest anthology programs utilized multiple camera methods. Multiple cameras can take different shots of a live situation as the action unfolds chronologically and is suitable for shows which require a live audience. For this reason, multiple camera productions can be taped much faster than single camera. Single camera productions are shot in takes and various setups with components of the action repeated several times and out of sequence. Sitcoms shot with the multiple camera setup include nearly all of Lucille Ball's TV series, as well as Mary Kay and Johnny, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, Three's Company, The Cosby Show, Friends, Will & Grace, Everybody Loves Raymond, The King of Queens, Two and a Half Men, The Big Bang Theory, Mike & Molly, Mom, 2 Broke Girls, One Day at a Time. Many American sitcom
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, similar non-television services may be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation. A "cable channel" is a television network available via cable television; when available through satellite television, including direct broadcast satellite providers such as DirecTV, Dish Network and Sky, as well as via IPTV providers such as Verizon FIOS and AT&T U-verse is referred to as a "satellite channel". Alternative terms include "non-broadcast channel" or "programming service", the latter being used in legal contexts.
Examples of cable/satellite channels/cable networks available in many countries are HBO, Cinemax, MTV, Cartoon Network, AXN, E!, FX, Discovery Channel, Canal+, Fox Sports, Disney Channel, Nickelodeon, CNN International, ESPN. The abbreviation CATV is used for cable television, it stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948. In areas where over-the-air TV reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, cable was run from them to individual homes; the origins of cable broadcasting for radio are older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924. To receive cable television at a given location, cable distribution lines must be available on the local utility poles or underground utility lines. Coaxial cable brings the signal to the customer's building through a service drop, an overhead or underground cable. If the subscriber's building does not have a cable service drop, the cable company will install one.
The standard cable used in the U. S. is RG-6, which has a 75 ohm impedance, connects with a type F connector. The cable company's portion of the wiring ends at a distribution box on the building exterior, built-in cable wiring in the walls distributes the signal to jacks in different rooms to which televisions are connected. Multiple cables to different rooms are split off the incoming cable with a small device called a splitter. There are two standards for cable television. All cable companies in the United States have switched to or are in the course of switching to digital cable television since it was first introduced in the late 1990s. Most cable companies require a set-top box or a slot on one's TV set for conditional access module cards to view their cable channels on newer televisions with digital cable QAM tuners, because most digital cable channels are now encrypted, or "scrambled", to reduce cable service theft. A cable from the jack in the wall is attached to the input of the box, an output cable from the box is attached to the television the RF-IN or composite input on older TVs.
Since the set-top box only decodes the single channel, being watched, each television in the house requires a separate box. Some unencrypted channels traditional over-the-air broadcast networks, can be displayed without a receiver box; the cable company will provide set top boxes based on the level of service a customer purchases, from basic set top boxes with a standard definition picture connected through the standard coaxial connection on the TV, to high-definition wireless DVR receivers connected via HDMI or component. Older analog television sets are "cable ready" and can receive the old analog cable without a set-top box. To receive digital cable channels on an analog television set unencrypted ones, requires a different type of box, a digital television adapter supplied by the cable company. A new distribution method that takes advantage of the low cost high quality DVB distribution to residential areas, uses TV gateways to convert the DVB-C, DVB-C2 stream to IP for distribution of TV over IP network in the home.
In the most common system, multiple television channels are distributed to subscriber residences through a coaxial cable, which comes from a trunkline supported on utility poles originating at the cable company's local distribution facility, called the "headend". Many channels can be transmitted through one coaxial cable by a technique called frequency division multiplexing. At the headend, each television channel is translated to a different frequency. By giving each channel a different frequency "slot" on the cable, the separate television signals do not interfere with each other. At an outdoor cable box on the subscriber's residence the company's service drop cable is connected to cables distributing the signal to different rooms in the building. At each television, the subscriber's television or a set-top box provided by the cable company translates the desired channel back to its original frequency, it is displayed onscreen. Due to widespread cable theft in earlier analog systems, the signals are encrypted on m